Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism
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Published By Walter De Gruyter Gmbh

2191-0251, 0334-018x

Yeray Nóvoa-Medina ◽  
Svetlana Pavlovic-Nesic ◽  
Jesús Ma González-Martín ◽  
Araceli Hernández-Betancor ◽  
Sara López ◽  

Abstract Objectives It has been hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 may play a role in the development of different forms of diabetes mellitus (DM). The Canary Islands have the highest incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM) reported in Spain (30–35/100,000 children under 14 years/year). In 2020–2021 we observed the highest incidence so far on the island of Gran Canaria, as a result of which we decided to evaluate the possible role of COVID-19 in the increased number of onsets. Methods We examined the presence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children with new onset T1DM between October 2020 and August 2021. We compared recent T1DM incidence with that of the previous 10 years. Results Forty-two patients were diagnosed with T1DM (48.1/100,000 patients/year), representing a nonsignificant 25.7% increase from the expected incidence. Of the 33 patients who consented to the study, 32 presented negative IgG values, with only one patient reflecting undiagnosed past infection. Forty-four percent of patients presented with ketoacidosis at onset, which was similar to previous years. Conclusions We conclude that there is no direct relationship between the increased incidence of T1DM and SARS-CoV-2 in the region. The COVID-19 pandemic did not result in an increased severity of T1DM presentation.

İsmail Dündar ◽  
Ayşehan Akıncı

Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and other comorbidities in overweight and obese children in Malatya, Turkey. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional study. We studied 860 obese and overweight children and adolescents (obese children Body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, overweight children BMI >85th percentile) aged between 6 and 18 years. The diagnosis of MetS, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and T2DM were defined according to modified the World Health Organization criteria adapted for children. Other comorbidities were studied. Results Subjects (n=860) consisted of 113 overweight and 747 obese children of whom 434 (50.5%) were girls. MetS was significantly more prevalent in obese than overweight children (43.8 vs. 2.7%, p<0.001), and in pubertal than prepubertal children (41.1 vs. 31.7%, p<0.001). Mean homeostasis model assessment for insulin ratio (HOMA-IR) was 3.6 ± 2.0 in the prepubertal and 4.9 ± 2.4 in pubertal children (p<0.001). All cases underwent oral glucose tolerance test and IGT, IFG, and T2DM were diagnosed in 124 (14.4%), 19 (2.2%), and 32 (3.7%) cases, respectively. Insulin resistance (IR) was present in 606 cases (70.5%). Conclusions Puberty and obesity are important risk factors for MetS, T2DM, and IR. The prevalence of MetS, T2DM, and other morbidities was high in the study cohort. Obese children and adolescents should be carefully screened for T2DM, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, dyslipidemia, hypertension, IGT, and IFG. The prevention, early recognition, and treatment of obesity are essential to avoid associated morbidities.

Veronica Alves de Menezes ◽  
Wesley Torres ◽  
Eduardo Duarte de Lima Mesquita ◽  
Lucas Gabriel de Moraes Chagas ◽  
Ana Elisa von Ah Morano ◽  

Abstract Objectives This study aimed to analyze the impact of sports participation (12 months of practice) on the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in both sexes. Methods This is an observational longitudinal study, a part of which is entitled “Analysis of Behaviors of Children During Growth” (ABCD Growth Study), Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample was composed of 171 adolescents (112 boys and 59 girls), divided into non-sports and sports groups. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, and glucose were analyzed by the colorimetric method of dry chemistry and processed biochemically. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured using an automatic device. Body fat was estimated using a densitometry scanner. Results Adolescents who practiced sports were younger (p-value=0.001) and had a lower peak height velocity (p-value=0.001) than the non-sports group. The differences (Δ) after 12 months were of greater magnitude for the sports group when compared to the non-sports group (p-value=0.013), glucose (moderate magnitude in favor of the sports group; p-value=0.001), HDL-c (small magnitude in favor of the sports group; p-value=0.0015), and MetS (moderate magnitude in favor of the sports group; p-value=0.001). Conclusions The practice of sports in adolescents had a protective effect on the metabolic components of MetS.

Lin Wang ◽  
Bin He ◽  
Qiujie Jin ◽  
Ruimiao Bai ◽  
Wenwen Yu ◽  

Abstract Objectives Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of phenylalanine metabolism. It is mainly caused by a deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and frequently diagnosed with Sanger sequencing. To some extent, allelic dropout can explain the inconsistency in genotype and phenotype. Methods Three families were evaluated through DNA sequence analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and prenatal diagnosis technologies. The possibility of inconsistency in phenotype and genotype with c.331C>T variant was analysed. Results Through pedigree analysis, three mothers carried a homozygous c.331C>T variant, which was a false-positive result. New primers were used, and this error was caused by allelic dropout. In this case, c.158G>A was likely a benign variant. Conclusions Sequence variants in primer-binding regions could cause allelic dropout, creating unpredictable errors in genotyping. Our results emphasised the need for careful measures to treat genotype–phenotype inconsistencies.

Sibtain Ahmed ◽  
Fizza Akbar ◽  
Amyna Jaffar Ali ◽  
Bushra Afroze

Abstract Objectives Evaluation of clinical, biochemical and molecular analysis of Pakistani patients with hepatic GSDs. Methods Medical charts, biochemical, histopathological and molecular results of patients with hepatic GSD were reviewed. Results Out of 55 GSD patients, 41 (74.5%) were males and 14 (25.5%) were females with consanguinity in 50 (91%) patients. The median age of initial symptoms, clinic diagnosis and molecular diagnosis were 450 (IQR: 270–960), 1,095 (IQR: 510–1,825) and 1717 (IQR: 796–3,011) days, respectively. Molecular analysis and enzyme activity was available for 33 (60%) and two patients, respectively. GSD III (n=9) was most prevalent followed by GSD Ib (n=7), GSD IXc (n=6), GSD VI (n=4), GSD Ia (n=3), GSD XI (n=3), GSD IXb (n=2) and GSD IXa (n=1). In patients (n=33) who underwent molecular analysis; 19 different variants in eight genes associated with GSD were identified. We also report five novel variants, two in SLC37A4, one in AGL and two in PYGL contributing to the diagnosis of GSD Ib, GSD III and GSD VI, respectively. Conclusions Fifty-five patients of GSDs in 26 families from a single care provider indicate a relatively high frequency of GSD in Pakistan, with multiple unrelated families harboring identical disease-causing variants, on molecular analysis, including two known pathogenic variants in SLC37A4 and PHKG2, and a novel variant in AGL.

Usiwoma O. Ataikiru ◽  
Emil R. Iacob ◽  
Ingrith Miron ◽  
Calin M. Popoiu ◽  
Eugen S. Boia

Abstract Objectives Malignant tumor is a top-ranking cause of pediatric (>1-year) mortality in America and Europe. Among pediatric tumors, germ cell tumors (GCT) and gonadal tumors rank fourth (6%) by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program ( Continuous research on tumor markers harnesses their full potential in tumor detection and management. We evaluated the effectiveness of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in Romanian children with (para)gonadal tumors and cysts, determining their accuracy in detecting malignancy, tumor-type, stage, complications, prognosis, and treatment response. Methods A 10-year retrospective study of AFP and β-hCG in 134 children with cysts and (para)gonadal tumors aged one month to 17 years was performed. Results AFP/β-hCG was unelevated in patients with cysts and nonmalignant tumors. Forty-eight/86 patients (43 GCT and 5 non-GCT) with malignant tumors had elevated AFP/β-hCG, 3/48 patients had recurrences, and 25/48 had mixed-GCT (68% had elevated AFP + β-hCG). All 30 patients with Yolk sac tumors (YST) or their components had elevated AFP. Area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity for GCT were: AFP + β-hCG- 0.828, 67.2%, 100%; AFP- 0.813, 64.1%, 100%; and β-hCG- 0.664, 32.8%, 100%. Two patients whose AFP/β-hCG levels remained elevated died. Common mixed-GCT components were YST-80% and embryonal carcinoma-72%. Thirty of 34 metastasis cases were GCT, with 26/34 patients having elevated AFP/β-hCG. Conclusions AFP/β-hCG detects malignant GCT and can determine tumor-type. GCT patients with markedly elevated AFP + β-hCG had poor prognosis, especially if recurrence or metastasis was present. Recurrence is unrelated to elevated AFP/β-hCG. The tumor components and quantity present determine AFP/β-hCG values in mixed-GCT.

Ian Marpuri ◽  
Esther Ra ◽  
Monica N. Naguib ◽  
Alaina P. Vidmar

Abstract Objectives Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, autonomic dysregulation, and neural endocrine tumor (ROHHAD-NET) syndrome is a youth-onset constellation of symptoms including rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation. Despite growing understanding of the clinical classification of this syndrome there is limited investigation into treatment of the rapid-onset obesity which can be progressive and life-limiting. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical timeline and treatment of severe obesity in a patient with of ROHHAD-NET and propose recommendations for the treatment of associated obesity. Case presentation We present the case of a 10-year-old female with a clinical presentation consistent with ROHHAD-NET who achieved clinically meaningful weight loss with a combination of lifestyle modification and anti-obesity pharmacotherapies. We report on the use of three separate pharmacological agents and ultimately the referral for bariatric surgery. Conclusions Given that early-onset obesity and hypoventilation are life-limiting components of this condition, early recognition and treatment are essential to improve health outcomes.

Yasemin Düzçeker ◽  
Melis Pehlivantürk-Kızılkan ◽  
Sinem Akgül ◽  
Rıza Köksal Özgül ◽  
Nuray Kanbur ◽  

Abstract Objectives Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat, AR (CAG)n, polymorphism is thought to have an effect on male reproductive functions and a relationship between long AR (CAG)n and decreased androgenic activity has been shown. Therefore, we hypothesized that in adolescents with long AR CAG repeat the prevalence of pubertal gynecomastia (PG) will be higher and we aimed to investigate the association between AR (CAG)n polymorphism and PG in Turkish adolescents. Methods Adolescents with PG between 11 and 19 years of age were enrolled as the study group and healthy individuals without a history of PG, who were at least 14 years of age and Tanner 4 or 5 were enrolled as the control group. The AR (CAG)n length was detected by direct DNA sequencing analysis and reproductive hormones were measured by standardized analyses. Results The mean AR (CAG)n was 22.3 ± 2.6 (mean ± SD) in the PG group (n=101) and 21.9 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD) in the control group (n=88) (p=0.276). The adolescents with short AR (CAG)n had lower body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) compared to the adolescents with intermediate and long repeat numbers (p=0.029). Conclusions The results of this study showed a lack of direct association between AR (CAG)n and PG. However, the significant relationship between the AR (CAG)n quartiles and BMI SDS suggests that long AR (CAG)n might cause PG indirectly. Further studies are needed to better clarify this relationship.

Noman Ahmad ◽  
Nabil Abdulrahman Aleysae ◽  
MrougeMohamed Sobaihi ◽  
NisreenAbdulaziz Naitah ◽  
Mohammed Amin Rasol ◽  

Abstract Objectives Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders, characterised by skeletal fragility. Patients with OI may also exhibit extra-skeletal features like blue or grey scleral colour, fragile skin, easy bruising, joint laxity, short stature, deafness, cardiac valve abnormalities and abnormal pulmonary function. The objective of this study is to describe genetic mutations, prevalence of hearing issues, cardiac complications and impaired pulmonary function in children with OI. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 23 Saudi children aged 6 months to 18 years who were diagnosed with OI. The revised Sillence classification (2,105) was used to classify the OI type. Whole exome sequencing was performed for genetic mutations. The hearing was assessed by either pure-tone audiometry and/or otoacoustic emission testing. Cardiac defects were screened by echocardiograms. Spirometry was performed to assess pulmonary function. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results Based on the Sillence classification, 16 patients had OI type III, 6 had type IV and 1 had type I. Of the18 patients who had genetic sequencing, 66.6% had autosomal dominant and 33.3% had autosomal recessive mutations. Among children who had screening, hearing loss was diagnosed in 53% (9/17), congenital cardiac malformations in 26% (5/19) and restrictive lung disease in 70% (7/10). Conclusions We found significant extra-skeletal features and a high yield of genetic mutations associated with OI. We suggest further studies to develop a screening protocol for extra-skeletal features in children with OI.

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