frequent exposure
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Sanjita Das ◽  
Shilpa Srivastava ◽  
Aprna Tripathi ◽  
Saumya Das

Concerns about the health effects of frequent exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from mobile towers and handsets have been raised because of the gradual increase in usage of cell phones and frequent setting up of mobile towers. Present study is targeted to detrimental effects of EMF radiation on various biological systems mainly due to online teaching and learning process by suppressing the immune system. During COVID-19 pandemic the increased usage of internet due to online education and online office leads to more detrimental effects of EMF radiation. Further inculcation of soft computing techniques in EMF radiation has been presented. A literature review focusing on the usage of soft computing techniques in the domain of EMF radiation has been presented in the article. An online survey has been conducted targeting Indian academic stakeholders’ (Specially Teachers, Students and Parents termed as population in paper) for analyzing the awareness towards the bio hazards of EMF exposure.

2022 ◽  
Elena Ancuța Zăvoianu ◽  
Ion-Ovidiu Pânișoară ◽  

Cyberbullying is a negative social phenomenon that takes place online. It consists of harassing technology users through various means and various platforms. Frequent exposure to this phenomenon can cause emotional, mental and social problems for victims, witnesses and aggressors. In the current pandemic context, when education has shifted to the online environment, and students spend a significant amount of time using different devices and online platforms, the number of cyberbullying cases is constantly increasing. There is currently little research describing how this phenomenon influenced online aggression. In preventing and eliminating this phenomenon, teachers play an important role, due to the time they spend with students and the impact they can have on them. In order to identify teachers' perceptions of this phenomenon during the pandemic and how they manage it in the classroom, we conducted a qualitative research on 10 teachers from primary and secondary schools. The results of the research were interesting and offered a new perspective on this phenomenon during Covid-19 crisis.

Cita Prakoeswa ◽  
Novianti Reza ◽  
Medhi Alinda ◽  
M. Listiawan ◽  
Hok Bing Thio ◽  

Children who live in leprosy-endemic areas are susceptible to infection due to early and frequent exposure to Mycobacterium leprae. Indonesia is on the verge of eliminating this disease (prevalence rate < 1/10,000 population), but pediatric leprosy continues to occur in low-endemic areas. This study aimed to evaluate pediatric leprosy over a decade in a tertiary hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. A retrospective study of leprosy in children under 15 years old between 2010 and 2019 was conducted in the Morbus Hansen Division, Outpatient Clinic at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. Seventy pediatric leprosy cases were identified between 2010 and 2019, consisting of 58 multibacillary (MB)-type cases and 12 paucibacillary (PB)-type cases. Slit skin smear (SSS) was positive in 26 cases. There were two cases of grade-2 disability and 15 cases of leprosy reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum) in children at the time of diagnosis. There was an insignificant decline in the number of pediatric leprosy cases in the last 10 years. Cases and disabilities in children were found in some leprosy pocket areas even though the national elimination rate has been achieved. MB infections, disability, and treatment defaults were common problems in pediatric leprosy.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262164
Anne Rivelli ◽  
Veronica Fitzpatrick ◽  
Christopher Blair ◽  
Kenneth Copeland ◽  
Jon Richards

Given the overwhelming worldwide rate of infection and the disappointing pace of vaccination, addressing reinfection is critical. Understanding reinfection, including longevity after natural infection, will allow us to better know the prospect of herd immunity, which hinges on the assumption that natural infection generates sufficient, protective immunity. The primary objective of this observational cohort study is to establish the incidence of reinfection of COVID-19 among healthcare employees who experienced a prior COVID-19 infection over a 10-month period. Of 2,625 participants who experienced at least one COVID-19 infection during the 10-month study period, 156 (5.94%) experienced reinfection and 540 (20.57%) experienced recurrence after prior infection. Median days were 126.50 (105.50–171.00) to reinfection and 31.50 (10.00–72.00) to recurrence. Incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection was 0.35 cases per 1,000 person-days, with participants working in COVID-clinical and clinical units experiencing 3.77 and 3.57 times, respectively, greater risk of reinfection relative to those working in non-clinical units. Incidence rate of COVID-19 recurrence was 1.47 cases per 1,000 person-days. This study supports the consensus that COVID-19 reinfection, defined as subsequent infection ≥ 90 days after prior infection, is rare, even among a sample of healthcare workers with frequent exposure.

2022 ◽  
pp. 516-542
Mateja Lorber ◽  
Sonja Treven ◽  
Damijan Mumel

The aim of this study was to examine the level of psychological health and job satisfaction and to find out which predictors have an impact on nurses' psychological health and job satisfaction. Six hundred forty nurses from surgery and internal medicine departments from Slovenian hospitals participated in the research. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS 25.0. With transformational leadership style, leaders' characteristics, leaders' emotional intelligence, leaders' communication skills, positive effectivity, and job satisfaction, one can explain 57% of nurses' psychological health. The results indicated that 85% of nurses had good psychological health. And also that more frequent exposure to stress and lack of stress management were associated with poor psychological health. The employees' psychological health does not affect only the individual, but also on the quality of care and on the effectiveness of hospitals. It is important to monitor employees' job satisfaction and take care for employees' health by providing a healthy work environment.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Eun-Deok Jo ◽  
Sang-Bae Lee ◽  
Chung-Min Kang ◽  
Kwang-Mahn Kim ◽  
Jae-Sung Kwon

Changes in intraoral pH can cause changes in the chemical decomposition and surface properties of treated resin-based pits and fissure sealants (sealant). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the release of bisphenol A (BPA) from sealants under three different pH conditions over time. The test specimen was applied with 6 sealants 5 mg each on a glass plate (10 × 10 mm) and photopolymerized. The samples were immersed for 10 min, 1 h, and 24 h in solutions of pH 3.0, 6.5, and 10.0 at 37 °C. BPA release was measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. A statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA and one-way ANOVA to verify the effect of pH conditions and time on BPA release. The BPA concentration in the pH 3.0 group was higher at all points than with pH 6.5 and pH 10.0 (p < 0.05), and gradually increased over time (p < 0.05). As a result, it was confirmed that low pH negatively influences BPA release. Therefore, frequent exposure to low pH due to the consumption of various beverages after sealant treatment can negatively affect the sealant’s chemical stability in the oral cavity.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107769902110635
Christian Schemer ◽  
Marc Ziegele ◽  
Tanjev Schultz ◽  
Oliver Quiring ◽  
Nikolaus Jackob ◽  

This study investigates how exposure to different news sources, propensity to vote (PTV) for a party and demographics are related to belief in conspiracy theories drawing on three repeated cross-sectional surveys in Germany 2017–2019. Results show that frequent exposure to alternative news sites and video-sharing platforms increased conspiratorial beliefs. Frequency of exposure to the quality press, public service TV news, and news aggregators diminished beliefs in conspiracy theories. Exposure to TV news, legacy media online, tabloids, social media, and user comments was unrelated to such beliefs. PTV for far left and right parties increased conspiratorial beliefs, moderate party preference reduced them.

Toxins ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 869
Alfonso Narváez ◽  
Luana Izzo ◽  
Noelia Pallarés ◽  
Luigi Castaldo ◽  
Yelko Rodríguez-Carrasco ◽  

The metabolic profile of T-2 toxin (T-2) and its modified form T-2-3-glucoside (T-2-3-Glc) remain unexplored in human samples. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of T-2, T-2-3-Glc and their respective major metabolites in human urine samples (n = 300) collected in South Italy through an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Q-Orbitrap-HRMS methodology. T-2 was quantified in 21% of samples at a mean concentration of 1.34 ng/mg Crea (range: 0.22–6.54 ng/mg Crea). Almost all the major T-2 metabolites previously characterized in vitro were tentatively found, remarking the occurrence of 3′-OH-T-2 (99.7%), T-2 triol (56%) and HT-2 (30%). Regarding T-2-3-Glc, a low prevalence of the parent mycotoxin (1%) and its metabolites were observed, with HT-2-3-Glc (17%) being the most prevalent compound, although hydroxylated products were also detected. Attending to the large number of testing positive for T-2 or its metabolites, this study found a frequent exposure in Italian population.

2021 ◽  
Laia Fibla ◽  
Jessica Elizabeth Kosie ◽  
Ruth Kircher ◽  
Casey Lew-Williams ◽  
Krista Byers-Heinlein

Many infants and children around the world grow up exposed to two or more languages. Their success in learning each of their languages is a direct consequence of the quantity and quality of their everyday language experience, including at home, in daycare and preschools, and in the broader community context. Here, we discuss how research on early language learning can inform policies that promote successful bilingual development across the varied contexts in which infants and children live and learn. Throughout our discussions, we highlight that each individual child’s experience is unique. In fact, it seems that there are as many ways to grow up bilingual as there are bilingual children. To promote successful bilingual development, we need policies that acknowledge this variability and support frequent exposure to high-quality experience in each of a child’s languages.

2021 ◽  
pp. 101230
Isabel Feitosa Maciel ◽  
Roseli Santos de Freitas-Xavier ◽  
Adriana Pardini Vicentini ◽  
Carlos Fernando Apoliano ◽  
Juliana Ruiz ◽  
Ifn Γ ◽  

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