Positive Correlation
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (5) ◽  
pp. 39-47
Dongwook Kim ◽  
Ji Eun Kim ◽  
Cho-Rok Jang ◽  
Moon-Yup Jang

The rising heatwave occurrences in recent times due to climate change have resulted in increased mortalities and socio-economic damage. Consequently, several studies have been conducted to examine heatwave vulnerability in Korea. However, most of these studies used the IPCC vulnerability framework and weighting techniques, such as the equal weight and AHP methods, which lacked objectivity in the process of calculating vulnerability. This study employed socio-economic data to measure the heatwave vulnerability index for individual local governments in Korea using the principal component analysis and entropy weighting methods. These techniques ensure that the aggregation of proxies and the weighting process remain objective, unlike previous studies. According to the obtained results, rural areas such as Jeollanam-do, Jeollabuk-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Gyeongsangbuk-do, and relatively decrepit urban areas demonstrated high vulnerability scores. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the calculated vulnerability index and mortalities from the recent heatwaves. The heatwave vulnerability index developed in this study can therefore be used to form effective heatwave response policies suited to the conditions of each local government.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hafiz Ibtesam Ahmad ◽  
Muhammad Faisal Nadeem ◽  
Haji Muhammad Shoaib Khan ◽  
Muhammad Sarfraz ◽  
Hammad Saleem ◽  

Sphaeranthus indicus L. is a medicinal herb having widespread traditional uses for treating common ailments. The present research work aims to explore the in-depth phytochemical composition and in vitro reactivity of six different polarity solvents (methanol, n-hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) extracts/fractions of S. indicus flowers. The phytochemical composition was accomplished by determining total bioactive contents, HPLC-PDA polyphenolic quantification, and UHPLC-MS secondary metabolomics. The reactivity of the phenolic compounds was tested through the following biochemical assays: antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelation) and enzyme inhibition (AChE, BChE, α-glucosidase, α-amylase, urease, and tyrosinase) assays were performed. The methanol extract showed the highest values for phenolic (94.07 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (78.7 mg QE/g extract) contents and was also the most active for α-glucosidase inhibition as well as radical scavenging and reducing power potential. HPLC-PDA analysis quantified rutin, naringenin, chlorogenic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, and epicatechin in a significant amount. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts revealed the presence of well-known phytocompounds; most of these were phenolic, flavonoid, and glycoside derivatives. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest inhibition against tyrosinase and urease, while the n-hexane fraction was most active for α-amylase. Moreover, principal component analysis highlighted the positive correlation between bioactive compounds and the tested extracts. Overall, S. indicus flower extracts were found to contain important phytochemicals, hence could be further explored to discover novel bioactive compounds that could be a valid starting point for future pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Chengyan Li ◽  
Shenglong Jian ◽  
Shiyu Miao ◽  
Kemao Li ◽  

Previous studies report significant changes on biotic communities caused by cascade reservoir construction. However, factors regulating the spatial–temporal plankton patterns in alpine cascade reservoir systems have not been fully explored. The current study explored effects of environmental factors on the longitudinal plankton patterns, through a 5-year-long study on the environmental factors and communities of phytoplankton and zooplankton in an alpine cascade reservoir system located upstream of Yellow River region. The findings showed that phytoplankton and zooplankton species numbers in the studied cascade reservoir system were mainly regulated by the hydrological regime, whereas nutrient conditions did not significantly affect the number of species. Abundance and biovolume of phytoplankton in cascade reservoirs were modulated by the hydrological regime and nutrient conditions. The drainage rate, N:P ratio, and sediment content in cascade reservoirs were negatively correlated with abundance and biovolume of phytoplankton. Abundance and biovolume of zooplankton were not significantly correlated with the hydrological regime but showed a strong positive correlation with nutrient conditions in cascade reservoirs. Shannon–Wiener index (H’) and the Pielou index (J) of phytoplankton were mainly regulated by the hydrological regime factors, such as drainage rate and sediment content in cascade reservoirs. However, temperature and nutrient conditions were the main factors that regulated the Shannon–Wiener index (H’) and the Pielou index (J) of zooplankton. Species number, abundance, and biovolume of phytoplankton showed a significant positive correlation with those of zooplankton. Hydrodynamics and nutrient conditions contributed differently in regulating community structure of phytoplankton or zooplankton. These findings provide an understanding of factors that modulate longitudinal plankton community patterns in cascade reservoir systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Fei Liu ◽  
Xiaopeng Yu ◽  
Guijin He

Background. We analyzed the n6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification patterns of immune cells infiltrating the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer (BC) to provide a new perspective for the early diagnosis and treatment of BC. Methods. Based on 23 m6A regulatory factors, we identified m6A-related gene characteristics and m6A modification patterns in BC through unsupervised cluster analysis. To examine the differences in biological processes among various m6A modification modes, we performed genomic variation analysis. We then quantified the relative infiltration levels of different immune cell subpopulations in the tumor microenvironment of BC using the CIBERSORT algorithm and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis. Univariate Cox analysis was used to screen for m6A characteristic genes related to prognosis. Finally, we evaluated the m6A modification pattern of patients with a single BC by constructing the m6Ascore based on principal component analysis. Results. We identified three different m6A modification patterns in 2128 BC samples. A higher abundance of the immune infiltration of the m6Acluster C was indicated by the results of CIBERSORT and the single-sample gene set enrichment analysis. Based on the m6A characteristic genes obtained through screening, the m6Ascore was determined. The BC patients were segregated into m6Ascore groups of low and high categories, which revealed significant survival benefits among patients with low m6Ascores. Additionally, the high-m6Ascore group had a higher mutation frequency and was associated with low PD-L1 expression, and the m6Ascore and tumor mutation burden showed a positive correlation. In addition, treatment effects were better in patients in the high-m6Ascore group. Conclusions. In case of a single patient with BC, the immune cell infiltration characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and the m6A methylation modification pattern could be evaluated using the m6Ascore. Our results provide a foundation for improving personalized immunotherapy of BC.

2021 ◽  
Qiang Wang ◽  
Feng Xu ◽  
Wen-Ming M. He ◽  
Jiong Chen ◽  
Yan-Qing Xie ◽  

Abstract BackgroundPrevious studies have shown that leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), a hepatokine, is associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well known that hepatokines play important roles in mediating interactions among bone, adipose tissue, and liver. We sought to examine serum LECT2 levels in subjects with osteoporosis (OP) to confirm its association with OP.MethodsFrom March 2019 to March 2020, a total of 96 adult subjects (52 OP patients and 44 controls) visiting the 2nd Spine Department of the Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine of Ningbo University were recruited. The bone mineral density (BMD) of all subjects were assessed by dual-energy X-ray (DXA). Blood samples were collected for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasma glucose (PG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), creatinine and uric acid. Serum LECT2 levels of total 96 participants were measured by enzyme linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). The relationships between serum LECT2 levels and biomedical parameters were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient.ResultsSerum LECT2 levels in OP patients were significantly higher than that of healthy controls (29.57 ng/mL VS 19.82 ng/mL, P < 0.01). To confirm the role LECT2 played in OP, we found a significantly negative correlation in all subjects between serum levels of LECT2 and lumbar BMD, as well as femoralneck BMD. A significantly positive correlation in all was observed between serum levels of LECT2 and TC, whereas there was a significantly negative correlation between serum levels of LECT2 and creatinine. Meanwhile, serum LECT2 levels were measured to diagnose OP patient by plotting receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the area under the ROC curve was 0.729(P < 0.01). The optimal cutoff point for LECT2 concentration to diagnose OP patient was 16.44 ng/mL.ConclusionsWe showed that serum LECT2 levels were significantly up-regulated in OP patients, and LECT2 levels were significant positively associated with total cholesterol and negatively associated with creatinine. It could be a potential biomarker for OP diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 57-81
Isaac Eremugo ◽  
John Micheal Maxel Okoche

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system components on the performance of National Non-Governmental Organizations (NNGOs) in Uganda: A case of Global Aim Uganda. The study focused on the i) influence of organizational structure on the performance of Global Aim Uganda (GAU), ii) influence of routine M&E on the performance of GAU and the influence of utilization of M&E information on the performance of GAU. Methodology: The study used a cross sectional study design employing both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The population of the study consisted of the staff of Global Aim Uganda, implementing partners and project beneficiaries to which stratified random sampling was applied. 164 respondents (100% response rate) were reached for the survey and 15 respondents out of 17 (88.23% response rate) were reached for interviews. Qualitative data were collected using interview guides analyzed using content analysis and presented as text in normative form. Quantitative data was collected using researcher administered questionnaires. Responses were rated on a 5-Likert scale and were coded, cleaned and analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistic using SPSS software (version 20.0) presented in tables. Findings: Correlational analysis showed a significant and positive correlation between performance of Global Aim Uganda and organizational structure (r=.244**, p=.002, <0.05), routine M&E (r=.403**, p=.000, <0.01) and utilization of M&E information (r=.526**, p=.000, <0.01). Results from regression analysis revealed a non-significant and negative influence of organizational structure (β= -.013, p=.873, >0.05) on performance. While, there is a positive and significant influence of routine M&E (β=.199, p=.001, <0.05) and utilization of M&E information (β=.327, p=.000, <0.05) on the performance. The coefficient of determination (r2) between predictor variables and performance of Global Aim Uganda is 0.322 (32.2%). Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: There is need to strengthen the M&E system components. These can be done through improved internal reporting, broadening the functions of the M&E unit, incorporating aspects of M&E in staff roles and responsibilities, conducting project specific baseline surveys, starting to conduct project evaluations and increasing the utilization of M&E information in decision making. Further study should focus on the M&E capacity of the organization.

Iman Mohamed Hamdy Ibrahim ◽  
Ahlam Ahmed Hussein Alaqel ◽  
Nehal El Ghobashy ◽  
Adel Ibrahim Azzam ◽  
Mohammed Raafat Abd El-Mageed

Abstract Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder primarily involving the sacroiliac joints and spine. It is associated with both articular and extra-articular clinical manifestations. Pulmonary involvement is a well-recognized comorbidity of AS, even among patients with early disease. The availability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has enabled better visualization of the entire lung parenchyma and earlier identification of lung pathologies, ranging from mild to more severe involvement, which were previously missed on X-rays. The aim of the study is to establish the role of HRCT in the detection of pleuro-parenchymal manifestations of AS and to look for correlations between these findings and AS activity. Results Lung CT scans were done for all our patients and 27 patients (90%) had positive HRCT thoracic findings, while the remaining 3 patients (10%) had a normal HRCT thoracic study. Lower lobe fibrotic changes were the most common finding seen in 20 patients (66.7%) followed by bronchial wall thickening in 13 patients (43.3%) and upper and lower fibrotic changes seen in 9 patients (30%). HRCT thoracic findings were more prominent in late AS (disease duration ≥ 10 years) (13 of 13 patients); while 14 of 17 patients with early AS (disease duration < 10 years) had mildly abnormal HRCT findings. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was negative correlation between thoracic findings and disease activity assessed by BASDAI and this correlation was insignificant (p value = 0.5). Conclusion HRCT offers an accurate and safe method of assessment of lung disease in patients with AS and without respiratory symptoms. Although there was no correlation between pulmonary findings and AS activity assessed by BASDAI, a positive correlation, albeit insignificant, between pulmonary involvement and disease duration had been found.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Shun Zhang ◽  
Junhui Wan ◽  
Minjie Chen ◽  
Desheng Cai ◽  
Junlan Xu ◽  

Tumor-infiltrating immune cells, associated with tumor progression, are promising prognostic biomarkers. However, the relationship between levels of gene expression and that of immune cell infiltration in cervical cancer prognosis is unknown. In this study, three cervical cancer gene expression microarrays (GSE6791, GSE63678 and GSE55940) were obtained from the GEO database. The IDO1 gene was identified by differentially expressed gene screening. The gene expression profiles of TCGA and GTEx databases along with comprehensive bioinformatics analysis identified that the IDO1 gene was upregulated in cervical cancer with significant difference in expression at different N stages. In addition, it was also upregulated in HPV16 positive sample. The pan-cancer analysis identified that IDO1 was highly expressed in most cancers. TIMER analysis revealed that the expression of IDO1 in CESC shows positive correlation with CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells. IDO1 expression showed remarkable positive correlation with all immune cell markers except M1 macrophages. CD8+ T cell infiltration GSEA results showed that IDO1 was mainly associated with tumor immune-related signaling pathways.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Feiyun Chen ◽  
Zichen Chen ◽  
Yuzhong Zhang ◽  
Xinyu Wei ◽  
Huandi Zhao ◽  

Background: The Head Impulse Paradigm (HIMP) and Suppression Head Impulse Paradigm (SHIMP) are objective, quantitative methods that directly test the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and are increasingly becoming a standard in evaluating patients with vestibular disorders.Objective: The main objective was to assess the correlations between HIMP and SHIMP parameters in patients with superior vestibular neuritis (VN) and healthy participants. Additionally, the correlations between the parameters of each method were analyzed.Methods: A retrospective cohort, non-randomized study was designed. HIMP and SHIMP were performed on 40 patients with VN and 20 healthy participants (40 ears). HIMP and SHIMP parameters were measured and calculated. Pearson's or Spearson's correlations were used to establish the associations among them.Results: A strong positive correlation was found between HIMP and SHIMP gain (Pearson's r = 0.957, p = 0.000), while strong negative correlations were detected between HIMP and SHIMP saccade amplitudes (r = −0.637, p = 0.000) and percentages of overt saccades (r = −0.631, p = 0.000). In HIMP, strong and moderate positive correlations were identified between gain and saccade amplitude (R2 = 0.726, p = 0.000) and gain and saccade percentage (R2 = 0.558, p = 0.000), respectively. By contrast, an extremely weak positive correlation was observed between gain and latency (R2 = 0.053, p = 0.040). In SHIMP, strong and moderate positive correlations were found between gain and saccade percentage (R2 = 0.723, p = 0.000) and gain and saccade amplitude (R2 = 0.525, p = 0.000), respectively, but no correlation was detected between gain and latency (R2 = 0.006, p = 0.490).Conclusions: HIMP and SHIMP-related parameters were highly correlated (inter-method). Within each method (intra-method), moderate to strong correlations in VOR assessment were observed. These results further contribute to our understanding of the relationship between HIMP and SHIMP as well as to the diagnosis.

Mona Al-Ahmad ◽  
Edin Jusufovic ◽  
Nermina Arifhodzic ◽  
Tito Rodriguez-Bouza

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> There is limited knowledge on the sensitization patterns to peanut proteins and food allergy in the Middle East. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between sensitization patterns to peanut proteins and clinical symptoms in a group of patients with physician-diagnosed peanut allergy (PA) in Kuwait. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> PA patients were evaluated by the skin prick test (SPT), serum total IgE, peanut-specific IgE (sIgE), and sIgE against Ara h 1–3, 8, and 9, and clinical data were collected. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Sixty-nine patients were included. A positive correlation between peanut SPT and sIgE was detected for all 3 storage proteins (Ara h 1–3) in patients &#x3c;6 years old and for Ara h 1 and 2 in older patients. ROC analysis of positive correlations showed that oral food challenge should be considered for definite diagnosis of PA only if the level of Ara h 2 is &#x3c;22.25 KUA/L, with level of Ara h 2 ≥15.4 allowing the detection of systemic reactions with a sensitivity of 55.56%. Patients presenting with systemic reactions more frequently had positive Ara h 1 (88.9%) and Ara h 2 (83.3%), compared with 44.1% and 52.9% in those with local reaction (<i>p</i> = 0.0046 and <i>p</i> = 0.0378). The levels of Ara h 1 and 2 were also significantly higher in patients with systemic reactions compared to those with a local reaction, with those differences being especially relevant for Ara h 2 (15.9 vs. 0.4) (<i>p</i> = 0.0005). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The pattern of sensitization to peanut proteins in the Middle East is similar to that of the Western world. Measurement of sIgE antibodies to Ara h 1, 2, and 3 is useful in the diagnosis of PA and in the investigation of reactions to raw and roasted peanuts.

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