freshwater fish
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Bilal ◽  
F. Abbas ◽  
U. Atique ◽  
M. Hafeez-ur Rehman ◽  
M. Inayat ◽  

Abstract Reports abound on Lernaea parasitizing the brood stock, fingerlings, and marketable-sized culturable freshwater fish species in various parts of the world. We investigated seven small-scale aquaculture farms and how the prevailing Lernaea is impacting them. Randomly seven fish farms were selected to determine the prevalence percentage of lernaeid ectoparasites. Relevant information of the fishponds to estimate the various aspects such as effects of water source and quality, feed, stocking density, treatment used, and weight and length of fish, concerned with Lernaea infestation and prevalence was gathered. The results indicated that Catla catla (F. Hamilton, 1822) showed highest prevalence (41.7%) among the seven fish species, whereas Oreochromis niloticus showed zero. Other five fish species Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cirrhinus cirrhosis, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix showed 13.2%, 8.1%, 7.7%, 7.4%, 0.9% prevalence, respectively. In Royal Fish Farm 84.3% lernaeid infestation was observed, while no parasite was observed in the Vicent’s Chunnian fish farm. The water source, quality, feed, fertilizers, stocking density, water temperature, and potential treatment options displayed varying tendencies among fish farms and prevalence. Depending on the weight and length, the highest prevalence (56.7%, and 66.7%) was observed in 3501-4000 g and 81-90 cm groups. The infestation rate varied in various fish body parts with the dorsal fin the most vulnerable organ and showed 2.3% overall prevalence (while 18.4% contribution within total 12.6% infestation). Out of 147 infected fish samples, 45 were extensively contaminated by Lernaea spread. In conclusion, our findings confirm that Lernaea could pose a considerable threat to marketable fish, and various treatment options should be educated to the farmers to help mitigate the spread and potential losses. Furthermore, Catla catla is more vulnerable to Lernaea infestation (41.7%), so are the fish species being cultured at higher stocking densities.

2022 ◽  
Ye Xiao ◽  
Xiang Lin ◽  
Zhong-Qun Liu ◽  
Mei-Lan Zhou ◽  
Tian-Yu Ren ◽  

Abstract Although diquat is a widely used water-soluble herbicide in the world, its toxicity to freshwater fish has not been well characterized. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively assess the hepatotoxicity in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) after diquat exposure at two dosages of 0.34 and 1.69 mg·L−1 for 35 days. The results indicated that 1.69 mg·L−1 diquat exposure cause serious cellular swell and vacuolization with increased nuclear abnormality, and lead to obvious disturbance of antioxidative system and dysfunction in liver; while no obvious pathological injury could be detected, and changes in liver biochemistry were less pronounced at the dose level of 0.34 mg·L−1. Multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition showed different GC-MS profiles of zebrafish liver following exposure to diquat, the cluster of the treated groups were both clearly separated from the control samples. The differentially abundant metabolites mainly include carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, nucleotides, and their derivatives. In the exposure group of 1.69 mg·L−1 diquat, severe disturbances of amino acid metabolism played important biological roles associated with inhibition of energy metabolism, reduced immunity, and disorders in neurotransmitters as pathway analysis revealed. Additionally, fluctuation of inositol, creatine, and pantothenic acid, substances associated with stress regulation and signal transduction, participating in metabolic abnormalities in zebrafish with diquat-triggered hepatic damage. Energy metabolism of zebrafish exposed on 0.34 mg·L−1 diquat more inclined to rely on anaerobic glycolysis than the normal ones. Amino acid metabolism responses were less affected, but obvious interference effects on lipid metabolism were observed with 0.34 mg·L−1 diquat exposure. These results imply increased sensitivity of metabolomics versus histopathology and clinical chemistry in recognizing liver toxicity of diquat. This study will contribute to explore possible mechanism of hepatic damages on nontarget freshwater fish induced by diquat and provide important basis for its environmental risk assessment.

2022 ◽  
Shuang Lv ◽  
Suya Xie ◽  
Yunxia Liang ◽  
Long Xu ◽  
Liangbin Hu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Pedro Val ◽  
Nathan J. Lyons ◽  
Nicole Gasparini ◽  
Jane K. Willenbring ◽  
James S. Albert

The exceptional concentration of vertebrate diversity in continental freshwaters has been termed the “freshwater fish paradox,” with > 15,000 fish species representing more than 20% of all vertebrate species compressed into tiny fractions of the Earth’s land surface area (<0.5%) or total aquatic habitat volume (<0.001%). This study asks if the fish species richness of the world’s river basins is explainable in terms of river captures using topographic metrics as proxies. The River Capture Hypothesis posits that drainage-network rearrangements have accelerated biotic diversification through their combined effects on dispersal, speciation, and extinction. Yet rates of river capture are poorly constrained at the basin scale worldwide. Here we assess correlations between fish species density (data for 14,953 obligate freshwater fish species) and basin-wide metrics of landscape evolution (data for 3,119 river basins), including: topography (elevation, average relief, slope, drainage area) and climate (average rainfall and air temperature). We assess the results in the context of both static landscapes (e.g., species-area and habitat heterogeneity relationships) and transient landscapes (e.g., river capture, tectonic activity, landscape disequilibrium). We also relax assumptions of functional neutrality of basins (tropical vs. extratropical, tectonically stable vs. active terrains). We found a disproportionate number of freshwater species in large, lowland river basins of tropical South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, under predictable conditions of large geographic area, tropical climate, low topographic relief, and high habitat volume (i.e., high rainfall rates). However, our results show that these conditions are only necessary, but not fully sufficient, to explain the basins with the highest diversity. Basins with highest diversity are all located on tectonically stable regions, places where river capture is predicted to be most conducive to the formation of high fish species richness over evolutionary timescales. Our results are consistent with predictions of several landscape evolution models, including the River Capture Hypothesis, Mega Capture Hypothesis, and Intermediate Capture Rate Hypothesis, and support conclusions of numerical modeling studies indicating landscape transience as a mechanistic driver of net diversification in riverine and riparian organisms with widespread continental distributions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Javier Atalah ◽  
Ian C. Davidson ◽  
Maike Thoene ◽  
Eugene Georgiades ◽  
Kate S. Hutson

The aquatic ornamental species (AOS) trade is a significant pathway for the introduction and establishment of non-indigenous species into aquatic environments. The likelihood of such occurrences is expected to increase worldwide as industry growth continues and warmer conditions emerge under future climate scenarios. This study used recent (2015 – 2019) New Zealand importation data to determine the composition, diversity, abundance, and arrival frequency of AOS. Our analysis revealed that ca. 300,000 aquatic ornamental individuals are imported annually to New Zealand, with freshwater fish comprising 98% of import quantities. Despite the relatively small market size, the estimated AOS diversity of 865 taxa (89 and 9.5% identified to species and genus level, respectively) is comparable to larger markets with ∼60% of taxa being of marine origin. Species (n = 20) for further investigation were prioritized based on quantity and frequency of import. These prioritized AOS were exclusively tropical and subtropical freshwater fish and align with the most frequently imported AOS globally, including the top three: neon tetra (Paracheirodon innesi), guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and tiger barb (Puntigrus tetrazona). Species distribution modeling of the 20 prioritized AOS predicted that 13 species are suitable for New Zealand’s current climate conditions, most notably sucker-belly loach (Pseudogastromyzon myersi), white cloud mountain minnow (Tanichthys albonubes), and golden otocinclus (Macrotocinclus affinis). Potential changes in habitat suitability were predicted under future climate scenarios, with largest increases (29%) for Po. reticulata. The described approach provides an adaptable framework to assess establishment likelihood of imported AOS to inform regulatory decision making.

2022 ◽  
Silvia Britto Barreto ◽  
L. Lacey Knowles ◽  
Rilquer Mascarenhas ◽  
Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso ◽  
Henrique Batalha‐Filho

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