cardiorespiratory fitness
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2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Abeer M. Mahmoud ◽  
Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves da Silva ◽  
Larissa Delgado André ◽  
Chueh-Lung Hwang ◽  
Richard Severin ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104876
Minghui Han ◽  
Ranran Qie ◽  
Xuezhong Shi ◽  
Yongli Yang ◽  
Jie Lu ◽  

ObjectiveCurrent evidence of the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality is limited. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the dose–response association of CRF with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in healthy population.MethodsPubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched up to 26 December 2019 for reports of cohort studies giving risk estimates for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality by level of CRF. Cohort studies were included if CRF was assessed by an exercise stress test and reported as at least three levels or per incremental increase, and the association of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality was evaluated. Generalised least-squares regression models were used to assess the quantitative relation of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality.Results34 cohort studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risks (RRs) for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality per one-metabolic equivalent increase in CRF were 0.88 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.93), 0.87 (95% CI0.83 to 0.91) and 0.93 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.96), respectively. As compared with lowest CRF, with intermediate CRF, the summary RRs for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality were 0.67 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.74), 0.60 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.69) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.84), respectively, and with highest CRF were 0.47 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.56), 0.49 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.56) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.70), respectively.ConclusionOur analysis showed inverse dose–response associations of CRF with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality, which provides evidence for public health recommendations for preventing all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42020208883.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aneta Aleksova ◽  
Milijana Janjusevic ◽  
Giulia Gagno ◽  
Alessandro Pierri ◽  
Laura Padoan ◽  

Heart failure (HF) still affects millions of people worldwide despite great advances in therapeutic approaches in the cardiovascular field. Remarkably, unlike pathological hypertrophy, exercise leads to beneficial cardiac hypertrophy characterized by normal or enhanced contractile function. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation improves cardiorespiratory fitness and, as a consequence, ameliorates the quality of life of patients with HF. Particularly, multiple studies demonstrated the improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among patients with HF due to the various processes in the myocardium triggered by exercise. Exercise stimulates IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway activation involved in muscle growth in both the myocardium and skeletal muscle by regulating protein synthesis and catabolism. Also, physical activity stimulates the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In addition, emerging data pointed out the anti-inflammatory effects of exercises as well. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for clinicians to accurately evaluate the patient’s condition by performing a cardiopulmonary exercise test and/or a 6-min walking test. Portable devices with the possibility to measure exercise capacity proved to be very useful in this setting as well. The aim of this review is to gather together the molecular processes triggered by the exercise and available therapies in HF settings that could ameliorate heart performance, with a special focus on strategies such as exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

Physiology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Michelle W. Voss ◽  
Shivangi Jain

Physical activity has shown tremendous promise for counteracting cognitive aging, but also tremendous variability in cognitive benefits. We describe evidence for how exercise affects cognitive and brain aging, and whether cardiorespiratory fitness is a key factor. We highlight a brain network framework as a valuable paradigm for the mechanistic insight needed to tailor physical activity for cognitive benefits.

2022 ◽  
Regina Oeschger ◽  
Lilian Roos ◽  
Thomas Wyss ◽  
Mark J Buller ◽  
Bertil J Veenstra ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction In military service, marching is an important, common, and physically demanding task. Minimizing dropouts, maintaining operational readiness during the march, and achieving a fast recovery are desirable because the soldiers have to be ready for duty, sometimes shortly after an exhausting task. The present field study investigated the influence of the soldiers’ cardiorespiratory fitness on physiological responses during a long-lasting and challenging 34 km march. Materials and Methods Heart rate (HR), body core temperature (BCT), total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, motivation, and pain sensation were investigated in 44 soldiers (20.3 ± 1.3 years, 178.5 ± 7.0 cm, 74.8 ± 9.8 kg, body mass index: 23.4 ± 2.7 kg × m−2, peak oxygen uptake ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak): 54.2 ± 7.9 mL × kg−1 × min−1) during almost 8 hours of marching. All soldiers were equipped with a portable electrocardiogram to record HR and an accelerometer on the hip, all swallowed a telemetry pill to record BCT, and all filled out a pre- and post-march questionnaire. The influence of aerobic capacity on the physiological responses during the march was examined by dividing the soldiers into three fitness groups according to their $\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak. Results The group with the lowest aerobic capacity ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak: 44.9 ± 4.8 mL × kg−1 × min−1) compared to the group with the highest aerobic capacity ($\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak: 61.7 ± 2.2 mL × kg−1 × min−1) showed a significantly higher (P < .05) mean HR (133 ± 9 bpm and 125 ± 8 bpm, respectively) as well as peak BCT (38.6 ± 0.3 and 38.4 ± 0.2 °C, respectively) during the march. In terms of recovery ability during the break, no significant differences could be identified between the three groups in either HR or BCT. The energy deficit during the march was remarkably high, as the soldiers could only replace 22%, 26%, and 36% of the total energy expenditure in the lower, middle, and higher fitness group, respectively. The cardiorespiratory fittest soldiers showed a significantly higher motivation to perform when compared to the least cardiorespiratory fit soldiers (P = .002; scale from 1 [not at all] to 10 [extremely]; scale difference of 2.3). A total of nine soldiers (16%) had to end marching early: four soldiers (21%) in the group with the lowest aerobic capacity, five (28%) in the middle group, and none in the highest group. Conclusion Soldiers with a high $\dot{\rm{V}}$O2peak showed a lower mean HR and peak BCT throughout the long-distance march, as well as higher performance motivation, no dropouts, and lower energy deficit. All soldiers showed an enormous energy deficit; therefore, corresponding nutritional strategies are recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jie Yang ◽  
Hu Tan ◽  
Mengjia Sun ◽  
Renzheng Chen ◽  
Jihang Zhang ◽  

Insufficient cardiorespiratory compensation is closely associated with acute hypoxic symptoms and high-altitude (HA) cardiovascular events. To avoid such adverse events, predicting HA cardiorespiratory fitness impairment (HA-CRFi) is clinically important. However, to date, there is insufficient information regarding the prediction of HA-CRFi. In this study, we aimed to formulate a protocol to predict individuals at risk of HA-CRFi. We recruited 246 volunteers who were transported to Lhasa (HA, 3,700 m) from Chengdu (the sea level [SL], <500 m) through an airplane. Physiological parameters at rest and during post-submaximal exercise, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness at HA and SL, were measured. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were employed to predict HA-CRFi. We analyzed 66 pulmonary vascular function and hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) related polymorphisms associated with HA-CRFi. To increase the prediction accuracy, we used a combination model including physiological parameters and genetic information to predict HA-CRFi. The oxygen saturation (SpO2) of post-submaximal exercise at SL and EPAS1 rs13419896-A and EGLN1 rs508618-G variants were associated with HA-CRFi (SpO2, area under the curve (AUC) = 0.736, cutoff = 95.5%, p < 0.001; EPAS1 A and EGLN1 G, odds ratio [OR] = 12.02, 95% CI = 4.84–29.85, p < 0.001). A combination model including the two risk factors—post-submaximal exercise SpO2 at SL of <95.5% and the presence of EPAS1 rs13419896-A and EGLN1 rs508618-G variants—was significantly more effective and accurate in predicting HA-CRFi (OR = 19.62, 95% CI = 6.42–59.94, p < 0.001). Our study employed a combination of genetic information and the physiological parameters of post-submaximal exercise at SL to predict HA-CRFi. Based on the optimized prediction model, our findings could identify individuals at a high risk of HA-CRFi in an early stage and reduce cardiovascular events.

2022 ◽  
pp. 2101821
Jenna McNeill ◽  
Ariel Chernofsky ◽  
Matthew Nayor ◽  
Farbod N. Rahaghi ◽  
Raul San Jose Estepar ◽  

IntroductionCardiorespiratory fitness is not limited by pulmonary mechanical reasons in the majority of adults. However, the degree to which lung function contributes to exercise response patterns among ostensibly healthy individuals remains unclear.MethodsWe examined 2314 Framingham Heart Study participants who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and pulmonary function testing. We investigated the association of FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and DLCO with the primary outcome of peak VO2, along with other CPET parameters using multivariable linear regression. Finally, we investigated the association of total and peripheral pulmonary blood vessel volume with peak VO2.ResultsWe found lower FEV1, FVC and DLCO were associated with lower peak VO2. For example, a one-liter lower FEV1 and FVC were associated with 7.1% (95% CI: 5.1%, 9.1%) and 6.0% (95% CI: 4.3%, 7.7%) lower peak VO2, respectively. By contrast, FEV1/FVC ratio was not associated with peak VO2. Lower lung function was associated with lower oxygen uptake efficiency slope oxygen pulse slope, VO2 at AT, VE at AT and breathing reserve. In addition, lower total and peripheral pulmonary blood vessel volume were associated with a lower peak VO2.ConclusionIn a large, community-based cohort of adults, we found lower FEV1, FVC and DLCO were associated with lower exercise capacity, as well as oxygen uptake efficiency slope and ventilatory efficiency. In addition, lower total and peripheral pulmonary blood vessel volume were associated with lower peak VO2. These findings underscore the importance of lung function and blood vessel volume as contributors to overall exercise capacity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Liangliang Xiang ◽  
Kaili Deng ◽  
Qichang Mei ◽  
Zixiang Gao ◽  
Tao Yang ◽  

Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) reflects aerobic capacity and is crucial for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity level. The purpose of this study was to classify and predict the population-based cardiorespiratory fitness based on anthropometric parameters, workload, and steady-state heart rate (HR) of the submaximal exercise test. Five hundred and seventeen participants were recruited into this study. This study initially classified aerobic capacity followed by VO2max predicted using an ordinary least squares regression model with measured VO2max from a submaximal cycle test as ground truth. Furthermore, we predicted VO2max in the age ranges 21–40 and above 40. For the support vector classification model, the test accuracy was 75%. The ordinary least squares regression model showed the coefficient of determination (R2) between measured and predicted VO2max was 0.83, mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were 3.12 and 4.24 ml/kg/min, respectively. R2 in the age 21–40 and above 40 groups were 0.85 and 0.75, respectively. In conclusion, this study provides a practical protocol for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness of an individual in large populations. An applicable submaximal test for population-based cohorts could evaluate physical activity levels and provide exercise recommendations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 277
Carolin Sack ◽  
Nina Ferrari ◽  
David Friesen ◽  
Fabiola Haas ◽  
Marlen Klaudius ◽  

Sarcopenic obesity is increasingly found in youth, but its health consequences remain unclear. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors as well as muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness using data from the German Children’s Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT III) programme. In addition to anthropometric data and blood pressure, muscle and fat mass were determined with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was classified via muscle-to-fat ratio. A fasting blood sample was taken, muscular fitness was determined using the standing long jump, and cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using bicycle ergometry. Of the 119 obese participants included in the analysis (47.1% female, mean age 12.2 years), 83 (69.7%) had sarcopenia. Affected individuals had higher gamma-glutamyl transferase, higher glutamate pyruvate transaminase, higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, higher diastolic blood pressure, and lower muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness (each p < 0.05) compared to participants who were ‘only’ obese. No differences were found in other parameters. In our study, sarcopenic obesity was associated with various disorders in children and adolescents. However, the clinical value must be tested with larger samples and reference populations to develop a unique definition and appropriate methods in terms of identification but also related preventive or therapeutic approaches.

Inhwan Lee ◽  
Jeonghyeon Kim ◽  
Hyunsik Kang

Background: The added value of non-exercise-based estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors for mortality risk has not been examined in Korean populations. Methods: This population-based prospective cohort study examined the relationship of the 10-year Framingham risk score (FRS) for CVD risk and eCRF with all-cause and CVD mortality in a representative sample of Korean adults aged 30 years and older. Data regarding a total of 38,350 participants (16,505 men/21,845 women) were obtained from the 2007–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). All-cause and CVD mortality were the main outcomes. The 10-year FRS point sum and eCRF level were the main exposures. Results: All-cause and CVD mortality was positively correlated with the 10-year FRS point summation and inversely correlated with eCRF level in this study population. The protective of high eCRF against all-cause and CVD mortality was more prominent in the middle and high FRS category than in the low FRS category. Notably, the FRS plus eCRF model has better predictor power for estimating mortality risk compared to the FRS only model. Conclusions: The current findings indicate that eCRF can be used as an alternative to objectively measured CRF for mortality risk prediction.

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