Abstract Pakistan is an agricultural country and fisheries play a very important role in the economic development of the country. Different diseases are prevalent in Pakistani fish but information related to the causative agents is not well-known. Keeping in view the significance of bacterial pathogens as the causative agents of multiple fish diseases, the present study was conducted for identification, characterization and analysis of virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased fishes. A total of fifty fish samples having multiple clinical indications were collected from different fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. For isolation of Aeromonas spp. samples were enriched and inoculated on Aeromonas isolation medium. Isolates were identified and characterized by different biochemical tests, Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. All isolates were screened for three putative virulence genes including aerolysin (aer), haemolysin (hyl) and heat labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt). Seven isolates of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila were retrieved and identified based on API 20E. These isolates were further confirmed as A. hydrophila on the basis of PCR assays. Three isolates were detected positive for the presence of virulence genes (alt and hyl). Whereas aerolysin (aer) gene was not present in any of A. hydrophila isolates. The present study confirmed A. hydrophila as the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome and motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. Moreover, detection of two virulence genes (alt and hyl) in A. hydrophila isolates is a threat for fish consumers of study area.
Abstract Reports abound on Lernaea parasitizing the brood stock, fingerlings, and marketable-sized culturable freshwater fish species in various parts of the world. We investigated seven small-scale aquaculture farms and how the prevailing Lernaea is impacting them. Randomly seven fish farms were selected to determine the prevalence percentage of lernaeid ectoparasites. Relevant information of the fishponds to estimate the various aspects such as effects of water source and quality, feed, stocking density, treatment used, and weight and length of fish, concerned with Lernaea infestation and prevalence was gathered. The results indicated that Catla catla (F. Hamilton, 1822) showed highest prevalence (41.7%) among the seven fish species, whereas Oreochromis niloticus showed zero. Other five fish species Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cirrhinus cirrhosis, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix showed 13.2%, 8.1%, 7.7%, 7.4%, 0.9% prevalence, respectively. In Royal Fish Farm 84.3% lernaeid infestation was observed, while no parasite was observed in the Vicent’s Chunnian fish farm. The water source, quality, feed, fertilizers, stocking density, water temperature, and potential treatment options displayed varying tendencies among fish farms and prevalence. Depending on the weight and length, the highest prevalence (56.7%, and 66.7%) was observed in 3501-4000 g and 81-90 cm groups. The infestation rate varied in various fish body parts with the dorsal fin the most vulnerable organ and showed 2.3% overall prevalence (while 18.4% contribution within total 12.6% infestation). Out of 147 infected fish samples, 45 were extensively contaminated by Lernaea spread. In conclusion, our findings confirm that Lernaea could pose a considerable threat to marketable fish, and various treatment options should be educated to the farmers to help mitigate the spread and potential losses. Furthermore, Catla catla is more vulnerable to Lernaea infestation (41.7%), so are the fish species being cultured at higher stocking densities.
The indiscriminate use of synthetic veterinary drugs in fish farms for disease control has caused recurring environmental pollution and reduced productivity; however, the search for ecologically viable alternatives is increasing. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical characterization of the hexanic, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of black jurema (M. tenuiflora), and their antimicrobial activity against strains of Aeromonas, and acute toxicity (LC50) to fingerlings of O. niloticus. The isolates were identified, and phenotypic virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. veronii showed 75.0 - 87.5% positivity for the virulence factors tested, and resistance to the antimicrobials ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline of 67.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Phytochemical screening of black jurema extracts detected phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids/triterpenoids, with methanol proving to be more efficient in the extraction of metabolites. The methanolic and aqueous extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of 250 μg mL-1, and the methanolic extract revealed an LC50 of 40 μg mL-1 for O. niloticus. This study demonstrated the efficiency of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of M. tenuiflora extracts, and their use in vivo in the treatment or prophylaxis in fish farming can be investigated to replace the use of synthetic antimicrobials.
Fluid mechanics is one of the oldest areas of physics with the greatest number of applications in everyday life. This area became more versatile when mass and energy transport equations were incorporated. Together, these equations allow describing a wide variety of case studies with great precision. Among cases available in the open literature, aquaculture is one of the most important due to the growing need for food sources for human consumption, the nutritional value of many fish varieties, the low cost of the maintenance of fish farms. Dissolved oxygen is one of the most relevant parameters ensuring water quality in fish farming. Many fish farms use permanent artificial aeration systems for maintaining the oxygen level within the recommended range used, causing an increasing energy consumption. Therefore, this work proposes an equation and validation, based on equations hydraulics and transport phenomenon, capable of determining the maximum concentration of dissolved oxygen in the body from the operating parameters of the tilapia rearing pond.
Abstract The “piaussu”, Megaleporinus macrocephalus is an anostomatid fish species native to the basin of the Paraguay River, in the Pantanal biome of western Brazil. However, this species has now been recorded in a number of other drainages, including those of the upper Paraná, Uruguay, Jacuí, Doce, Mucuri, and Paraíba do Sulrivers. This study presents two new records of the occurrence of M. macrocephalus, in the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the state of Maranhão, in the Brazilian Northeast. The piaussu is a large-bodied fish of commercial interest that is widely raised on fish farms, and its occurrence in the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers is likely the result of individuals escaping from fish tanks when they overflow during the rainy season. Morphological analyses and sequences of the Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) gene confirmed the taxonomic identification of the specimens as M. macrocephalus. The COI sequences were 99.66% similar to those of M. macrocephalus deposited in the BOLDSystems database. These records extend the known distribution of M. macrocephalus to the basins of the Itapecuru and Mearim rivers in the Brazilian Northeast, highlighting a new case of introduction of exotic fish species into Brazilian river basins.
Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr) are some of the most toxic elements that can bioaccumulate from sources linked to human activities, such as industry and agriculture. This study quantifies the concentrations of several heavy metals in caged tilapia found in Ghana’s Volta Basin and assesses the associated health risks. The levels of heavy metals in the tissues of Oreochromis niloticus from three cage farms (N = 52) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The implication for human health was assessed using several risk assessment techniques. Fe (50.11 ± 10.22 mg/kg) and Cr (0.31 ± 0.07 mg/kg) had the highest and lowest accumulated metal concentrations, respectively. Heavy metal concentrations in tilapia tissue from fish farms were ordered as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr (farm A), Fe > Zn > Ni > Mn (farm B), and Fe > Mn > Zn > Ni > Cr (farm C). All metals had an estimated daily intake (EDI) below the threshold, and mean differences between sample farms were not statistically significant. Similarly, the values of target hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs) were less than one. According to the risk assessment results, eating tilapia from farms posed no risk to human health. The presence of Mn, Fe, and Ni concentrations above the maximum level in the fish, on the other hand, suggests that they may affect fish health.