Clonal Complex
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ida B. Christensen ◽  
Charlotte Vedel ◽  
Maja-Lisa Clausen ◽  
Søren Kjærulff ◽  
Tove Agner ◽  

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by an epidermal barrier impairment, as well as a Th2/Th22-skewed immune response, both favoring skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. Colonization is strongly related to severity of the disease, and a reduction of S. aureus has been found to alleviate symptoms. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids and bacteriocins and are widely used as probiotics. The aim of this study was to isolate LAB and screen for antibacterial effect specifically toward S. aureus clonal complex type 1. A total of 680 LAB were isolated from fermented vegetables and swab samples from healthy volunteers (vaginal, stool and skin). Screening for antibacterial activity toward S. aureus, narrowed the field of isolates down to four LAB strains with high antibacterial activity. The activity varied according to the specific LAB strain and the origin of the strain. The results suggested different modes of action, including co-aggregation, expression of bacteriocins and production of specific organic acids. However, the ability to acidify the surroundings appeared as the main effect behind inhibition of S. aureus. Broth microdilution assays showed a significant reduction of S. aureus growth when using down to 10% cell free supernatant (CFS). Our results underline the use of specific living LAB or their CFS as potential future treatment strategies to reduce S. aureus colonization of AD skin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (9) ◽  
pp. 195
Žanete Šteingolde ◽  
Irēna Meistere ◽  
Jeļena Avsejenko ◽  
Juris Ķibilds ◽  
Ieva Bergšpica ◽  

Listeria monocytogenes can cause disease in humans and in a wide range of animal species, especially in farm ruminants. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes related to 1185 cattle abortion cases in Latvia during 2013–2018. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes among cattle abortions was 16.1% (191/1185). The seasonality of L. monocytogenes abortions was observed with significantly higher occurrence (p < 0.01) in spring (March–May). In 61.0% of the cases, the affected cattle were under four years of age. L. monocytogenes abortions were observed during the third (64.6%) and second (33.3%) trimesters of gestation. Overall, 27 different sequence types (ST) were detected, and four of them, ST29 (clonal complex, CC29), ST37 (CC37), ST451 (CC11) and ST7 (CC7), covered more than half of the L. monocytogenes isolates. Key virulence factors like the prfA-dependent virulence cluster and inlA, inlB were observed in all the analyzed isolates, but lntA, inlF, inlJ, vip were associated with individual sequence types. Our results confirmed that L. monocytogenes is the most important causative agent of cattle abortions in Latvia and more than 20 different STs were observed in L. monocytogenes abortions in cattle.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1038
Khuliso Ramaite ◽  
Mutshiene Deogratias Ekwanzala ◽  
John Barr Dewar ◽  
Maggy Ndombo Benteke Momba

Background: Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) has mainly been reported in South African pig and chicken farms. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs), virulence factors (VFs), and multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) associated with HA-MRSA in cattle farms has not been reported. Consequently, this study characterised LA-MRSA and its spread from cattle farms into the environment. Method: Husbandry soil (HS), nearby river water (NRW), animal manure (AM) and animal drinking water (ADW) were collected on and around a cattle farm. Presumptive MRSA isolates were identified from these samples using CHROMagar media and genotyped as MRSA sequence types (STs), selected ARGs, and VFs, using polymerase chain reaction. An MLST-based dendrogram was generated to link the farm MRSA strains with those in a nearby river. Results: The prevalence of MRSA was 30.61% for HS, 28.57% for ADW, 22.44% for NRW, and 10.20% for AM. Isolates from HS harboured the highest number of resistant genes, with 100% for mecA, 91.66% for ermA, and 58.33% for blaZ. However, no ermC or tetM genes were detected. MRSA isolates from AM harboured the lowest number of resistant genes. Only sec and seq enterotoxins were found in all the assessed MRSA isolates. MRSA from the farm revealed six STs (ST80, ST728, ST1931, ST2030, ST3247, and ST5440); all of STs belonged to clonal complex 80 (CC80). An MLST-based dendrogram based on the concatenated sequences of MLST genes under the maximum likelihood criterion revealed four clades of amalgamated MRSA isolates from various livestock environmental matrices, including the NRW. Conclusion: The results suggest that livestock environmental matrices might be reservoirs of MRSA that could subsequently disseminate through runoff to pollute water resources. Therefore, continued surveillance of HA-MRSA in livestock environments is warranted.

2021 ◽  
Steffimol Rose ◽  
Varun Shamanna ◽  
Anthony Underwood ◽  
Geetha Nagaraj ◽  
Akshatha Prasanna ◽  

Objectives: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has acquired worldwide recognition as a serious nosocomial infection. It poses a concern to hospitalized patients because of the limited therapeutic options available. Thus, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance profiles of A. baumannii isolates in India. Materials and Methods: We characterized 306 retrospective A. baumannii clinical isolates collected from 18 centers across 10 states and 1 Union Territory of India between 2015 and 2019. Molecular epidemiology, and carbapenem resistance were studied by Whole Genome Sequencing. Results: A total of 105 different Sequence Types (STs) were identified including 48 reported STs and 57 Novel STs. 99 isolates were classified into Clonal Complex 451 (CC451) among which ST848 and ST1956 were the common STs. Carbapenemase resistance was confirmed in all the isolates with the presence of intrinsic bla OXA -51-like genes, and the acquired bla OXA-23 and bla NDM-1 genes. Conclusion: Most of the isolates were grouped under clonal complex 451. ST1053 caused an outbreak in Northern India during 2018 and 2019. Novel MLST alleles and STs were also detected, underlining an evolutionary divergence in India. The carbapenem-resistance was dominated by OXA-type carbapenemases and further surveillance of these carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and antimicrobial stewardship should be strengthened.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 854
Alice Wegener ◽  
Els M. Broens ◽  
Linda van der Graaf-van Bloois ◽  
Aldert L. Zomer ◽  
Caroline E. Visser ◽  

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important pathogen in dogs that occasionally causes infections in humans as an opportunistic pathogen of elderly and immunocompromised people. This study compared the genomic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance genes using genome-wide association study (GWAS) to examine host association of canine and human S. pseudintermedius isolates. Canine (n = 25) and human (n = 32) methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) isolates showed a high level of genetic diversity with an overrepresentation of clonal complex CC241 in human isolates. This clonal complex was associated with carriage of a plasmid containing a bacteriocin with cytotoxic properties, a CRISPR-cas domain and a pRE25-like mobile element containing five antimicrobial resistance genes. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was predicted in 13 (41%) of human isolates and 14 (56%) of canine isolates. CC241 represented 54% of predicted MDR isolates from humans and 21% of predicted MDR canine isolates. While it had previously been suggested that certain host-specific genes were present the current GWAS analysis did not identify any genes that were significantly associated with human or canine isolates. In conclusion, this is the first genomic study showing that MSSP is genetically diverse in both hosts and that multidrug resistance is important in dog and human-associated S. pseudintermedius isolates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
pp. 99
Jinxiang Wang ◽  
S. Sun ◽  
Y. Chen ◽  
D. Chen ◽  
L. Sang ◽  

<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is a well-known pathogen that infects humans and animals. However, information on the fatal respiratory infection in rabbits caused by<em> S. aureus</em> is still limited. In the present study, a <em>S. aureus</em> isolate designated ND01 was recovered from lung samples of rabbits that died of fatal respiratory infection, and the ND01 was characterised by intranasal infection of rabbits, multi-locus sequencing typing, screening virulence genes and testing antimicrobial susceptibility. Clinical signs of matted forepaws and pathological lesions of haemorrhagic tracheitis and necrotising haemorrhagic pneumonia were observed in the ND01 infected rabbits, which were identical to those of naturally infected ones. The sequence type of the ND01 was defined as ST3320 and the ND01 was further grouped into the clonal complex 398. Notably, the ND01 was <em>pvl-positive</em> <em>S. aureus</em> and carried the human-associated scn gene. Moreover, the ND01 was methicillin-susceptible <em>S. aureus</em> and was susceptible to 6 of 10 tested antibiotics. This study described the characteristics of the ND01 causing fatal respiratory infection in rabbits. The results are helpful to further the understanding of the pathogenicity of S. aureus ST3320 clone in rabbits. The results also highlighted that operators must be on the alert for the colonisation of <em>pvl-positive</em> <em>S. aureus</em> in rabbits and potential transmission events between rabbits and humans.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 1296
Chun-Ya Kang ◽  
Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang ◽  
Chi-Chun Lai ◽  
Wei-Che Lo ◽  
Kun-Jen Chen ◽  

Nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonies are an essential reservoir of infection, especially for patients with diabetes. However, data on MRSA colonization in patients with type 1 diabetes are limited. We investigated the epidemiology of MRSA colonization in patients with type 1 diabetes. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical center (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital) in Taiwan from 1 July to 31 December 2020. Nasal sampling and MRSA detection were performed. The molecular characteristics of MRSA isolates were tested, and factors associated with MRSA colonization were analyzed. We included 245 patients with type 1 diabetes; nasal MRSA colonization was identified in 13 (5.3%) patients. All isolates belonged to community-associated MRSA genetic strains; the most frequent strain was clonal complex 45 (53.8%), followed by ST59 (30.8%) (a local community strain). MRSA colonization was positively associated with age ≤ 10 years, body mass index < 18 kg/m2, and diabetes duration < 10 years; moreover, it was negatively associated with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dL. No independent factor was reported. The nasal MRSA colonization rate in type 1 diabetes is approximately 5% in Taiwan. Most of these colonizing strains are community strains, namely clonal complex 45 and ST59.

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