domain protein
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2022 ◽  
Philipp K Zuber ◽  
Tina Daviter ◽  
Ramona Heissmann ◽  
Ulrike Persau ◽  
Kristian Schweimer ◽  

The two-domain protein RfaH, a paralog of the universally conserved NusG/Spt5 transcription factors, is regulated by autoinhibition coupled to the reversible conformational switch of its 60- residue C-terminal KOW domain between an α-hairpin and a β-barrel. In contrast, NusG/Spt5-KOW domains only occur in the β-barrel state. To understand the principles underlying the drastic fold switch in RfaH, we elucidated the thermodynamic stability and the structural dynamics of two RfaH- and four NusG/Spt5-KOW domains by combining biophysical and structural biology methods. We find that the RfaH-KOW β-barrel is thermodynamically less stable than that of most NusG/Spt5-KOWs and we show that it is in equilibrium with a globally unfolded species, which, strikingly, contains two helical regions that prime the transition towards the α-hairpin. Our results suggest that transiently structured elements in the unfolded form might drive the global folding transition in metamorphic proteins in general.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhaohai Wen ◽  
Muhammad Tahir Aleem ◽  
Kalibixiati Aimulajiang ◽  
Cheng Chen ◽  
Meng Liang ◽  

Trehalose phosphate synthase (TPS), a key enzyme in trehalose synthesis, is not present in mammals but critical to the viability of a wide range of lower organisms. However, almost nothing is known about the function of Hc-TPS (GT1-TPS structural domain protein from Haemonchus contortus). In this study, Hc-TPS gene was cloned and the recombinant protein (rHc-TPS) was expressed and purified. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results showed that Hc-TPS was transcribed at different stages of H. contortus, with higher levels of transcription at the molting and embryo stages. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Hc-TPS was widely distributed in adults, but the expression was mainly localized on the mucosal surface of the intestine as well as in the embryos of female worms. The impacts of rHc-TPS on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, transcriptional expression of cytokines, and related pathways were examined by co-incubating rHc-TPS with goat PBMCs. The results showed that rHc-TPS significantly inhibited PBMC proliferation and NO secretion in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that rHc-TPS activated the interleukin (IL)-10/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (IL-10/STAT3/SOCS3) axis and significantly promoted SOCS3 expression, while inhibiting interferon-gamma (INF-γ), IL-4, IL-9, and IL-2 pathways. Our findings may contribute to understanding the immune evasion mechanism for the parasite during host–parasite interactions and also help to provide ideas for discovering new drug targets.

Brenda A. Schilke ◽  
Elizabeth A. Craig

J-domain protein cochaperones drive much of the functional diversity of Hsp70-based chaperone systems. Sis1 is the only essential J-domain protein of the cytosol/nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Why it is required for cell growth is not understood, nor is how critical its role in regulation of heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1). We report that single residue substitutions in Tti1, a component of the heterotrimeric TTT complex, a specialized chaperone system for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, allow growth of cells lacking Sis1. Upon depletion of Sis1, cells become hypersensitive to rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of TORC1 kinase. In addition, levels of the three essential PIKKs (Mec1, Tra1, and Tor2), as well as Tor1, decrease upon Sis1depletion. Overexpression of Tti1 allows growth, without an increase in the other subunits of the TTT complex, Tel2 and Tti2, suggesting that it can function independent of the complex. Cells lacking Sis1, with viability supported by Tti1 suppressor, substantially upregulate some, but not all, heat shock elements activated by Hsf1. Together, our results suggest that Sis1 is required as a cochaperone of Hsp70 for the folding/maintenance of PIKKs making Sis1 an essential gene, and its requirement for Hsf1 regulation is more nuanced than generally appreciated.

mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
Linda C. Horianopoulos ◽  
Christopher W. J. Lee ◽  
Kerstin Schmitt ◽  
Oliver Valerius ◽  
Guanggan Hu ◽  

DNA replication, gene expression, and genomic repair all require precise coordination of the many proteins that interact with DNA. This includes the histones as well as their chaperones.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Guiyun Zhao ◽  
Wei Peng ◽  
Kaihui Song ◽  
Jingkun Shi ◽  
Xingyu Lu ◽  

AbstractMolecules with a nitrogen-nitrogen (N-N) bond in their structures exhibit various biological activities and other unique properties. A few microbial proteins are recently emerging as dedicated N-N bond forming enzymes in natural product biosynthesis. However, the details of these biochemical processes remain largely unknown. Here, through in vitro biochemical characterization and computational studies, we report the molecular basis of hydrazine bond formation by a family of di-domain enzymes. These enzymes are widespread in bacteria and sometimes naturally exist as two standalone enzymes. We reveal that the methionyl-tRNA synthase-like domain/protein catalyzes ATP-dependent condensation of two amino acids substrates to form a highly unstable ester intermediate, which is subsequently captured by the zinc-binding cupin domain/protein and undergoes redox-neutral intramolecular rearrangement to give the N-N bond containing product. These results provide important mechanistic insights into enzymatic N-N bond formation and should facilitate future development of novel N-N forming biocatalyst.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wen Li ◽  
Peng Li ◽  
Xiaofan Zhou ◽  
Junjian Situ ◽  
Yiming Lin ◽  

As an electron transport component, cytochrome b5 is an essential component of the Class II cytochrome P450 monooxygenation system and widely present in animals, plants, and fungi. However, the roles of Cyt-b5 domain proteins in pathogenic oomycetes remain unknown. Peronophythora litchii is an oomycete pathogen that causes litchi downy blight, the most destructive disease of litchi. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PlCB5L1, that encodes a Cyt-b5 domain protein in P. litchii, and characterized its function. PlCB5L1 is highly expressed in the zoospores, cysts, germinated cysts, and during early stages of infection. PlCB5L1 knockout mutants showed reduced growth rate and β-sitosterol utilization. Importantly, we also found that PlCB5L1 is required for the full pathogenicity of P. litchii. Compared with the wild-type strain, the PlCB5L1 mutants exhibited significantly higher tolerance to SDS and sorbitol, but impaired tolerance to cell wall stress, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress. Further, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress tolerance, including peroxidase, cytochrome P450, and laccase genes, were down-regulated in PlCB5L1 mutants under oxidative stress. This is the first report that a Cyt-b5 domain protein contributes to the development, stress response, and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic oomycetes.

Karina Perlaza ◽  
Mary Mirvis ◽  
Hiroaki Ishikawa ◽  
Wallace Marshall

Length control of flagella represents a simple and tractable system to investigate the dynamics of organelle size. Models for flagellar length control in the model organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have focused on the length-dependence of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system which manages the delivery and removal of axonemal subunits at the tip of the flagella. One of these cargoes, tubulin, is the major axonemal subunit, and its frequency of arrival at the tip plays a central role in size control models. However, the mechanisms determining tubulin dynamics at the tip are still poorly understood. We discovered a loss-of-function mutation that leads to shortened flagella, and found that this was an allele of a previously described gene, SHF1, whose molecular identity had not previously been determined.  We found that SHF1 encodes a Chlamydomonas ortholog of Crescerin, previously identified as a cilia-specific TOG-domain array protein that can bind tubulin via its TOG domains and increase tubulin polymerization rates. In this mutant, flagellar regeneration occurs with the same initial kinetics as wild-type cells, but plateaus at a shorter length. Using a computational model in which the flagellar microtubules are represented by a differential equation for flagellar length combined with a stochastic model for cytoplasmic microtubule dynamics, we found that our experimental results are best described by a model in which Crescerin/SHF1 binds tubulin dimers in the cytoplasm and transports them into the flagellum. We suggest that this TOG-domain protein is necessary to efficiently and preemptively increase intra-flagella tubulin levels to offset decreasing IFT cargo at the tip as flagellar assembly progresses.

2021 ◽  
Zhongze Yu ◽  
Chunxiang Peng ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Biao Zhang ◽  
Xiaogen Zhou ◽  

Domain boundary prediction is one of the most important problems in the study of protein structure and function, especially for large proteins. At present, most domain boundary prediction methods have low accuracy and limitations in dealing with multi-domain proteins. In this study, we develop a sequence-based protein domain boundary predictor, named DomBpred. In DomBpred, the input sequence is firstly classified as either a single-domain protein or a multi-domain protein through a designed effective sequence metric based on a constructed single-domain sequence library. For the multi-domain protein, a domain-residue level clustering algorithm inspired by Ising model is proposed to cluster the spatially close residues according inter-residue distance. The unclassified residues and the residues at the edge of the cluster are then tuned by the secondary structure to form potential cut points. Finally, a domain boundary scoring function is proposed to recursively evaluate the potential cut points to generate the domain boundary. DomBpred is tested on a large-scale test set of FUpred comprising 2549 proteins. Experimental results show that DomBpred better performs than the state-of-the-art methods in classifying whether protein sequences are composed by single or multiple domains, and the Matthew's correlation coefficient is 0.882. Moreover, on 849 multi-domain proteins, the domain boundary distance and normalised domain overlap scores of DomBpred are 0.523 and 0.824, respectively, which are 5.0% and 4.2% higher than those of the best comparison method, respectively. Comparison with other methods on the given test set shows that DomBpred outperforms most state-of-the-art sequence-based methods and even achieves better results than the top-level template-based method.

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