aqueous extracts
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 641-656
Author(s):  
Aura Lacerda Crepaldi ◽  
◽  
Aline Simões da Rocha Bispo ◽  
Dennifier Costa Brandão Cruz ◽  
Washington Luiz Gomes Tavechio ◽  
...  

The indiscriminate use of synthetic veterinary drugs in fish farms for disease control has caused recurring environmental pollution and reduced productivity; however, the search for ecologically viable alternatives is increasing. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical characterization of the hexanic, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of black jurema (M. tenuiflora), and their antimicrobial activity against strains of Aeromonas, and acute toxicity (LC50) to fingerlings of O. niloticus. The isolates were identified, and phenotypic virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. veronii showed 75.0 - 87.5% positivity for the virulence factors tested, and resistance to the antimicrobials ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline of 67.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Phytochemical screening of black jurema extracts detected phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids/triterpenoids, with methanol proving to be more efficient in the extraction of metabolites. The methanolic and aqueous extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of 250 μg mL-1, and the methanolic extract revealed an LC50 of 40 μg mL-1 for O. niloticus. This study demonstrated the efficiency of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of M. tenuiflora extracts, and their use in vivo in the treatment or prophylaxis in fish farming can be investigated to replace the use of synthetic antimicrobials.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 248-253
Author(s):  
Aarti Sangray ◽  
Ajeet Pal Singh ◽  
Amar Pal Singh

To evaluate the activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous extracts of leaves of against three fungal strains i.e. MTCC3814, and Candida tropicalis MTCC9038 in-vitro.Phytochemical analysis of belonging to family brassicacaea was examined using Ethanolic and Aqueous extracts. Ethanolic and Aqueous extracts of leaves of were investigated individually for antifungal activity by Agar well diffusion method. Both the extracts were tested against selected fungal strains i.e. and to find the inhibitory activities of fungal growth at the dose level of 50 and 100 μg/ml.The phytochemical analysis of ethanolic and aqueous extracts confirmed the presence of phenolic compounds, glycosides, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, tannins, reducing suger, non-reducing suger and inorganic compounds such as calcium, magnesium, iron, carbonate & sulphates. Ethanolic extract of showed considerably high antifungal activities against selected microorganisms than aqueous extract.Although the active components were not isolated but antifungal active plant principles such as flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were observed in the extract. Ethanolic extract of possess effective antifungal properties for selected fungal strains i.e.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Florence Nalimu ◽  
Joseph Oloro ◽  
Emanuel L. Peter ◽  
Patrick Engeu Ogwang

Abstract Background Several local communities in Central, Western, Eastern, and Northern regions of Uganda have been using the whole leaf extracts of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae) in the treatment of various ailments. Also, several commercial companies sell A. vera as soft drinks in Uganda. However, there are inadequate reports on the toxicities of such preparations. This paper reports the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of aqueous extracts of whole leaf and green rind of A. vera in Wistar rats. Methods Acute oral toxicity test was carried out in female Wistar rats at doses of 175, 550, 1750, and 5000 mg/kg, p.o. The animals were observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. Similarly, a sub-acute oral toxicity test was performed in both sexes of rats at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg, p.o. daily for 28 days. All the groups of animals were monitored for behavioral, morphological, biochemical, and physiological changes, including mortality and compared with respective controls. Body weights were measured weekly while the animals’ relative organ weights, hematological, biochemical, gross, and microscopic pathology were examined on day 29. Results There was no mortality or apparent behavioral changes at the doses tested in acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests. Thus, the Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of green rind and whole leaf aqueous extracts was above 5000 mg/kg. Gross anatomy revealed that the rats’ relative spleen weight in green rind extract at 200 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to the control group. The creatinine levels in female rats that received green rind extract and the chloride ion levels in male rats administered whole leaf extract were significantly elevated. Conversely, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) levels significantly decreased at lower doses of the green rind extract compared to the control. Histopathology of the kidney revealed the renal interstitium’s inflammation at doses of 200 and 800 mg/kg of the whole leaf extract. Conclusion The findings demonstrated that A. vera green rind and whole leaf extracts are non-toxic at relatively high doses when used for a short duration. Prolonged use of the aqueous whole leaf extract might be associated with kidney toxicity.


2022 ◽  
pp. 19-26
Author(s):  
MARYNA LESHCHYSHYN ◽  
OLGA IUNGIN

Purpose: To conduct experimental studies of embedded hygienic installed insoles with tableted plant inserts in footwearMethodology. The properties of embedded hygienic insoles have been studied for vapor permeability and moisture content according to the methods of GOST 22900-78. The solid inserts were ground and extracted with distilled water for a week to obtain aqueous extracts for microbiological studies. Determination of antimicrobial activity was performed using a culture of S.aureus ATCC 25923 in microtiter 96-well plates in liquid nutrient medium NB spectrophotometrically by optical density (Hipo MPP-96, Biosan, λ = 620 nm, control medium – by the location of a non-sterile sample with (30 × 30 mm) on the surface of sterile NA medium.Findings. To improve the hygienic characteristics of the inner space of the shoe, the research presents embedded hygienic products with solid inserts in the form of tablets from the plant raw materials of medicinal thyme and sage. The technological characteristics of tableted inserts from vegetable raw materials are given. The results of vapor permeability and moisture content in the studied samples are obtained, which correspond to the normative values according to GOST 940-81 and are safe for human feet.Originality. Determination of indicators of vapor permeability and moisture content of embedded hygienic installed insoles with tableted plant inserts and establishing their compliance with regulatory requirements. Determined the regularities of inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of thyme on the growth of biomass of gram-negative bacteria in planktonic culture.Practical value. Another advantage of custom-made shoes is the ability to consider the customer's preferences regarding shoe care products during the operation. At the same time, an important task is to ensure the hygiene of the inner space of the shoe through the use of insoles containing elements obtained from medicinal plant materials.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 63-68
Author(s):  
AKA Francis B. Angelo ◽  
Coulibaly Wacothon Karime ◽  
Titah T. James ◽  
Bea Gouanda Thibaut ◽  
Benié Anoubilé

Author(s):  
Anbarasu Mariyappillai ◽  
Gurusamy Arumugam ◽  
Swaminathan Chitraputhira Pillai ◽  
Durai Singh Ramaiah

Background: Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) and Green gram (Vigna radiata L.) were mostly used as chemical residue indicators for testing the persistence of pesticides, fungicides and herbicides, etc. in the soil. Presently, the coir pith was used as a medium of nursery for many seeds and seedling production. This study evaluated the inhibition effects and screening of allelopathic chemicals from aqueous extracts of coir pith and composting coir pith on the back gram and green gram by response index method and GCMS/MS analysis. Methods: The coir pith and composted coir pith soaked the ratio of 1:10 for 24 hrs, filtered through Whatman No.1 filter paper. The inhibition effect tested for germination and seedling growth of black gram and green gram was sown in poly pots. The carbon: nitrogen ratio and the total organic carbon were analyzed by dry combustion method, Kjeldahl method and GCMS/MS analysis. Result: The phytotoxic substances are present in coir pith, which can be exterminated by composting the coir pith for better growth and development of seedlings. The negative response index (RI), high C: N ratio and chemical compounds like tocopherol, fucoxanthin, tetramethyl heptadeca, dichloroacetamide, tetrazole, hydroxyethyl palmitate, neocurdione and uridine derivations present in raw coir may have the phytotoxic effect and produced yellowing symptoms in young plants compared to composted coir pith. This is exterminated by composting the coir pith for better growth and development of seedlings as well as used for various agricultural and horticultural nurseries.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Aarón A. Molho-Ortiz ◽  
Atmir Romero-Pérez ◽  
Efrén Ramírez-Bribiesca ◽  
Claudia C. Márquez-Mota ◽  
Francisco A. Castrejón-Pineda ◽  
...  

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