AbstractMedium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease caused by biallelic pathogenic ACADM variants. We report a case of an asymptomatic Japanese girl with MCAD deficiency caused by compound heterozygous pathogenic variants (NM_000016.5:c.1040G > T (p.Gly347Val) and c.449_452delCTGA (p.Thr150ArgfsTer4)). Because the MCAD residual activity in lymphocytes of the patient was below the limit of quantification, both variants are likely to cause complete loss of MCAD enzymatic activity.
Introduction: Situs inversus is a rare autosomal recessive disorder occurring in 1:5,000 to 1:20,000 indiviuals. Cholecystectomy is a standard treatment for symptomatic gallbladder stone. We report a case of cholelithiasis in patient with inversus totalis who underwent cholecystectomy.
Case presentation: A 48 years old obese female patient with dextrocardia and hypertention presented with a recurrent left upper abdominal pain for two years. Ultrasound abdomen showed gallbladder stone. Conventional cholecystectomy was done with a small left subcostal incision. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged on 3rd post operative day.
Conclusion: Cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with a left sided gallbladder stone, like in normal gallbladder and it is safe.
Pathogenic variants in the PJVK gene cause the DFNB59 type of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment (AR-NSHI). Phenotypes are not homogeneous, as a few subjects show auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), while others show cochlear hearing loss. The numbers of reported cases and pathogenic variants are still small to establish accurate genotype-phenotype correlations. We investigated a cohort of 77 Spanish familial cases of AR-NSHI, in whom DFNB1 had been excluded, and a cohort of 84 simplex cases with isolated ANSD in whom OTOF variants had been excluded. All seven exons and exon-intron boundaries of the PJVK gene were sequenced. We report three novel DFNB59 cases, one from the AR-NSHI cohort and two from the ANSD cohort, with stable, severe to profound NSHI. Two of the subjects received unilateral cochlear implantation, with apparent good outcomes. Our study expands the spectrum of PJVK mutations, as we report four novel pathogenic variants: p.Leu224Arg, p.His294Ilefs*43, p.His294Asp and p.Phe317Serfs*20. We review the reported cases of DFNB59, summarize the clinical features of this rare subtype of AR-NSHI and discuss the involvement of PJVK in ANSD.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with 89 causative genes identified to date. However, only approximately 60% of RP cases genetically solved to date, predicating that many novel disease-causing variants are yet to be identified. The purpose of this study is to identify novel variants in PDE6A and PDE6B genes and present its phenotypes in patients with retinitis pigmentosa in Chinese families.
Five retinitis pigmentosa patients with PDE6A variants and three with PDE6B variants were identified through a hereditary eye disease enrichment panel (HEDEP), all patients’ medical and ophthalmic histories were collected, and ophthalmological examinations were performed, followed by an analysis of the possible causative variants. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the variants.
We identified 20 variants in eight patients: 16 of them were identified in either PDE6A or PDE6B in a compound heterozygous state. Additional four heterozygous variants were identified in the genes ADGRA3, CA4, OPTN, RHO. Two novel genetic changes in PDE6A were identified (c.1246G > A and c.1747 T > A), three novel genetic changes in PDE6B were identified (c.401 T > C, c.2293G > C and c.1610-1612del), out of the novel identified variants one was most probably non-pathogenic (c.2293G > C), all other novel variants are pathogenic. Additional variant was identified in CA4 and RHO, which can cause ADRP (c.243G > A, c.688G > A). In addition, a novel variant in ADGRA3 was identified (c.921-1G > A).
This study reveals novel and known variants in PDE6A and PDE6B genes in Chinese families with autosomal recessive RP, and expands the clinical and genetic findings of photoreceptor-specific enzyme deficiencies.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of phenylalanine metabolism. It is mainly caused by a deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and frequently diagnosed with Sanger sequencing. To some extent, allelic dropout can explain the inconsistency in genotype and phenotype.
Three families were evaluated through DNA sequence analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and prenatal diagnosis technologies. The possibility of inconsistency in phenotype and genotype with c.331C>T variant was analysed.
Through pedigree analysis, three mothers carried a homozygous c.331C>T variant, which was a false-positive result. New primers were used, and this error was caused by allelic dropout. In this case, c.158G>A was likely a benign variant.
Sequence variants in primer-binding regions could cause allelic dropout, creating unpredictable errors in genotyping. Our results emphasised the need for careful measures to treat genotype–phenotype inconsistencies.
Ellis Van Creveld, a syndrome comprising of chondrodysplasia, bilateral polydactyly of the hands with skeletal abnormalities, and congenital heart defect is a rare autosomal recessive disease. The prevalence of the disease in the world is 1/6000–20,000 newborns. In the Indian population, it is difficult to estimate the exact prevalence of the disease but, it is mostly seen in the Amish population. The cardinal features are short stature, dysplastic nails and teeth, polydactyly, narrow chest, and heart defects. The crucial differentials are Jeune dystrophy, Weyers syndrome, and McKusick-Kaufman syndrome. Here, we report a neonate, born of a non-consanguineous marriage with a syndromic appearance consisting of a bell-shaped chest, polydactyly, natal teeth, and single atrium. Prognosis is related to respiratory and heart defects in the early neonatal period.
The SPG7 gene encodes the paraplegin protein, an inner mitochondrial membrane—localized protease. It was initially linked to pure and complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar atrophy, and now represents a frequent cause of undiagnosed cerebellar ataxia and spastic ataxia. We hereby report the molecular characterization and the clinical features of a large Cypriot family with five affected individuals presenting with spastic ataxia in an autosomal recessive transmission mode, due to a novel SPG7 homozygous missense variant. Detailed clinical histories of the patients were obtained, followed by neurological and neurophysiological examinations. Whole exome sequencing (WES) of the proband, in silico gene panel analysis, variant filtering and family segregation analysis of the candidate variants with Sanger sequencing were performed. RNA and protein expression as well as in vitro protein localization studies and mitochondria morphology evaluation were carried out towards functional characterization of the identified variant. The patients presented with typical spastic ataxia features while some intrafamilial phenotypic variation was noted. WES analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense variant in the SPG7 gene (c.1763C > T, p. Thr588Met), characterized as pathogenic by more than 20 in silico prediction tools. Functional studies showed that the variant does not affect neither the RNA or protein expression, nor the protein localization. However, aberrant mitochondrial morphology has been observed thus indicating mitochondrial dysfunction and further demonstrating the pathogenicity of the identified variant. Our study is the first report of an SPG7 pathogenic variant in the Cypriot population and broadens the spectrum of SPG7 pathogenic variants.