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2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 326-351
Author(s):  
Rafael Pereira da Cruz ◽  
José Weverton Almeida-Bezerra ◽  
Saulo Almeida de Menezes ◽  
Viviane Bezerra da Silva ◽  
Luciano Temoteo dos Santos ◽  
...  

The Chapada of Araripe located in the Northeast of Brazil, presents a great vegetal diversity. Associated with this, the region presents a great cultural plurality, which reflects in several popular knowledge, such as the use of medicinal plants in the region. The objective of this work was to carry out an ethnopharmacological bibliographic survey of angiosperms present in the region. The scientific name of species was associated with the keywords "traditional use", "traditional medicine" "traditional knowledge" and "Brazil" to collect information published and available on Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo and Scopus Platform. Subsequently, the species with the greatest versatility of use were selected and their relative importance (RI) indexes were calculated. As a result, 92 species with medicinal potential were identified in the Chapada of Araripe, corresponding to 81 genera and 44 botanical families, with Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae being the taxa that presented the highest number of species with 16, 6, 5 and 5 respectively. The 10 most versatile species were Anacardium occidentale (RI: 1.38), Astronium urundeuva (1.86), Copaifera langsdorffii (2.00), Hancornia speciosa (1.81), Himatanthus drasticus (1.62), Hymenaea stigonocarpa (1.89), Lafoensia pacari (1.83), Libidibia ferrea (1.43), Scoparia dulcis (1.71) and Ximenia americana L. (1.46). Finally, we emphasize that Chapada of Araripe is a region of great biological and cultural value, being important actions for the preservation of local flora and traditional knowledge.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1121
Author(s):  
Lydia Png-Gonzalez ◽  
Patrício Ramalhosa ◽  
Ignacio Gestoso ◽  
Soledad Álvarez ◽  
Natacha Nogueira

Globally, there is growing concern regarding the effects of the increasing anthropogenic pressures in marine communities. Artificial structures such as marinas and aquaculture facilities serve as invasion hotspots; hence, monitoring fouling communities on these structures can be valuable for detecting new invasions. In the current study, 24 settlement PVC plates were deployed for three months to compare the recruitment ability of these two artificial environments along the south coast of the offshore island of Madeira (NE Atlantic). The results showed higher variations in the species richness between regions (SW vs. SE) than between artificial habitats (sea-cages vs. marinas), although the community composition differed. Cnidaria and Bryozoa were the most representative groups in the aquaculture systems, while Bryozoa and Chordata were in the marinas. A sum of 18 NIS was recorded for the study, accounting for between 21.88% and 54.84% of the total number of species in the aquaculture facilities and marinas, respectively. The higher NIS percentage from the marinas was even more explicit in the SE coast, where Cradoscrupocellaria bertholletii, Parasmittina alba, and Botrylloides niger distinctly dominated fouling populations. The results suggest that at least some particular NIS previously reported in the studied marinas successfully colonized sea-cages. Future assessments need to address the potential role of aquaculture facilities as drivers for the secondary spread of NIS. Additionally, two new records are considered for Madeira: Eudendrium capillare and Ericthonius punctatus.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Haileab Zegeye

Abstract Background: The remaining natural forests of Ethiopia are only small patches mostly confined to inaccessible areas and sacred places. Fach forest is one of the remnant dry evergreen Afromontane forests (DAFs) in northwestern Ethiopia. There is lack of information on the vegetation ecology of the forest. Thus, the present study was conducted to investigate the floristic composition and diversity, population structure, regeneration status and socio-economic importance of Fach forest, and the anthropogenic factors affecting it.Methods: Vegetation data were collected from a total of 34 plots, measuring 20 m × 20 m (400 m2) each and established along line transects approximately at 100 m intervals. A general survey consisting of field observations, key-informant interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was used to collect socio-economic data. Results: A total of 230 vascular plant species belonging to 183 genera and 76 families were recorded from the study area, of which 45 (19.57%) were trees, 62 (26.97%) trees/shrubs, 37 (16.09%) shrubs, 13 (5.65%) woody climbers, 10 (4.35%) herbaceous climbers, and 63 (27.39%) herbs. The family with the highest number of species was Fabaceae (28 species, 12.17% of all species), followed by Asteraceae (18 species, 7.83%), Poaceae (13 species, 5.65%), and Acanthaceae and Euphorbiaceae (9 species each). The Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness values of woody species were 3.53 and 0.72, and the total density and basal area 4938.24 individuals ha-1 and 19.17 m2 ha-1, respectively. The species with the highest Importance Value Index (IVI) value was Combretum molle (25.26%), followed by Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (21.19%), Dodonaea angustifolia (17.80%), and Calpurnia aurea (15.05%). The local communities were highly dependent on the forest for fuelwood, construction material, charcoal, timber and farm implements, as well as food (edible fruits), medicines, fodder, and bee forage. Fach forest is a protected area and contains sacred places, but at present it is dwindling mainly due to livestock grazing/browsing, tree cutting for various purposes, farmland expansion, rural settlements expansion, urbanization, fire incidences, and exotic species plantations at the expense of the natural forest, as well as soil erosion and climate change.Conclusions: Fach forest possesses high plant diversity and endemism. Woody species having low IVI values and poor regeneration status (as indicated by the Diameter at Breast Height [DBH] class distributions) need high priority for conservation. Fach forest has been maintained to the present-day through the combined indigenous (sacred grove) and modern (protected area system) conservation methods, but is now under increasing human pressure. Therefore, effective conservation and management interventions are urgently needed to ensure the long-term maintenance of the forest ecosystem, and benefit the local communities through sustainable utilization of the forest.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Na Su ◽  
Bin-bin Liu ◽  
Jun-ru Wang ◽  
Ru-chang Tong ◽  
Chen Ren ◽  
...  

The recognition, identification, and differentiation of closely related plant species present significant and notorious challenges to taxonomists. The Maddenia group of Prunus, which comprises four to seven species, is an example of a group in which species delimitation and phylogenetic reconstruction have been difficult, due to the lack of clear morphological distinctions, limited sampling, and low informativeness of molecular evidence. Thus, the precise number of species in the group and the relationships among them remain unclear. Here, we used genome skimming to generate the DNA sequence data for 22 samples, including 17 Maddenia individuals and five outgroups in Amygdaloideae of Rosaceae, from which we assembled the plastome and 446 single-copy nuclear (SCN) genes for each sample. The phylogenetic relationships of the Maddenia group were then reconstructed using both concatenated and coalescent-based methods. We also identified eight highly variable regions and detected simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and repeat sequences in the Maddenia species plastomes. The phylogenetic analysis based on the complete plastomes strongly supported three main subclades in the Maddenia group of Prunus, while five subclades were recognized based on the nuclear tree. The phylogenetic network analysis detected six hybridization events. Integrating the nuclear and morphological evidence, we proposed to recognize five species within the Maddenia group, i.e., Prunus fujianensis, P. himalayana, P. gongshanensis, P. hypoleuca, and P. hypoxantha. Within this group, the first three species are well-supported, while the gene flow occurring throughout the Maddenia group seems to be especially frequent between P. hypoleuca and P. hypoxantha, eroding the barrier between them. The phylogenetic trees based on eight concatenated hypervariable regions had a similar topology with the complete plastomes, showing their potential as molecular markers and effective barcodes for further phylogeographic studies on Maddenia.


Author(s):  
Shija Shilunga Lucas ◽  

The word “banana” refers to a crop that cuddles a number of species commonly known as Musa spp. In Tanzania, the crop is the fourth most important crop for food and income generation for more than 30 percent of the total population. In East Africa, Tanzania is the second banana producer after Uganda. The country has the highest world’s consumption rate between 280-500 kg per person. Despite the crop’s importance its production has declined from 18 t/ha in the 1960s to 5-7 t/ha/year in 2016. This review examined the status of banana production by identifying threats and opportunities with the aim of providing readily available resource for Researchers and Agriculture Extension Officers for better banana production. Through online resources, the review identified the challenges impeding banana production and ascertaining prevailing opportunities. Banana production in Tanzania is faced with many challenges including major pests (weevil and nematode) and diseases (fusarium wilt disease, black sigatoka, and banana xanthomonas wilt disease), poor soil fertility, moisture stress, poor management practices, lack of improved banana varieties and many social economic factors. The review identified that, since 1990s there are few introduced improved banana varieties and that most of these varieties are faced with low consumer’s acceptability. Again the country is faced with shortage of banana breeding centers that could produce desirable banana hybrid cultivars. This review also identified the lack of banana information resources and research platforms that involves all banana stakeholders, making targeting of varietal attributes to consumer preferences very difficult. Therefore, in order to improve production there must be an inter-link among different research disciplines, involving governmental and non-governmental organizations, coming together and seek solutions to current and future problems for sustainable production of banana.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 11175
Author(s):  
Tsai-Fu Chuang ◽  
Yuan-Hsiou Chang

Ecological corridors are an essential element in conserving the biodiversity and proper functioning of ecosystems. Without their connectivity, a very large number of species would not have access to all of the habitats needed for their life cycles. Although the concept of an ecological corridor has been discussed for many years, few studies on ecological corridors for frogs have been conducted. Frogs are often considered to be a keystone species. They are a good indicator of habitat health, and they are often the first to be harmed by pollution or ecosystem deterioration. However, there have been reports of frogs crossing ecological corridors and being attacked or consumed by natural enemies. It is vital to create ecological corridors for frogs that allow them to migrate quickly and safely. The purpose of this study was to propose a new ecological corridor design concept for frogs to address the limitations mentioned above. In this paper, grey system theory was employed to offer the necessary information for the frog ladder’s design. In addition, the frog’s high jump capacity and its defense mechanisms against natural enemies were used to determine the rest space and shelter.


Author(s):  
Gabriele Gentile ◽  
Roberto Argano ◽  
Stefano Taiti

AbstractArea and environmental heterogeneity influence species richness in islands. Whether area or environmental heterogeneity is more relevant in determining species richness is a central issue in island biogeography. Several models have been proposed, addressing the issue, and they can be reconducted to three main hypotheses developed to explain the species-area relationship: (1) the area-per se hypothesis (known also as the extinction-colonisation equilibrium), (2) the random placement (passive sampling), and the (3) environmental heterogeneity (habitat diversity). In this paper, considering also the possible influence of geographic distance on island species richness, we explore the correlation between area, environmental heterogeneity, and species richness by using faunistic data of Oniscidea inhabiting the Pontine Islands, a group of five small volcanic islands and several islets in the Tyrrhenian Sea, located about 60 km from the Italian mainland. We found that the colonisation of large Pontine Islands may occur via processes independent of geographic distance which could instead be an important factor at a much smaller scale. Such processes may be driven by a combination of anthropogenic influences and natural events. Even in very small-size island systems, environmental heterogeneity mostly contributes to species richness. Environmental heterogeneity could influence the taxocenosis structure and, ultimately, the number of species of Oniscidea via direct and indirect effects, these last mediated by area which may or may not have a direct effect on species richness.


PLoS Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (10) ◽  
pp. e3001296
Author(s):  
Tatsuya Amano ◽  
Violeta Berdejo-Espinola ◽  
Alec P. Christie ◽  
Kate Willott ◽  
Munemitsu Akasaka ◽  
...  

The widely held assumption that any important scientific information would be available in English underlies the underuse of non-English-language science across disciplines. However, non-English-language science is expected to bring unique and valuable scientific information, especially in disciplines where the evidence is patchy, and for emergent issues where synthesising available evidence is an urgent challenge. Yet such contribution of non-English-language science to scientific communities and the application of science is rarely quantified. Here, we show that non-English-language studies provide crucial evidence for informing global biodiversity conservation. By screening 419,679 peer-reviewed papers in 16 languages, we identified 1,234 non-English-language studies providing evidence on the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation interventions, compared to 4,412 English-language studies identified with the same criteria. Relevant non-English-language studies are being published at an increasing rate in 6 out of the 12 languages where there were a sufficient number of relevant studies. Incorporating non-English-language studies can expand the geographical coverage (i.e., the number of 2° × 2° grid cells with relevant studies) of English-language evidence by 12% to 25%, especially in biodiverse regions, and taxonomic coverage (i.e., the number of species covered by the relevant studies) by 5% to 32%, although they do tend to be based on less robust study designs. Our results show that synthesising non-English-language studies is key to overcoming the widespread lack of local, context-dependent evidence and facilitating evidence-based conservation globally. We urge wider disciplines to rigorously reassess the untapped potential of non-English-language science in informing decisions to address other global challenges. Please see the Supporting information files for Alternative Language Abstracts.


Diversity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 489
Author(s):  
Maria Teresa Farriols ◽  
Francesc Ordines ◽  
Enric Massutí

Species diversity in a community is mainly related to the number and abundance of species that form it. N90 is a recently developed diversity index based on the results of the similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis that represents the number of species contributing up to ninety percent of within-group similarity in a group of samples. The calculation of N90 is based on the Bray–Curtis similarity index and involves the number of species and abundances in a group of samples. We have explored the properties of N90 compared to other alpha, beta and gamma diversity indices and to beta diversity measures accounting for nestedness and turnover. We have used a non-real data set to compare the values of all indices with N90 and two real data sets of demersal fish communities along large and short depth gradients with higher influence of turnover and nestedness, respectively, to correlate the same indices with N90. The sensitivity of N90 to reductions in the frequency of occurrence and the evenness of the distribution of species abundances among samples allows the detection of diversity loss due to the fishing-induced retreatment of species populations to localities presenting the most favorable ecological conditions. This property, both in the identification of species replacement and species loss through SIMPER analysis, make N90 a useful indicator to support the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries within the current context of global change.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (10) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexey Andreychev

Abstract. Andreychev A. 2021. Short Communication: Proportion faunal assemblages of carnivorous mammals in geoecological districts of Mordovia, Russia. Biodiversitas 22: 4625-4632. In the forest-steppe area, carnivorous mammals are represented by species of different faunistic assemblages. This circumstance makes the study region a priority since the species of which faunistic assemblages prevail is of interest. Fifteen carnivorous species have been identified in the territory of Mordovia. Among them, the family Mustelidae predominates in terms of the number of species. The species are found in all geoecological districts, but their distribution is uneven. The most notable species in the region are located in coniferous and broad-leaved forests (40%) and species widely distributed in several natural areas (40%). 13% of the total number of noted species belong to the taiga fauna types. The steppe type of fauna is represented by only 7% of the total number of recorded species. For each geoecological region, the fauna features are given, and a list of rare and exciting species is given. The forest-steppe zone to which Mordovia belongs is compared by the fauna of carnivorous mammals with other regions from three typical faunal assemblages.


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