angiotensin converting enzyme 2
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Jun Wei Ng ◽  
Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong ◽  
Ping-Chin Lee

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and recently has become a serious global pandemic. Age, gender, and comorbidities are known to be common risk factors for severe COVID-19 but are not enough to fully explain the magnitude of their effect on the risk of severity of the disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes have been reported as a genetic factor contributing to COVID-19 severity. This comprehensive review focuses on the association between SNPs in four important genes and COVID-19 severity in a global aspect. We discuss a total of 39 SNPs in this review: five SNPs in the ABO gene, nine SNPs in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene, 19 SNPs in the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) gene, and six SNPs in the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene. These SNPs data could assist in monitoring an individual's risk of severe COVID-19 disease, and therefore personalized management and pharmaceutical treatment could be planned in COVID-19 patients.

2022 ◽  
Jong-hoon Lee ◽  
Seongcheol Cho ◽  
Badar Kanwar ◽  
Keum-ho Lee ◽  
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces immune-mediated inflammasome diseases. Moreover, its pathophysiology involves the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway, neuropilin‑1 pathway, inflammasome activation pathway, sterile alpha motif (SAM) and histidine-aspartate domain (HD)-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) tetramerization pathway, cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway, spike protein/inflammasome-genetic pathway, and immunological memory engram pathway. Therefore, it is necessary to prescribe anticatalytic treatments to alleviate the SARS-CoV-2 inflammasome, immunologic engram, and spike protein levels.

Jieqiong Wang ◽  
Huiying Zhao ◽  
Youzhong An

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a transmembrane glycoprotein, is an important part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In the COVID-19 epidemic, it was found to be the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). ACE2 maintains homeostasis by inhibiting the Ang II-AT1R axis and activating the Ang I (1-7)-MasR axis, protecting against lung, heart and kidney injury. In addition, ACE2 helps transport amino acids across the membrane. ACE2 sheds from the membrane, producing soluble ACE2 (sACE2). Previous studies have pointed out that sACE2 plays a role in the pathology of the disease, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Recent studies have confirmed that sACE2 can also act as the receptor of SARS-COV-2, mediating viral entry into the cell and then spreading to the infective area. Elevated concentrations of sACE2 are more related to disease. Recombinant human ACE2, an exogenous soluble ACE2, can be used to supplement endogenous ACE2. It may represent a potent COVID-19 treatment in the future. However, the specific administration concentration needs to be further investigated.

2022 ◽  
Biswaranjan Paital

Although vaccines are successfully developed against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19), and many anticancer, anti-malarial, antibiotic drugs have been repurposed against the disease, it has been just impossible to save valuable human lives in specific conditions. Therefore, medical care has been developed against COVID-19 but not fully able to save human life from the disease. As a result, the third wave is noticed in many countries. Preventive methods such as social distancing, wearing masks, and hand salinization have been accepted as the main strategies to break the chain of the disease. Due to the reduction in pollution under less or no industrial and vehicular operations, water and air ecosystems have been restored in an unseen manner. Especially, NO<sub>2</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub> and particulate matters etc. modulated higher expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the receptor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 in humans have also been emphatically documented. Therefore, along with medical care, environmental protection (especially to regulate NO<sub>2</sub> emissions) along with practicing COVID-19 guidelines is to be maintained fully to combat COVID-19 the disease. Human beings must use this knowledge and experience as a spotlight to save nature in current and future times.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alireza Mansouri ◽  
Rasoul Kowsar ◽  
Mostafa Zakariazadeh ◽  
Hassan Hakimi ◽  
Akio Miyamoto

AbstractThe novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently a big concern around the world. Recent reports show that the disease severity and mortality of COVID-19 infected patients may vary from gender to gender with a very high risk of death for seniors. In addition, some steroid structures have been reported to affect coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, function and activity. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells depends on the binding of coronavirus spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Viral main protease is essential for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. It was hypothesized that steroid molecules (e.g., estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone and calcitriol) could occupy the active site of the protease and could alter the interaction of spike protein with ACE2. Computational data showed that estradiol interacted more strongly with the main protease active site. In the presence of calcitriol, the binding energy of the spike protein to ACE2 was increased, and transferring Apo to Locked S conformer of spike trimer was facilitated. Together, the interaction between spike protein and ACE2 can be disrupted by calcitriol. Potential use of estradiol and calcitriol to reduce virus invasion and replication needs clinical investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jose R. Vargas-Rodriguez ◽  
Idalia Garza-Veloz ◽  
Virginia Flores-Morales ◽  
Jose I. Badillo-Almaraz ◽  
Maria R. Rocha-Pizaña ◽  

Since the appearance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 in China, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia in patients infected with SARS-CoV, represent independent predictors of mortality. Therefore, metabolic control has played a major role in the prognosis of these patients. In the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), multiple studies have shown that DM is one of the main comorbidities associated with COVID-19 and higher risk of complications and death. The incidence and prevalence of COVID-19 complications and death related with hyperglycemia in patients with or without DM are high. There are many hypotheses related with worse prognosis and death related to COVID-19 and/or hyperglycemia. However, the information about the interplay between hyperglycemia and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the critical receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, is almost null, but there is enough information to consider the possible participation of hyperglycemia in the glycation of this protein, unleashing a pool of reactions leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with COVID-19. In this document we investigated the current evidence related with ACE2 as a key element within the pathophysiological mechanism related with hyperglycemia extrapolating it to context of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its relationship with worse prognosis and death for COVID-19.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 321
Alok K. Paul ◽  
Md K. Hossain ◽  
Tooba Mahboob ◽  
Veeranoot Nissapatorn ◽  
Polrat Wilairatana ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 virus causes novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with other comorbidities such as diabetes. Diabetes is the most common cause of diabetic nephropathy, which is attributed to hyperglycemia. COVID-19 produces severe complications in people with diabetes mellitus. This article explains how SARS-CoV-2 causes more significant kidney damage in diabetic patients. Importantly, COVID-19 and diabetes share inflammatory pathways of disease progression. SARS-CoV-2 binding with ACE-2 causes depletion of ACE-2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) from blood vessels, and subsequently, angiotensin-II interacts with angiotensin receptor-1 from vascular membranes that produce NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate) oxidase, oxidative stress, and constriction of blood vessels. Since diabetes and COVID-19 can create oxidative stress, we hypothesize that COVID-19 with comorbidities such as diabetes can synergistically increase oxidative stress leading to end-stage renal failure and death. Antioxidants may therefore prevent renal damage-induced death by inhibiting oxidative damage and thus can help protect people from COVID-19 related comorbidities. A few clinical trials indicated how effective the antioxidant therapy is against improving COVID-19 symptoms, based on a limited number of patients who experienced COVID-19. In this review, we tried to understand how effective antioxidants (such as vitamin D and flavonoids) can act as food supplements or therapeutics against COVID-19 with diabetes as comorbidity based on recently available clinical, preclinical, or in silico studies.

Maria Antonietta Barbieri ◽  
Gianluca Bagnato ◽  
Carmelo Ioppolo ◽  
Antonio Giovanni Versace ◽  
Natasha Irrera

Abstract: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) represents a public health problem worldwide. COVID-19 triggers a maladaptive cytokine release commonly referred to as cytokine storm syndrome with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which also appears to contribute to chronic neuro-inflammation and neurodegenerative disorders’ appearance, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. In this context, SARS-CoV-2 might enter the central nervous system through binding with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors which are highly expressed in glial cells and neurons. For this reason, an association between COVID-19, its dependent cytokine storm, and the development and/or progression of neurodegenerative disorders might be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on neurodegenerative disorders focusing on the possible increased mortality risk and/or deterioration of clinical course of pre-existing chronic neurological diseases in patients with dementia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Haru Nomura ◽  
Sanjaya Kuruppu ◽  
Niwanthi W. Rajapakse

Despite current therapies for diabetic nephropathy, many patients continue to progress to end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy. While the precise mechanisms underlying diabetic nephropathy remain to be determined, it is well established that chronic activation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the enzyme responsible for activating the reno-protective arm of the RAAS converts angiotensin (Ang) II into Ang 1-7 which exerts reno-protective effects. Chronic RAAS activation leads to kidney inflammation and fibrosis, and ultimately lead to end-stage kidney disease. Currently, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and Ang II receptor blockers are approved for renal fibrosis and inflammation. Targeting the reno-protective arm of the RAAS should therefore, provide further treatment options for kidney fibrosis and inflammation. In this review, we examine how targeting the reno-protective arm of the RAAS can ameliorate kidney inflammation and fibrosis and rescue kidney function in diabetic nephropathy. We argue tissue ACE2 stimulation provides a unique and promising therapeutic approach for diabetic nephropathy.

Encyclopedia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 96-108
Luigi De Masi ◽  
Maria Antonia Argenio ◽  
Deborah Giordano ◽  
Angelo Facchiano

A new betacoronavirus (CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that began in China at the end of 2019, today known as COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Subsequent studies confirmed the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) as the main cell receptor of spike trimeric glycoprotein, located on the viral envelope, mediating the CoV-2 invasion into the host cells through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike. Computational analysis of the known experimental 3D structures of spike–ACE2 complexes evidenced distinguishing features in the molecular interactions at the RBD-cell receptor binding interface between CoV-2 and previous CoV-1. The spike represents a key target for drug design as well as an optimal antigen for RNA/viral vector vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in order to maximize prevention and therapy of COVID-19.

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