human consumption
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2022 ◽  
Vol 86 ◽  
pp. 102457
Samira Pereira Batista ◽  
Samara dos Santos Silva ◽  
Wlysse Ferreira Sarmento ◽  
Rômulo Fylipe Silva ◽  
Larissa do Nascimento Sousa ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Christopher J. Coates ◽  
Andrew F. Rowley

While most crab production for human consumption worldwide comes from capture fisheries, there is increasing production of selected species using aquaculture-based methods. This is both for the purpose of stock replacement and direct yield for human consumption. Disease has limited the ability to produce larval crabs in commercial hatcheries and this together with suitable feeds, are major hurdles in the sustainable development of cultivation methods. Juvenile and adult crabs are also subject to a range of diseases that can cause severe economic loss. Emerging pathogens/parasites are of major importance to crab aquaculture as they can cause high levels of mortality and are difficult to control. Diseases caused by viruses and bacteria receive considerable attention but the dinoflagellate parasites, Hematodinium spp., also warrant concern because of their wide host range and lack of control methods to limit their spread. This concise review examines the emerging diseases in several crabs that have been selected as candidates for aquaculture efforts including Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis), mud crabs (Scylla spp.), swimming crabs (Portunus spp.), blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and shore crabs (Carcinus maenas). The latter is also a prolific invasive species known to harbour diverse macro- and micro-parasites that can affect commercially important bivalves and crustaceans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Michelle F. O’Brien ◽  
Sarah Pellett

Gastropods (class Gastropoda) form the largest of the classes in the phylum Mollusca and inhabit terrestrial, fresh water and marine environments. A large number of these species are of major conservation importance and are an essential component of ecosystems. Gastropods may be deemed as pests, having a negative impact in horticulture and agriculture, whereas others may be used as a food source for human consumption and therefore are beneficial. Gastropods are susceptible to primary diseases and also act as intermediate hosts for diseases which affect other animals, including humans. The diseases described include two that are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE): Xenohaliotis californiensis and Abalone viral ganglioneuritis caused by Haliotid herpesvirus-1 (HaHV-1). Research into the diseases of gastropods has often focused on those species that act as intermediate disease hosts, those that are used in research or those cultured for food. In this paper we review the viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic and miscellaneous conditions that have been reported in gastropods and mention some of the factors that appear to predispose them to disease. The pathogenicity of a number of these conditions has not been fully ascertained and more research is needed into specifying both the etiological agent and significance in some of the diseases reported.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 377-382
Tehseen Quds ◽  
Maryam Ahmed ◽  
Sadia Shakeel ◽  
Nusrat Jalbani ◽  
Farah Mazhar ◽  

Purpose: To determine the heavy metal content of selected local and international herbal medicines sold for the treatment of various diseases in Pakistan. Methods: The different dosage forms of herbal medicines assessed were crude forms of syrups, gel, capsule, powder and tonic. Wet digestion method was used to prepare the herbal samples using nitric acid, and then analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), using MHS-15 mercury/hydride system and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Results: The investigated results displayed the Arsenic level (0.00 ppm to 0.580 ppm); Cadmium (0.001 ppm to 0.006 ppm); Lead (0.00 ppm to 1.078 ppm) and Mercury (0.001 ppm to 0.012 ppm). All results were found below the permissible limit of acceptability intake of the World Health Organization (WHO) and American Herbal Products Association (AHPA). The pH of the samples were in the range of 1.52 to 6.99. Conclusion: The findings reveal that the investigated herbal products available in Pakistan are safe with reference to heavy metals, and considered non-toxic for human consumption.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mariana Ferreira ◽  
Pedro C. Ribeiro ◽  
Laura Ribeiro ◽  
Marisa Barata ◽  
Valentina F. Domingues ◽  

Efforts have been made to find natural, highly nutritious alternatives to replace fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO), which can simultaneously promote fish health and improve the nutritional quality of filets for human consumption. This study evaluated the impact of biofortified diets containing microalgae (as replacement for FM and FO), macroalgae (as natural source of iodine) and selenised yeast (organic source of selenium) on gilthead seabream growth, nutrient utilization, tissue composition and gene expression. A control diet (CTRL) with 15% FM and 5.5% FO was compared with three experimental diets (AD1, AD2, and AD3), where a microalgae blend (Chlorella sp., Tetraselmis sp., and DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp.) replaced 33% of FM. Diet AD1 contained 20% less FO. Diets were supplemented with Laminaria digitata (0.4% AD1 and AD2; 0.8% AD3) and selenised yeast (0.02% AD1 and AD2; 0.04% AD3). After feeding the experimental diets for 12 weeks, growth was similar in fish fed AD1, AD2, and CTRL, indicating that microalgae meal can partially replace both FM and FO in diets for seabream. But AD3 suppressed fish growth, suggesting that L. digitata and selenised yeast supplementation should be kept under 0.8 and 0.04%, respectively. Despite lower lipid intake and decreased PUFAs bioavailability in fish fed AD3, compared to CTRL, hepatic elovl5 was upregulated resulting in a significant increase of muscle EPA + DHA. Indeed, filets of fish fed AD2 and AD3 provided the highest EPA + DHA contents (0.7 g 100 g–1), that are well above the minimum recommended values for human consumption. Fish consuming the AD diets had a higher retention and gain of selenium, while iodine gain remained similar among diets. Upregulation of selenoproteins (gpx1, selk, and dio2) was observed in liver of fish fed AD1, but diets had limited impact on fish antioxidant status. Overall, results indicate that the tested microalgae are good sources of protein and lipids, with their LC-PUFAs being effectively accumulated in seabream muscle. Selenised yeast is a good fortification vehicle to increase selenium levels in fish, but efforts should be placed to find new strategies to fortify fish in iodine.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 179
Federico Melenchón ◽  
Eduardo de Mercado ◽  
Héctor J. Pula ◽  
Gabriel Cardenete ◽  
Fernando G. Barroso ◽  

The demand of optimal protein for human consumption is growing. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has highlighted aquaculture as one of the most promising alternatives for this protein supply gap due to the high efficiency of fish growth. However, aquaculture has been facing its own sustainability problem, because its high demand for protein has been traditionally satisfied with the use of fishmeal (FM) as the main source. Some of the most promising and sustainable protein substitutes for FM come from insects. The present manuscript provides insight into an experiment carried out on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a 50% replacement of FM with different larvae insect meals: Hermetia illucens (HI), and Tenebrio molitor (TM). TM showed better results for growth, protein utilization and more active digestive function, supported by intestinal histological changes. Liver histology and intermediary metabolism did not show relevant changes between insect meals, while other parameters such as antioxidant enzyme activities and tissue damage indicators showed the potential of insect meals as functional ingredients.

Arianna Storelli ◽  
Grazia Barone ◽  
Rita Garofalo ◽  
Antonio Busco ◽  
Maria Maddalena Storelli

This study measures total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in elasmobranch fish from an Italian market with the aim of evaluating the risk-benefit associated with their consumption, using estimated weekly intake (EWI), permissible safety level (MeHgPSL), selenium health benefit value (HBVSe) and monthly consumption rate limit (CRmm) for each species. THg and Se were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry, while MeHg was determined by HrGc/Ms. THg and MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.61 to 1.25 μg g−1 w.w. and from 0.57 to 0.97 μg g−1 w.w., respectively, whereas Se levels were 0.49–0.65 μg g−1 w.w. In most samples European Community limits for THg were surpassed, while for MeHg none of the fish had levels above the limit adopted by FAO/WHO. EWIs for THg and MeHg in many cases were above the provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs). MeHgPSL estimate showed that fish should contain approximately 50% of the concentration measured to avoid exceeding the PTWI. Nevertheless, the HBVSe index indicated that solely skates were safe for human consumption (HBVSe = 3.57–6.22). Our results highlight the importance of a constant monitoring of THg and MeHg level in fish, especially in apex predators, to avoid the risk of overexposure for consumers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 9
Kathryn A. McGurk ◽  
Melpomeni Kasapi ◽  
James S. Ware

Background: Taurine, 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an amino acid found in animal products. Taurine is produced for human consumption as a supplement and ingredient in beverages. Supplementation is a safe, inexpensive, and effective treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in domestic mammals, however it is currently unlicensed in Europe and the United States for human medical treatment. Recent genome-wide association studies of DCM have identified the locus of the taurine transporter (SLC6A6). To assess whether taurine supplementation may be a novel therapeutic option for DCM, we undertook a systematic review. Methods: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register, Web of Science, Biomed Central) were searched until 11/03/21. Included studies of human participants reported measured phenotypes or symptoms for cardiomyopathy, heart failure (HF), or altered left ventricle structure or function, administering taurine in any formulation, by any method. Non-English articles were excluded. Meta-analysis was completed in R software (version 3.6.0). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale quality assessment score (NOQAS) tool was used to assess bias. Results: 285 articles were identified, of which eleven met our criteria for inclusion. Only one paper was deemed “high quality” using the NOQAS tool. Taurine supplementation varied across studies; by dose (500 mg to 6g per day), frequency (once to thrice daily), delivery method (tablet, capsule, drink, powder), and duration (2 to 48 weeks). Patient inclusion was all-cause HF patients with ejection fraction (EF) <50% and no study was specific to DCM. While improvements in diastolic and systolic function, exercise capacity, and haemodynamic parameters were described, only EF and stroke volume were measured in enough studies to complete a meta-analysis; the association was not significant with all-cause HF (P<0.05). No significant safety concerns were reported. Conclusions: A formal clinical trial is needed to address whether taurine supplementation is beneficial to the approximately 1/250 individuals with DCM in the population.

2022 ◽  
Kouamou Njifen Serges Raoul ◽  
Eyengue A Nyam Francoise ◽  
Fossi Donald Hermann ◽  
Bikoro Bi-Alou Marcelin ◽  
Ngouokouo Tchikangoua Anita ◽  

Abstract In the Campo region, groundwater is critical for human consumption and social activity. Groundwater potential is influenced by a region's geological, geophysical, and hydrogeological factors. The major goals of this research are to determine which regions are ideal for productive groundwater drilling and to assess the source of salinity in the study area's coastal aquifers. The groundwater potential map was created using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the Hierarchical Analysis Process (AHP). The process of groundwater mineralization was studied using principal component analysis (PCA). Six variables were taken into account, and weights were assigned to them based on their impact on groundwater recharge. In a GIS environment, spatial integration and a combination of theme layers were conducted. Campo's groundwater potential map was divided into four zones: low 14.4% (389.6 km²), moderate 53.3% (1484.5 km²), high 28.3% (783.3 km²), and extremely high 4.1% (110.9 km²). The results of the PCA reveal a mechanism of water-rock interaction, as a result of geological alteration and a salinization process caused by the intrusion of seawater and human activity The source of salinity in groundwater is manmade (agricultural and residential activities) rather than seawater intrusion. Seawater infiltration is not greatly aided by the low lineament density found near the beaches.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 167
Fabio Fanari ◽  
Matteo Bruno Lodi ◽  
Worash Getaneh ◽  
Alessandro Fanti ◽  
Francesco Desogus ◽  

Several studies have shown the presence of fluoride levels much higher than the 1.5 mg/L threshold concentration recommended by WHO in the spring waters and wells of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Available defluoridation techniques can be costly, present complicated technical aspects, and show limited effectiveness. Therefore, it is necessary to devise innovative, sustainable, and effective solutions. This study proposes an alternative method of intervention to the known techniques for removing fluoride from water, particularly suitable for smaller rural communities. In particular, in this work, the possibility to use electromagnetic fields as a physical method for removing the excess fluoride was investigated. The study was carried out by developing a multiphysics model used for studying and envisaging the design of a device. In this framework, the combination of this approach with the use of highly reactive smectite clay was numerically studied. The results obtained, although preliminary, indicate that the proposed system could significantly impoverish the waters of the Rift Valley from fluoride, with the consequence of obtaining a resource suitable for human consumption, in particular for rural communities. However, further theoretical investigations and experimental phases will be necessary to achieve the desired results.

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