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2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-65
Author(s):  
Katarzyna Mitrosz-Gołębiewska ◽  
Alicja Rydzewska–Rosołowska ◽  
Katarzyna Kakareko ◽  
Edyta Zbroch ◽  
Tomasz Hryszko

2024 ◽  
Vol 77 (11) ◽  
pp. 6589-2024
Author(s):  
BOGDAN FELIKS KANIA ◽  
ALDONA GROMNY

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, which began in November 2019. COVID-19 has caused more than 4 million deaths worldwide. In addition to death, SARS-CoV-2 can cause many negative health consequences in humans. Physical as well as mental health is at stake. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are a tool in the fight against the pandemic. Moreover, experimental studies indicate that various species of animals can become infected with the virus. Breeding minks can become infected symptomatically and spread the virus to the environment, thus constituting a virus reservoir. Mink farms positive for SARS-CoV-2 are hazardous and ought to be euthanized.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rebecca Nuwematsiko ◽  
Maxencia Nabiryo ◽  
John Bosco Bomboka ◽  
Sarah Nalinya ◽  
David Musoke ◽  
...  

Abstract Background To reduce the spread of COVID-19, several countries in Africa instituted countrywide lockdowns and other public health measures. Whereas lockdowns contributed to the control of the pandemic, there were concerns about the unintended consequences of these measures especially in the most vulnerable populations. We assessed unintended socio-economic and health consequences due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the mitigation measures among slum dwellers in Kampala to inform the on-going and future pandemic response strategies. Methods This was a mixed methods cross-sectional study conducted in Bwaise I and Bwaise III slums of Kawempe division, Kampala Uganda from October to December 2020. We used systematic sampling to randomly select 425 household heads for the face-to-face quantitative interviews. We also conducted six focus group discussions (FGDs) with slum dwellers and used photovoice among eight Community Health Workers (CHWs) to document unintended socio-economic and health consequences. Quantitative data were imported into STATA version 14.0 for analysis, while qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo version 12. Modified Poisson regression analysis was conducted to establish factors associated with impact on access to food. Results Most respondents reported limited access to food (71.1%; 302/425); disruption in education (77.1%; 270/350); drop in daily income and wages (86.1%; 329/382) and loss of employment (63.1; 125/198). Twenty five percent of the respondents (25.4%; 86/338) reported domestic violence as one of the challenges. Seven themes emerged from the qualitative findings on the impact of COVID-19 including: limited access to food; negative impact on children’s rights (child labour and teenage pregnancies) and education; poor housing and lack of accommodation; negative social behaviours; negative impact on family and child care; reduced income and employment; and negative impact on health and access to health care services. Conclusion The slum dwellers of Bwaise I and Bwaise III experienced several negative socio-economic and health consequences of COVID-19 and its prevention measures that severely affected their wellbeing. Children experienced severe consequences such as child labour and teenage pregnancies among the girls. Response activities should be contextualised to different settings and protocols to protect the vulnerable groups in the community such as children and women should be developed and mainstreamed in response activities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. e0000131
Author(s):  
Rochelle A. Burgess ◽  
Mairi Jeffery ◽  
Sabina Adhiambo Odero ◽  
Kelly Rose-Clarke ◽  
Delanjathan Devakumar

Child Marriage (before the age of 18) affects over 12 million young women globally, annually. Despite acknowledgement of the negative impacts of the practice on reproductive health, mental health consequences are largely overlooked. Given the ability for poor mental health to intensify other health and social challenges, understanding the mental health consequences linked to child marriage is vital. Our study is the first to examine how mental health is approached in current literature on child marriage. Our conceptual framework was informed by a rapid assessment of key issues in the field. Systematic searches of papers published between 2000–2020 were completed on four electronic databases with no language restrictions. Our protocol was registered on Prospero (CRD42019139685). Articles were assessed using PRISMA guidelines, and their quality assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Of the 4,457 records identified, 21 papers meeting inclusion criteria were analysed using narrative synthesis. The final sample included 5 qualitative, 1 mixed-methods and 15 quantitative studies (14 cross-sectional and 1 longitudinal study) reporting on data from 12 countries, largely in the global south. Intimate partner violence, poverty, challenges in childbirth and isolation were identified as social factors linked to emotional distress by those married as children. Depression was the most reported mental disorder. Anxiety, phobias, psychological distress, substance misuse, negative well-being and anti-social personality disorder were reported less frequently. Findings highlight that while significant emotional distress and specific mental health conditions are linked to child marriage, gaps in our understanding remain. Future studies are needed to; clarify directionality in these relationships; understand the mental health needs of young men, LGBTQI communities and those in humanitarian settings. Given the well documented cyclical relationship between social determinants and mental health conditions, we outline a series of community-oriented interventions which blend psychological, social and structural support to promote mental health and wellbeing in the contexts of child marriage.


Author(s):  
Xiujie Tan ◽  
Yishuang Liu ◽  
Hanmin Dong ◽  
Yujia Xiao ◽  
Zhihui Zhao

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daya Somasundaram ◽  
Nadarajah Rajeshkannan ◽  
Balachandran Kumarendran ◽  
Thirunavukarasu Kumanan ◽  
Nalayini Sugirthan ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the globe from 2019 affecting millions of people physically, mentally, and socio-economically. The purpose of the study was to map out the mental health consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic and suggest recovery strategies.Methods: A qualitative inquiry into the mental health aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic using observations from working in busy health clinics, general practices, primary and community care setting, and dedicated COVID acute care wards during the pandemic in Australia, United Kingdom and Sri Lanka; discussions with colleagues worldwide; analyzing social and news media comments; literature survey and experience of dealing with past disasters were used to map out mental health consequences and put forward recovery strategies.Results: In covid sufferers, neuropsychiatric symptoms lasting months, unrelated to respiratory insufficiency suggested brain damage due to vascular endothelial injury and/or cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). A third went onto develop or have a relapse of a psychological or neurological conditions. In the general population, common consequences included common mental health disorders; changing patterns of substance abuse including alcohol; increased domestic violence and child abuse. Family relationships, interactions and understanding improved in many but minority had strained dynamics. Vulnerable groups included the elderly, women, youth; children; disabled; frontline and health workers; minorities and severely mentally ill. At the community level, there were signs of collective (mass) hysteria from panic buying to conspiracy theories, public shaming, fake news and disinformation spreading on social media and mass protests. There were also positive effects such as better understanding of bio-knowledge; interventions (rapid vaccine production, contact tracing methods) and discoveries (mRNA Vaccines), health systems improvements (tele-health), online learning, gratitude toward heath care workers, increased social/community/family cohesion, closer international networking, reduction in suicide rates and drop in interstate and civil conflicts, road accidents, crime and communicable diseases with their resultant morbidity, mortality and mental health consequences. Conclusions: In view of the widespread mental health and psychosocial consequences from the COVID-19 pandemic, a community-based approach is suggested while treating more severe mental disorders at the primary care or specialist level.


Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Author(s):  
Angel Yun-Kuan Thye ◽  
Jodi Woan-Fei Law ◽  
Loh Teng-Hern Tan ◽  
Priyia Pusparajah ◽  
Hooi-Leng Ser ◽  
...  

There is growing evidence of studies associating COVID-19 survivors with increased mental health consequences. Mental health implications related to a COVID-19 infection include both acute and long-term consequences. Here we discuss COVID-19-associated psychiatric sequelae, particularly anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), drawing parallels to past coronavirus outbreaks. A literature search was completed across three databases, using keywords to search for relevant articles. The cause may directly correlate to the infection through both direct and indirect mechanisms, but the underlying etiology appears more complex and multifactorial, involving environmental, psychological, and biological factors. Although most risk factors and prevalence rates vary across various studies, being of the female gender and having a history of psychiatric disorders seem consistent. Several studies will be presented, demonstrating COVID-19 survivors presenting higher rates of mental health consequences than the general population. The possible mechanisms by which the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the brain, affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and causing these psychiatric sequelae, will be discussed, particularly concerning the SARS-CoV-2 entry via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors and the implications of the immune inflammatory signaling on neuropsychiatric disorders. Some possible therapeutic options will also be considered.


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