Phytochemical Screening
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 641-656
Author(s):  
Aura Lacerda Crepaldi ◽  
◽  
Aline Simões da Rocha Bispo ◽  
Dennifier Costa Brandão Cruz ◽  
Washington Luiz Gomes Tavechio ◽  
...  

The indiscriminate use of synthetic veterinary drugs in fish farms for disease control has caused recurring environmental pollution and reduced productivity; however, the search for ecologically viable alternatives is increasing. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical characterization of the hexanic, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of black jurema (M. tenuiflora), and their antimicrobial activity against strains of Aeromonas, and acute toxicity (LC50) to fingerlings of O. niloticus. The isolates were identified, and phenotypic virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. veronii showed 75.0 - 87.5% positivity for the virulence factors tested, and resistance to the antimicrobials ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline of 67.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Phytochemical screening of black jurema extracts detected phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids/triterpenoids, with methanol proving to be more efficient in the extraction of metabolites. The methanolic and aqueous extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of 250 μg mL-1, and the methanolic extract revealed an LC50 of 40 μg mL-1 for O. niloticus. This study demonstrated the efficiency of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of M. tenuiflora extracts, and their use in vivo in the treatment or prophylaxis in fish farming can be investigated to replace the use of synthetic antimicrobials.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 768-774
Author(s):  
Pankaj Kushwaha ◽  
Shashi Alok ◽  
Lavkush Dwivedi

Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli), a member of the Liliaceae family is a well-known plant in India for its aphrodisiac and adaptogenic activities. The present study was carried out to identify the novel compounds based new medicinal properties of the plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening and GC-MS based chromatographic analysis of a methanolic extract of C. borivilianum (MECB) tubors resulted the detection of Phenol, Tannins, Flavo-noids, Alkaloids, Saponins, and Glycosides in the plant. In GC-MS analysis of the MECB, more than 200 compounds were identified in different peak are-as. All of them were crosschecked at various online compound databses like PubChem, Drugbank, etc. for the identification of their known biological ac-tivities, if any. Out of them, mainly 21 compounds (falling in 70.74% peak area) like 4-mercaptophenol, 1,4-Benzenediol, 2-methoxy-, Octadecanal, Pentadecanal, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, Betulin, Levomenthol, etc. were characterized in this study. As per their reported medicinal activities at standard databases the plant tubor is hereby reported to have anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-pruritic, anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic activites. Moreover, the compounds like Cyclo-hexanol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl), Palmitoyl Chloride, Triarachine, Phytol, 4-mercaptophenol with their mentholating, food additives and other valua-ble effects have underlined the industrial value of the plant.


2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Author(s):  
Adiez Sapura Azmi ◽  
Mohammad Humayoon Amini ◽  
Muhammad Farhan Syakir Nor Azman ◽  
Fatimah Salim ◽  
Ali Jawad

Erythrina fusca Lour. (family Fabaceae) is a flowering tree that is locally known as ‘chengkering’. The plant is traditionally used in treatment of some symptoms related to bacterial infections such as wound infections, inflammations, and skin itching. This work reports for the first time in vitro antibacterial screening of the E. fusca Lour. methanolic leaf extract against some common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The in vitro antibacterial assay was carried out using agar   diffusion method with the extract concentration of 3 mg/well and vancomycin 30 µg/well as the positive control. It was found that the extract exhibits antibacterial effects in range of 10.5 – 14 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) against all tested bacteria except for K. pneumoniae. P. aeruginosa showing ZOI of 14 mm was the most sensitive bacterium while P. vulgaris (ZOI of 10.5 mm) was the least sensitive strain to the extract. Based on the preliminary phytochemical screening of using standard qualitative phytochemical tests, this species contains significant amount of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and tannins, which might contribute to the antibacterial activity of the extract. Both antibacterial potential and presence of various phytochemicals in the extract could support the traditional uses of E. fusca  , and the obtained results would serve as a basis for further exploration of antibacterial properties of the plant’s leaves.


Author(s):  
Eyerus Mekuriaw ◽  
Enat Mengistu ◽  
Ayana Erdedo ◽  
Hassen Mamo

The threat of antibiotic-resistance calls for novel antibacterial agents. This study was aimed at screening medicinal plants for their antibacterial properties, phytochemical content and safety. Leaves of Allophylus abyssinicus (Hochst.) Radlk., Dicliptera laxata C.B.Clarke, Ligustrum vulgare L., Solanecio gigas (Vatke) c. Jeffrey and Gymnanthemum myrianthum (Hook.f.) H.Rob.; leaf and stem-bark of Olinia rochetiana A. Juss. and the seed of Cucurbita pepo L. were used. Chloroform and ethanol were used to extract G. myrianthum, D. laxata and O. rochetiana; ethyl acetate and methanol for the rest, and water for all. The extracts were tested against clinical/standard strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus by the agar-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined. Acute toxicity to mice was checked and preliminary phytochemical screening was done. Thirteen extracts, out of 24, were active (inhibition zone >7 mm) at differing levels (9.67±0.33-25.66±0.57 mm) against at least one bacterial strain. The MICs and MBCs were 1.95-15.6 mg/mL and 7.8-125 mg/mL respectively. The aqueous extract of S. gigas, methanol extracts of L. vulgare and A. abyssinicus, and ethanol extract of O. rochetiana leaf were the most active (MIC 1.95mg/ml) against S. aureus. Ethyl acetate extracts of A. abyssinicus, L. vulgare and S. gigas; aqueous of C. pepo, O. rochetiana and G. myrianthum; and all D. laxata had no antibacterial activity. P. aeruginosa was the least susceptible to any extract, although the methanol and aqueous extracts of S. gigas performed better against it. Preliminary phytochemical screening of selected extracts for phenols, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, steroidal glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, resins and glycosides showed positivity at least for four of these phytochemicals with glycoside and terpenoids in nearly all extracts and resin in none. The plants were not toxic to mice at 2000 mg/kg. Further consideration of S. gigas, L. vulgare, A. abyssinicus and O. rochetiana is recommended in light of their promising potential and safety.


Author(s):  
Annisa Fatmawati ◽  
Depita Sucianingsih ◽  
Riza Kurniawati ◽  
Muhammad Abdurrahman

This research was conducted to identify simplicia microscopically, phytochemical screening and determination of total flavonoid content of extract and ethyl acetate fraction from Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaves using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry method. The experimental design used in this study was to perform microscopic identification of Moringa leaf powder simplicia, make 96% and 70% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa leaves from 70% ethanol extract, then carry out phytochemical screening and determination of total flavonoid content with quercetin standards. Phytochemical screening on the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa leaves included tests for the content of flavonoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The results of microscopic identification of Moringa leaf simplicia showed the presence of calcium oxalate crystals in the form of rosettes, mesophyll and stomata. The result of determination of total flavonoid content in 96% ethanol extract was 16.69 ± 0.74% (w/w), 70% ethanol extract was 10.84 ± 0.49% (w/w), Moringa leaf ethyl acetate fraction 14 .45 ± 0.90% (w/w). The highest total flavonoid content was found in the 96% ethanol extract of Moringa leaves in accordance with the 2017 Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, that the thick extract of Moringa leaves containing no less than 6.30% (w/w) total flavonoids was calculated as quercetin.


2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-20
Author(s):  
Heba sayed ◽  
mohammady issa ◽  
magda mahmoud ◽  
emad abdelkader ◽  
hamadi ismail

Heliyon ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. e08771
Author(s):  
Md. Mynul Hassan ◽  
Shihab Uddin ◽  
Amrita Bhowmik ◽  
Ayesha Ashraf ◽  
Md. Mahmodul Islam ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
pp. 464-473
Author(s):  
Dicki Bakhtiar Purkon

Immunostimulants are compounds that can stimulate an immune response by increasing the activity of non-specific and specific components of the immune system (humoral and cellular) against certain infections and diseases. The liverwort plant species Marchantia paleacea Bertol. has long been used as a source of nutrition and empirical medicine. However, scientifically there is still not much research data on immunomodulators in these plants. This study aims to determine the activity of immunomodulators in the ethanol extract of the herb Marchantia paleacea Bertol. in male mice of BALB/c strain. Bioactive compounds from this plant were extracted by maceration method using 96% ethanol. Extract characterization and phytochemical screening were determined according to WHO guidelines and standard procedures from previous studies. The immunomodulatory activity of the extract was tested by carbon clearance method and lymphoid organ index (non-specific responses), primary and secondary antibody titer tests (humoral specific responses), IL-2 cytokine levels and IFN-ɣ from serum secondary antibodies and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction/DTH (cellular specific response). The results of qualitative phytochemical screening contained flavonoid compounds, saponins, phenolics, tannins and steroids/triterpenoids. The results of the non-specific immune response immunomodulator test showed that the dose of 52 mg/kg bw had the largest phagocytic index of 1.52 which included strong immunostimulation (K > 1.5) and the organ spleen index of 0.55 ± 0.11 which increased significantly compared to the control (p<0.05). The data on the acquisition of specific immune responses in the primary and secondary antibody titer test in the three test extracts resulted in increased titer levels compared to the control and at a dose of 52 mg/kg bw could significantly increase the levels of IL-2 cytokines in the control group (p<0,05). Meanwhile, in the DTH test, doses of 13 and 26 mg/kg bw could significantly increase the thickness of the soles of mice compared to controls (p<0.05).


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