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2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

The study aimed to develop recommendations for the optimization of settings in which the crowdsourcing project takes place. Findings show that crowdfunding projects are hybrid and include the elements of crowdsourcing, crowdsensing, crowdfunding, crowdworking, and crowdsourced recruitment. The predominant role of security guarantees was identified. It turned out that relations irreducible to a simple hierarchy pose many challenges. The results indicate that leading issues include the lack of financial guarantees and the likelihood of information leakage to competitors. Hence, the priority is to manage the exchange of money and information. An interesting finding demonstrates a positive correlation between project success, ethical conduct, and fair distribution of gains. The protection of intellectual property rights was no less important. As it was concluded in the course of analysis, the more successful the project, the more thoroughly it addresses the protection of someone else's intellectual property.


2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Zhijiang Liu ◽  
Tatyana Sakulyeva ◽  
Alexey Mikheev ◽  
Diana Stepanova

The study aimed to develop recommendations for the optimization of settings in which the crowdsourcing project takes place. Findings show that crowdfunding projects are hybrid and include the elements of crowdsourcing, crowdsensing, crowdfunding, crowdworking, and crowdsourced recruitment. The predominant role of security guarantees was identified. It turned out that relations irreducible to a simple hierarchy pose many challenges. The results indicate that leading issues include the lack of financial guarantees and the likelihood of information leakage to competitors. Hence, the priority is to manage the exchange of money and information. An interesting finding demonstrates a positive correlation between project success, ethical conduct, and fair distribution of gains. The protection of intellectual property rights was no less important. As it was concluded in the course of analysis, the more successful the project, the more thoroughly it addresses the protection of someone else's intellectual property.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 926-932
Author(s):  
Xin Guan ◽  
Ning Sun

High expression of E74-like factor 3 (ELF3) has been reported in type 1 endometrial cancer (EC). Bioinformatics analysis predicted a positive correlation with ELF3 and mucin 1 (MUC1)/hypoxiainducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a previously identified cancer-promoting pathway. This study focused on the MUC1/HIF-1α-involved action mechanism of ELF3 in EC. ELF3 expression in EC cell lines was measured by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Following the expression of ELF3 was silent, cell proliferation was examined using CCK-8 and colony formation assay, cell migration and invasion were observed using wound healing and transwell assays. The effect of ELF1 silencing on MUC1/HIF-1α expression was detected by western blot. Rescue experiments incorporating pcDNA3.1(+)/MUC1 explored the interaction between ELF3 and MUC1/HIF-1α in EC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. ELF3 was found to be expressed at a high level in EC cell lines, and the silencing of it effectively inhibited EC cell proliferation. Moreover, ELF silencing also inhibited the migration and invasion of EC cells. Consistent with the database prediction, a positive correlation between ELF3 and MUC1/HIF-1α was observed. More importantly, MUC1 overexpression abated the promotive effect of ELF3 silencing on EC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. ELF3 promotes EC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by regulating MUC1/HIF-1α pathway. Thus, ELF3 as well as MUC1/HIF-1α pathway may be particle targets in the treatment of EC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 304-307
Author(s):  
Jayshri Sadashiv Jankar

Serum ferritin, an acute phase reactant, is an indicator of the body's iron reserves. Increased body iron reserves and subclinical hemochromatosis have been linked to the development of hyperglycaemia, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and potentially diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and vascular dysfunction, according to recent research. The objective of this study was to see if there was a link between Serum Ferritin and Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, as well as to see if there was a link between S. ferritin and HbA1c.The present study included 50 diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus (males: 32, females: 18) and 50 healthy controls of same age (males: 28, females: 22). Serum ferritin levels, glycated hemoglobin were measured and compared. : When diabetic patients were compared to controls, serum ferritin was considerably greater, and serum ferritin had a positive correlation with the duration of diabetes and glycated hemoglobin. Positive correlation was found between serum ferritin levels and glycated hemoglobin and duration of disease.


Author(s):  
Juliusz Huber ◽  
Katarzyna Kaczmarek ◽  
Katarzyna Leszczyńska ◽  
Przemysław Daroszewski

The aim of this study was to determine the sustained influence of personalized neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (NMFES) combined with kinesiotherapy (mainly, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)) on the activity of muscle motor units acting antagonistically at the wrist and the ankle in a large population of post-stroke patients. Clinical evaluations of spasticity (Ashworth scale), manual muscle testing (Lovett scale), and surface electromyography recordings at rest (rEMG) and during attempts of maximal muscle contraction (mcEMG) were performed three times in 120 post-stroke patients (T0: up to 7 days after the incidence; T1: after 21 days of treatment; T2: after 60 days of treatment). Patients (N = 120) were divided into two subgroups—60 patients received personalized NMFES and PNF treatment (NMFES+K), and the other 60 received only PNF (K). The NMFES+K therapy resulted in a decrease in spasticity and an increase in muscle strength of mainly flexor muscles, in comparison with the K group. A positive correlation between the increase of rEMG amplitudes and high Ashworth scale scores and a positive correlation between low amplitudes of mcEMG and low Lovett scale scores were found in the wrist flexors and calf muscles on the paretic side. Negative correlations were found between the rEMG and mcEMG amplitudes in the recordings. The five-grade alternate activity score of the antagonists’ actions improved in the NMFES+K group. These improvements in the results of controlled NMFES treatment combined with PNF in patients having experienced an ischemic stroke, in comparison to the use of kinesiotherapy alone, might justify the application of conjoined rehabilitation procedures based on neurophysiological approaches. Considering the results of clinical and neurophysiological studies, we suppose that NMFES of the antagonistic muscle groups acting at the wrist and the ankle may evoke its positive effects in post-stroke patients by the modulation of the activity more in the spinal motor centers, including the level of Ia inhibitory neurons, than only at the muscular level.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Pei Wang ◽  
Jianping Dai ◽  
Luyun Luo ◽  
Yong Liu ◽  
Decai Jin ◽  
...  

The variation of phyllosphere bacterial and fungal communities along elevation gradients may provide a potential link with temperature, which corresponds to an elevation over short geographic distances. At the same time, the plant growth stage is also an important factor affecting phyllosphere microorganisms. Understanding microbiological diversity over changes in elevation and among plant growth stages is important for developing crop growth ecological theories. Thus, we investigated variations in the composition of the rice phyllosphere bacterial and fungal communities at five sites along an elevation gradient from 580 to 980 m above sea level (asl) in the Ziquejie Mountain at the seedling, heading, and mature stages, using high-throughput Illumina sequencing methods. The results revealed that the dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, and the dominant fungal phyla were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, which varied significantly at different elevation sites and growth stages. Elevation had a greater effect on the α diversity of phyllosphere bacteria than on that phyllosphere fungi. Meanwhile, the growth stage had a great effect on the α diversity of both phyllosphere bacteria and fungi. Our results also showed that the composition of bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly along elevation within the different growth stages, in terms of both changes in the relative abundance of species, and that the variations in bacterial and fungal composition were well correlated with variations in the average elevation. A total of 18 bacterial and 24 fungal genera were significantly correlated with elevational gradient, displaying large differences at the various growth stages. Soluble protein (SP) shared a strong positive correlation with bacterial and fungal communities (p < 0.05) and had a strong significant negative correlation with Serratia, Passalora, unclassified_Trichosphaeriales, and antioxidant enzymes (R > 0.5, p < 0.05), and significant positive correlation with the fungal genera Xylaria, Gibberella, and Penicillium (R > 0.5, p < 0.05). Therefore, it suggests that elevation and growth stage might alter both the diversity and abundance of phyllosphere bacterial and fungal populations.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiangli Lu ◽  
Ming Zhao ◽  
Chenyan Wu ◽  
Chengbiao Chu ◽  
Chris Zhiyi Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background UPK2 exhibits excellent specificity for urothelial carcinoma (UC). UPK2 evaluation can be useful in making the correct diagnosis of UC. However, UPK2 detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has relatively low sensitivity. This paper aimed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of RNAscope and IHC for evaluation of the UPK2 status in UC. Methods Tissue blocks from 127 conventional bladder UCs, 45 variant bladder UCs, 24 upper tract UCs and 23 metastatic UCs were selected for this study. IHC and RNAscope were used to detect the UPK2 status in UCs. Then, comparisons of the two methods were undertaken. Results There was no significant difference between RNAscope and IHC for the evaluation of the UPK2 positivity rate in UC (68.0% vs. 62.6%, P = 0.141). Correlation analysis revealed a moderate positive correlation for detection of UPK2: RNAscope vs. IHC (P < 0.001, R = 0.441). Our results showed a trend toward a higher positive UPK2 rate detected by RNAscope (53.3%) than by IHC (35.6%) in variant bladder UCs. Disappointingly, the P value did not indicate a significant difference (P = 0.057). Conclusions RNAscope for UPK2 appeared to perform similarly to IHC, with a marginally higher positive rate, suggesting it could be used as an alternative or adjunct to UPK2 IHC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Yonghong Ma ◽  
Jiao Tan ◽  
Zhijun Tan ◽  
Lei Shang

Background. Considering the lack of valid and reliable food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) for nutritional epidemiological studies in China, it is necessary to develop an effective one for assessing nutrient intake among preschool children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of newly developed FFQs for assessing food and nutrient intakes among preschool children in Northwest China. Methods. Semiquantitative 67-item FFQs were developed and validated. In total, 326 children (aged 2–6 years) were recruited from three different cities in Northwest China. All subjects were asked to complete the FFQs twice with a six-month interval period for test-retest reliability. Apart from the FFQs, a 3-day food record (3-DFR) was also carried out to evaluate the validity of the FFQs. Results. There was no significant difference in the nutrient intakes of preschool children between the two FFQs ( P > 0.05 ), and these two FFQs demonstrated a positive correlation ( P < 0.05 ). Spearman’s coefficient correlation values ranged from 0.222 (“Selenium”) to 0.832 (“Energy”). The intraclass correlation coefficient values ranged from 0.282 (“Selenium”) to 0.882 (“Energy”). With regards to the validity of FFQs, nutrient intakes from FFQs were greater than 3DR dietary recalls ( P < 0.05 ). After adjusting for total energy and intraindividual variation, all nutrient intakes showed a positive correlation ( P < 0.05 ), and these correlations became stronger. According to the quartiles of nutrient intakes, the exact agreement between the FFQs and 3DR dietary recalls ranged between 40% (“Selenium”) and 70% (“Energy”), and grossly misclassified was low (12.5%). Conclusions. The findings of this study indicate that the designed FFQs exhibit good test-retest reliability and moderate relative validity. Hence, the FFQs can serve as an important tool for the large-scale assessment of food and nutrient intakes among preschool children (in the mentioned areas of China).


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qianqian Xue ◽  
Ying-Ze Tian ◽  
Yang Wei ◽  
Danlin Song ◽  
Fengxia Huang ◽  
...  

Abstract PM2.5 samples collected over a 1-year period in a Chinese megacity were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble ions, elements and organic markers such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, and n-alkanes. In order to study the applicability of organic markers in source apportionment, this study analyzes the relationship between organic and inorganic components, and four scenarios were implemented by incorporating different combinations of organic and inorganic tracers. A positive correlation of SO42− with 4 rings PAHs can prove that coal burning directly emits a portion of sulfate. A positive correlation of NO3− with 5-7 rings PAHs are found, implying collective impacts from the vehicle source. The concentrations of OC and EC positively correlate with the 5-7 rings PAHs and Cu and Zn, which proves that part of Cu and Zn comes from vehicle emissions. Five factors were identified by incorporating only conventional components, including secondary source (SS, 30%), urban fugitive dust (UFD, 14%), cement dust (CD, 4%), traffic source (TS, 19%) and coal combustion (CC, 14%). Six factors were identified by incorporating conventional components and PAHs, including SS (28%), UFD (15%), CD (4%), CC (13%), gasoline vehicles (GV, 12%) and diesel vehicles (DV, 10%). Eight factors were identified by incorporating conventional components, PAHs, hopanes, and n-alkanes, including SS (26%), UFD (17%), CD (3%), GV (14%), DV (8%), immature coal combustion (ICC, 5%), mature coal combustion (MCC, 10%) and biogenic source (BS, 1%).


Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 142
Author(s):  
Margareta Žlajpah ◽  
Kristian Urh ◽  
Jan Grosek ◽  
Nina Zidar ◽  
Emanuela Boštjančič

Decorin (DCN) is one of the matricellular proteins that participate in normal cells’ function as well as in cancerogenesis. While its expression in primary tumours is well known, there is limited data about its expression in metastases. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulation of DCN is still questionable, although it is well accepted that it is an important mechanism of developing metastatic cancer. The aim of our study was to analyse the expression of DCN and its potential regulatory ncRNAs in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Nineteen patients with metastatic CRC were included. Using qPCR, we analysed the expression of DCN, miR-200c and five lncRNAs (LUCAT1, MALAT1, lncTCF7, XIST, and ZFAS1) in lymph node and liver metastases in comparison to the invasive front and central part of a primary tumour. Our results showed insignificant upregulation of DCN and significant upregulation for miR-200c, MALAT1, lncTCF7 and ZFAS1 in metastases compared to the primary tumour. miR-200c showed a positive correlation with DCN, and the aforementioned lncRNAs exhibited a significant positive correlation with miR-200c expression in metastatic CRC. Our results suggest that DCN as well as miR-200c, MALAT1, lncTCF7 and ZFAS1 contribute to the development of metastases in CRC and that regulation of DCN expression in CRC by ncRNAs is accomplished in an indirect manner.


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