neuropsychiatric symptoms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wen-Chien Huang ◽  
Ming-Che Chang ◽  
Wen-Fu Wang ◽  
Kai-Ming Jhang

BackgroundThis study aimed to elucidate the influence of dementia etiologies on the degree of caregiver burden and determine which factors predict a high caregiving burden.MethodsThis 18-month retrospective cohort study enrolled 630 patients and their caregivers from the Dementia Center of Changhua Christian Hospital. The care team performed face-to-face interviews every 6 months, for 18 months from when a diagnosis of dementia was made. The primary outcome was the change in Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scores. Generalized estimating equations were used for the longitudinal data analysis.ResultsParticipants with Lewy body disease (LBD) had a significantly higher caregiving burden compared with those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β = 3.83 ± 1.47, Wald = 6.79, p = 0.009) after adjusting for patient and caregiver features. Caregivers of mixed-type dementia and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) experienced a greater burden than caregivers of AD, at 6- and 18-month follow-up. Patients with more severe dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, being cared for by more than two caregivers, or utilizing social resources were associated with higher ZBI scores; the depressive mood of caregiver also predicted higher ZBI scores.ConclusionThis longitudinal study demonstrated that caregiver burden was influenced by the underlying dementia etiology of patients. The dementia care team should provide personalized education and transfer patients and caregivers to appropriate resources, especially for high-risk populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ailiang Miao ◽  
Yongwei Shi ◽  
Xiaoshan Wang ◽  
Jianqing Ge ◽  
Chuanyong Yu

Objectives:Anti-dipeptidyl–peptidase–like protein 6 (anti-DPPX) encephalitis an extremely rare type of immune-mediated encephalitis. This study aimed to analyze the electroclinical characteristics and prognosis of anti-DPPX encephalitis.Methods:Five patients (all male) with anti-DPPX encephalitis in East China from January 2016 to October 2021 was retrospective analyzed. Electroclinical features and outcomes were reviewed.Results:All five patients were male. The media age at disease onset was 32 years old with a range of 14–56 years. The main symptoms included psychiatric disturbances (2/5), amnesia (4/5), confusion (3/5), and seizures (3/5). Migrating myoclonus were identified in patient 4 with positive DPPX and contactin-associated protein-like 2 antibodies in blood. All of the patients had positive DPPX antibodies in serum. Only one of them had positive antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid. EEG showed diffuse slowing in two patients, but no epileptiform discharges were observed. Eighty percent (4/5) of the patients showed normal brain magnetic resonance imaging. After immunotherapy, improvement of neuropsychiatric symptoms from all of the patients was observed. Over a mean follow-up of 30.8 weeks, all of the patients had marked improvement in the modified Rankin Scale. To date, no tumors were not observed in any patients.Conclusions:Anti-DPPX encephalitis mainly presents as neuropsychiatric symptoms. Cooperation of DPPX antibodies and CASPR2 antibodies might have contributed to the migration of myoclonus in the patient 4. Prompt immunotherapy often results in improvement.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Jeff Schaffert ◽  
Christian LoBue ◽  
Linda S. Hynan ◽  
John Hart ◽  
Heidi Rossetti ◽  

Background: Life expectancy (LE) following Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is highly variable. The literature to date is limited by smaller sample sizes and clinical diagnoses. Objective: No study to date has evaluated predictors of AD LE in a retrospective large autopsy-confirmed sample, which was the primary objective of this study. Methods: Participants (≥50 years old) clinically and neuropathologically diagnosed with AD were evaluated using National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (N = 1,401) data. Analyses focused on 21 demographic, medical, neuropsychiatric, neurological, functional, and global cognitive predictors of LE at AD dementia diagnosis. These 21 predictors were evaluated in univariate analyses. Variables found to be significant were then entered into a forward multiple regression. LE was defined as months between AD diagnosis and death. Results: Fourteen predictors were significant in univariate analyses and entered into the regression. Seven predictors explained 27% of LE variance in 764 total participants. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was the strongest predictor of LE, followed by sex, age, race/ethnicity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, abnormal neurological exam results, and functional impairment ratings. Post-hoc analyses revealed correlations of LE were strongest with MMSE ≤12. Conclusion: Global cognitive functioning was the strongest predictor of LE following diagnosis, and AD patients with severe impairment had the shortest LE. AD patients who are older, male, white, and have more motor symptoms, functional impairment, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were also more likely have shorter LE. While this model cannot provide individual prognoses, additional studies may focus on these variables to enhance predictions of LE in patients with AD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gada Musa Salech ◽  
Patricia Lillo ◽  
Karin van der Hiele ◽  
Carolina Méndez-Orellana ◽  
Agustín Ibáñez ◽  

Background: The cognitive and neuropsychiatric deficits present in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are associated with loss of functionality in the activities of daily living (ADLs). The main purpose of this study was to examine and explore the association between the cognitive and neuropsychiatric features that might prompt functional impairment of basic, instrumental, and advanced ADL domains in patients with bvFTD.Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 27 patients with bvFTD in its early stage (<2 years of evolution) and 32 healthy control subjects. A neuropsychological assessment was carried out wherein measures of cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms were obtained. The informant-report Technology–Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire was used to assess the percentage of functional impairment in the different ADL domains. To identify the best determinants, three separate multiple regression analyses were performed, considering each functional impairment as the dependent variable and executive function, emotion recognition, disinhibition, and apathy as independent variables.Results: For the basic ADLs, a model that explains 28.2% of the variability was found, in which the presence of apathy (β = 0.33, p = 0.02) and disinhibition (β = 0.29, p = 0.04) were significant factors. Concerning instrumental ADLs, the model produced accounted for 63.7% of the functional variability, with the presence of apathy (β = 0.71, p < 0.001), deficits in executive function (β = −0.36, p = 0.002), and lack of emotion recognition (β = 0.28, p = 0.017) as the main contributors. Finally, in terms of advanced ADLs, the model found explained 52.6% of the variance, wherein only the presence of apathy acted as a significant factor (β = 0.59, p < 0.001).Conclusions: The results of this study show the prominent and transverse effect of apathy in the loss of functionality throughout all the ADL domains. Apart from that, this is the first study that shows that the factors associated with loss of functionality differ according to the functional domain in patients with bvFTD in its early stage. Finally, no other study has analyzed the impact of the lack of emotion recognition in the functionality of ADLs. These results could guide the planning of tailored interventions that might enhance everyday activities and the improvement of quality of life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Qiang Wang ◽  
Ben Chen ◽  
Xiaomei Zhong ◽  
Huarong Zhou ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  

Background: Odor identification dysfunction is an early predictor of the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), which are common in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), are also associated with odor identification dysfunction. Whether NPS affect the specificity of using odor identification dysfunction to predict cognitive decline in AD and MCI remains unclear.Methods: Patients (233 with MCI and 45 with AD) and 45 healthy controls (HCs) underwent assessments of odor identification (Sniffin' Sticks), NPS (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12), and cognitive function (global cognition, memory, language, executive function, visual-spatial skill, and attention). Structural equation modeling (SEM) with bootstrapping estimation was conducted to explore the relationships between odor identification, NPS, and cognition.Results: Patients with NPS showed significantly worse performance in odor identification and cognition than patients without NPS and HCs. The SEM showed odor identification to be positively associated with cognition, and cognition had special indirect effects on odor identification through affective and psychosis symptoms (two factors extracted from Neuropsychiatric Inventory-12). Additionally, affective and psychosis symptoms partially mediated the effect of cognition on odor identification.Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are associated with odor identification dysfunction in patients with AD and MCI. Studies exploring the relationship between odor identification dysfunction and cognitive decline in patients with AD and MCI should include an assessment of affective and psychosis symptoms, and adjust their confounding effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Mariya A. Kovaleva ◽  
Melinda Higgins ◽  
Mary S. Dietrich ◽  
Bonnie Mowinski Jennings ◽  
Mi-Kyung Song ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fedele Dono ◽  
Stefano Consoli ◽  
Giacomo Evangelista ◽  
Annalisa Ricci ◽  
Mirella Russo ◽  

Purpose: Brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) is a condition characterized by the development of seizures in the context of an undergoing oncological background. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a third-generation anti-seizure medication (ASM) widely used in BTRE prophylaxis. The study evaluated LEV neuropsychiatric side effects (SEs) in BTRE prophylaxis.Method: Twenty-eight patients with brain tumors were retrospectively selected and divided into two groups. In one group, we evaluated patients with a BTRE diagnosis using LEV (BTRE-group). The other group included patients with brain tumors who never had epilepsy and used a prophylactic ASM regimen with LEV (PROPHYLAXIS-group). Neuropsychiatric SEs of LEV were monitored using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) at the baseline visit and the 6- and 12-month follow-up.Results: Eighteen patients of the BTRE-group and 10 patients of the PROPHYLAXIS-group were included. Compared to the BTRE-group, the PROPHYLAXIS-group showed a higher severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms. According to Linear Mixed Models (LMM), a multiplicative effect was observed for the interaction between group treatment and time. For the caregiver distress score (CDS), only a time-effect was observed.Conclusion: Prophylactic ASM with LEV is associated with an increased frequency of neuropsychiatric SE. Accurate epileptological evaluations in patients with brain tumors are mandatory to select who would benefit most from ASM.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12809
Sawitri Assanangkornchai ◽  
Kanittha Thaikla ◽  
Muhammadfahmee Talek ◽  
Darika Saingam

Background Many countries now allow the consumption of cannabis or cannabinoids for medical purposes with varying approaches concerning products allowed and the regulatory frameworks prevailing their endowment. On 18 February 2019 Thailand passed legislation allowing the use of cannabis for medical purposes. This study aimed to examine patterns and purposes for consumption of medical cannabis, and consumers’ perceptions and opinions towards benefits and harms of cannabis and related policies in 2019–2020. Methods A cross-sectional study using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted in four sites across Thailand. Participants were 485 adults aged 18 years and over, living in the study region, who had used cannabis for medical purposes within the past 12 months. Face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were used to collect data on (1) demographic characteristics, (2) pattern of consumption, (3) source of information and perception of benefits and harms of medical cannabis, and (4) opinion towards cannabis policies. Data were analyzed using RDS Analyst and presented as percentage and mean with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Most participants (84.7%, 95% CI [78.9–90.5]) used an oral form of crude oil extract while 9.2% (95% CI [4.1–14.2]) used the raw form. The most common uses were for treatment of cancers (23.3%, 95% CI [16.1–30.4]), neuropsychiatric symptoms (22.8%, 95% CI [17.5–28.0]), and musculoskeletal pains (21.6%, 95% CI [16.7–26.6]). Illegal sources such as underground traders (54.5%, 95% CI [40.8–68.3]), friends and relatives (12.2%, 95% CI [6.2–18.3]), not-for-profit provider groups (5.2%, 95% CI [0.5–10.9]), and clandestine growers or producers (2.9%, 95% CI [0.6–5.3]) were the main suppliers. Most (>80%) perceived cannabis could treat cancers, chronic pains, insomnia, Parkinson’s disease and generalized anxiety disorder. Less than half perceived that cannabis could cause adverse conditions e.g., palpitation, panic, memory impairment and schizophrenic-like psychosis. Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the policies regarding permission to use cannabis for medical purposes (95.1%, 95% CI [92.0–98.2]), for the legal sale of medical cannabis products (95.9%, 95% CI [93.7–98.2]), and for people to grow cannabis for medical use (94.2%, 95% CI [91.8–96.5]). However, only two-thirds agreed with policies concerning the sales of cannabis (65.3%, 95% CI [56.9–73.7]) and home-grown cannabis for recreational purposes (61.3%, 95% CI [52.7–69.9]). Conclusion Our study reports the experiences of consumers of medical cannabis in the first year after its legalization in Thailand. Consumers reported various patterns and indications of consumption that were not supported by scientific evidence, but had positive perception of the results of consumption. These findings highlight ongoing policy challenges for Thailand and can be a lesson to be learned for other countries in the region.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Hannah von Eichel ◽  
Johanne Heine ◽  
Florian Wegner ◽  
Sophia Rogozinski ◽  
Stephanie Stiel ◽  

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in reduced health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) of people with PD (PwP) and their caregivers. Furthermore, there is an accumulating burden on caregivers of patients in advanced stages of the disease. In previous studies, motor- and non-motor-symptoms of PwP have been identified to contribute to reduced HR-QoL and an increased caregiver burden. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to study the influence of neuropsychiatric symptoms measured with the Scale for Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (SEND-PD) questionnaire on the HR-QoL of PwP, as well as the caregiver burden. Analyses revealed a significant association between SEND-PD subscale mood/apathy and reduced HR-QoL in PwP, measured by the Parkinson’s disease quality of life questionnaire (PDQ-8) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, mood/apathy was significantly correlated with caregiver burden (p = 0.001) in the multiple linear regression analysis. Hence, neuropsychiatric symptoms were found to have a profound impact on the HR-QoL of PwP, as well as on caregiver burden. Since neuropsychiatric symptoms were one of the main predictors for caregiver burden, physicians of PwP should treat these symptoms to stabilize caregiver burden, as well as HR-QoL in PwP and their caregivers.

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