school based interventions
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Martina Kurz ◽  
Jenny Rosendahl ◽  
Johanna Rodeck ◽  
Julia Muehleck ◽  
Uwe Berger

AbstractBody ideals conveyed by the media and by body comparisons often result in body dissatisfaction, which can cause risky health behaviours and eating disorders, especially in adolescents. We conducted a meta-analytic review of existing school-based interventions designed to enhance media literacy in order to reduce body dissatisfaction and to promote a positive body image. We included controlled trials examining children and adolescents from grade five to nine (age 10–15 years) after a manual search and a comprehensive literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Web of Science, and CENTRAL. We computed average weighted effect sizes (Hedges’ g) with the help of a random effects model and identified seventeen different programme evaluations with 7392 participants. We found a significantly larger effect on positive body image and media literacy in the intervention compared to control groups. However, heterogeneity was substantial for both outcomes. Results suggest that media literacy interventions have the potential to improve media literacy and reduce body dissatisfaction. Interventions that worked with the principle of induction of cognitive dissonance were the most effective.

Sharea Ijaz ◽  
James Nobles ◽  
Laura Johnson ◽  
Theresa Moore ◽  
Jelena Savovic ◽  

Childhood obesity is a global public health concern. While evidence from a recent comprehensive Cochrane review indicates school-based interventions can prevent obesity, we still do not know how or for whom these work best. We aimed to identify the contextual and mechanistic factors associated with obesity prevention interventions implementable in primary schools. A realist synthesis following the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses–Evolving Standards (RAMESES) guidance was with eligible studies from the 2019 Cochrane review on interventions in primary schools. The initial programme theory was developed through expert consensus and stakeholder input and refined with data from included studies to produce a final programme theory including all of the context-mechanism-outcome configurations. We included 24 studies (71 documents) in our synthesis. We found that baseline standardised body mass index (BMIz) affects intervention mechanisms variably as a contextual factor. Girls, older children and those with higher parental education consistently benefitted more from school-based interventions. The key mechanisms associated with beneficial effect were sufficient intervention dose, environmental modification and the intervention components working together as a whole. Education alone was not associated with favourable outcomes. Future interventions should go beyond education and incorporate a sufficient dose to trigger change in BMIz. Contextual factors deserve consideration when commissioning interventions to avoid widening health inequalities.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1942602X2110594
Megan Roesler ◽  
Patricia Fato ◽  
Barbara Obst

School-age children are not immune to COVID-19 or the pronounced and persistent symptoms associated with a long-COVID diagnosis. Students may present with a variety of symptoms affecting their physical, cognitive, and mental health. The school community should be educated on the school-based interventions and recommendations for creating an individualized safe and successful return to school plan. As we await approval for vaccinations in school-age children younger than 12 years and continue to reposition ourselves to the waves of this pandemic and new variants of the virus, understanding the medical and educational long-term effects on our students may be a long-term need.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260278
Judith Kose ◽  
Cosima Lenz ◽  
Job Akuno ◽  
Fred Kiiru ◽  
Justine Jelagat Odionyi ◽  

Adolescents and youth living with HIV (AYLHIV) are a uniquely vulnerable population facing challenges around adherence, disclosure of HIV status and stigma. Providing school-based support for AYLHIV offers an opportunity to optimize their health and wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of school-based supportive interventions for AYLHIV in Kenya. From 2016–2019, with funding from ViiV Healthcare, the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation implemented the innovative Red Carpet Program (RCP) for AYLHIV in participating public healthcare facilities and boarding schools in Homa Bay and Turkana Counties in Kenya. In this analysis, we report the implementation of the school-based interventions for AYLHIV in schools, which included: a) capacity building for overall in-school HIV, stigma and sexual and reproductive health education; b) HIV care and treatment support; c) bi-directional linkages with healthcare facilities; and d) psychosocial support (PSS). Overall, 561 school staff and 476 school adolescent health advocates received training to facilitate supportive environments for AYLHIV and school-wide education on HIV, stigma, and sexual and reproductive health. All 87 boarding schools inter-linked to 66 regional healthcare facilities to support care and treatment of AYLHIV. Across all RCP schools, 546 AYLHIV had their HIV status disclosed to school staff and received supportive care within schools, including treatment literacy and adherence counselling, confidential storage and access to HIV medications. School-based interventions to optimize care and treatment support for AYLHIV are feasible and contribute to advancing sexual and reproductive health within schools.

2021 ◽  
pp. 585-595
Rachel Nelson ◽  
Kathleen Porter ◽  
Kelly Shomo ◽  
Sandra Curwood ◽  
Sarah Misyak

Objective: School-based interventions are common approaches to address childhood obesity; however, there is little understanding of strategies that can foster their implementation into schools. In this study, we aimed to identify goals and the specific strategies selected by school nutrition directors (SNDs) in Virginia to execute school-based interventions. Methods: Between 2018 and 2019, SNDs in Virginia participated in Team Nutrition workshops through which they created action plans. We carried out a content analysis of 132 action plans collected from 100 school divisions. We developed codes deductively and inductively. The codes captured plan completion, goals, and strategies. Each plan was independently coded by 2 coders. Results: Action plans included 1.2 goals (SD = 0.54) and 3.9 strategies per goal (SD = 2.1). Goals were most commonly related to improving menus or increasing participation in the school meal programs. The strategies varied based on the goals. However, obtaining buy-in from school personnel and students was the most commonly included goal (64.4%) across plans. The level of action plan completion decreased with each subsequent section of the worksheet. Conclusions: Emerging patterns identified in this study suggest SNDs’ strategy selection is based on goals and that trainings should be tailored to promote the development of skills required to execute optimal strategies.

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