inflammatory processes
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

2555
(FIVE YEARS 1384)

H-INDEX

94
(FIVE YEARS 27)

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Margot P. J. Visser ◽  
Anton S. M. Dofferhoff ◽  
Jody M. W. van den Ouweland ◽  
Henny van Daal ◽  
Cornelis Kramers ◽  
...  

BackgroundPathology during COVID-19 infection arises partly from an excessive inflammatory response with a key role for interleukin (IL)-6. Both vitamin D and K have been proposed as potential modulators of this process.MethodsWe assessed vitamin D and K status by measuring circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and desphospho-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein (dp-ucMGP), respectively in 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in relation to inflammatory response, elastic fiber degradation and clinical outcomes.ResultsComparing good and poor disease outcomes of COVID-19 patients, vitamin 25(OH)D levels were not significantly different. IL-6 levels, however, were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome, compared to patients with good outcome (30.3 vs. 153.0 pg/mL; p < 0.0001). Dp-ucMGP levels as biomarker of extrahepatic vitamin K status was associated with IL-6 levels (r = 0.35; p < 0.0001). In contrast, 25(OH)D levels were only borderline statistically significant correlated with IL-6 (r = −0.14; p <0.050). A significant association was also found between IL-6 and elastic fiber degradation. Contrary to vitamin K status, 25(OH)D did not correlate with elastic fiber degradation.ConclusionsDp-ucMGP associates with IL-6 as a central component of the destructive inflammatory processes in COVID-19. An intervention trial may provide insight whether vitamin K administration, either or not in combination with vitamin D, improves clinical outcome of COVID-19.


Author(s):  
Steven G. Fagan ◽  
Sibylle Bechet ◽  
Kumlesh K. Dev

AbstractTherapeutic strategies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have largely focused on the regulation of amyloid pathology while those targeting tau pathology, and inflammatory mechanisms are less explored. In this regard, drugs with multimodal and concurrent targeting of Aβ, tau, and inflammatory processes may offer advantages. Here, we investigate one such candidate drug in the triple transgenic 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD, namely the disease-modifying oral neuroimmunomodulatory therapeutic used in patients with multiple sclerosis, called fingolimod. In this study, administration of fingolimod was initiated after behavioral symptoms are known to emerge, at 6 months of age. Treatment continued to 12 months when behavioral tests were performed and thereafter histological and biochemical analysis was conducted on postmortem tissue. The results demonstrate that fingolimod reverses deficits in spatial working memory at 8 and 12 months of age as measured by novel object location and Morris water maze tests. Inflammation in the brain is alleviated as demonstrated by reduced Iba1-positive and CD3-positive cell number, less ramified microglial morphology, and improved cytokine profile. Finally, treatment with fingolimod was shown to reduce phosphorylated tau and APP levels in the hippocampus and cortex. These results highlight the potential of fingolimod as a multimodal therapeutic for the treatment of AD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carolina Manosalva ◽  
John Quiroga ◽  
Alejandra I. Hidalgo ◽  
Pablo Alarcón ◽  
Nicolás Anseoleaga ◽  
...  

During an inflammatory process, shift in the cellular metabolism associated with an increase in extracellular acidification are well-known features. This pH drop in the inflamed tissue is largely attributed to the presence of lactate by an increase in glycolysis. In recent years, evidence has accumulated describing the role of lactate in inflammatory processes; however, there are differences as to whether lactate can currently be considered a pro- or anti-inflammatory mediator. Herein, we review these recent advances on the pleiotropic effects of lactate on the inflammatory process. Taken together, the evidence suggests that lactate could exert differential effects depending on the metabolic status, cell type in which the effects of lactate are studied, and the pathological process analyzed. Additionally, various targets, including post-translational modifications, G-protein coupled receptor and transcription factor activation such as NF-κB and HIF-1, allow lactate to modulate signaling pathways that control the expression of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and several enzymes associated with immune response and metabolism. Altogether, this would explain its varied effects on inflammatory processes beyond its well-known role as a waste product of metabolism.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hao Li ◽  
Zihan Yan ◽  
Ran Huo ◽  
Xiaolong Ya ◽  
Hongyuan Xu ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundBrain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) arises as congenital vascular abnormalities with a significant risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). RNA sequencing technology has been recently used to investigate the mechanism of diseases owing to its ability to identify the gene changes on a transcriptome-wide level. In this study, we aimed to gain insights into the potential mechanism involved in BAVM rupture. MethodsSixty-five BAVM nidus samples were collected among which 28 were ruptured and 37 were un-ruptured. Then next-generation RNA sequencing were performed on all of them to obtain differential expressed genes (DEGs) between these two groups. In addition, bioinformatics analysis was performed to evaluate the involved biological processes and pathways by GO and KEGG analysis. Finally, univariate Cox regression analysis was utilized to obtain the early rupture-prone DEGs. Results: A total of 951 genes were differentially expressed between ruptured and un-ruptured BAVM group, of which 740 genes were up-regulated and 211 genes were down-regulated in ruptured BAVMs. Then bioinformatics analysis showed the biological processes and pathways related to the inflammatory processes and extracellular matrix organization were significantly enriched. Meanwhile, some of down-regulated genes are involved in cell adhesion and genes participating in response to muscle activity, as well as the terms about nervous system development. Finally, one hundred and twenty-five genes, a large number of which were involved in inflammation, were correlated with the early rupture of BAVMs. Conclusions: The up-regulated genes in ruptured BAVM group were involved in inflammatory processes and extracellular matrix organization while some of the down-regulated genes were participating in cell adhesion and myofibril assembly, indicating the role of enhanced inflammation and reduced vessel strength in BAVMs rupture.


Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Author(s):  
Angelo Maria Patti ◽  
Rosaria Vincenza Giglio ◽  
Nikolaos Papanas ◽  
Dragos Serban ◽  
Anca Pantea Stoian ◽  
...  

The current management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) includes incretin-based treatments able to enhance insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as improve body mass, inflammation, plasma lipids, blood pressure, and cardiovascular outcomes. Dietary Free Fatty Acids (FFA) regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes through their action on incretins. Selective synthetic ligands for FFA1-4 receptors have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. To comprehensively review the available evidence for the potential role of FFA receptor agonists in the treatment of T2DM, we performed an electronic database search assessing the association between FFAs, T2DM, inflammation, and incretins. Evidence indicates that FFA1-4 agonism increases insulin sensitivity, induces body mass loss, reduces inflammation, and has beneficial metabolic effects. There is a strong inter-relationship between FFAs and incretins. FFA receptor agonism represents a potential target for the treatment of T2DM and may provide an avenue for the management of cardiometabolic risk in susceptible individuals. Further research promises to shed more light on this emerging topic.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexander I. Kostyuk ◽  
Maria-Armineh Tossounian ◽  
Anastasiya S. Panova ◽  
Marion Thauvin ◽  
Roman I. Raevskii ◽  
...  

AbstractThe lack of tools to monitor the dynamics of (pseudo)hypohalous acids in live cells and tissues hinders a better understanding of inflammatory processes. Here we present a fluorescent genetically encoded biosensor, Hypocrates, for the visualization of (pseudo)hypohalous acids and their derivatives. Hypocrates consists of a circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein integrated into the structure of the transcription repressor NemR from Escherichia coli. We show that Hypocrates is ratiometric, reversible, and responds to its analytes in the 106 M−1s−1 range. Solving the Hypocrates X-ray structure provided insights into its sensing mechanism, allowing determination of the spatial organization in this circularly permuted fluorescent protein-based redox probe. We exemplify its applicability by imaging hypohalous stress in bacteria phagocytosed by primary neutrophils. Finally, we demonstrate that Hypocrates can be utilized in combination with HyPerRed for the simultaneous visualization of (pseudo)hypohalous acids and hydrogen peroxide dynamics in a zebrafish tail fin injury model.


Stroke ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Katherine T. Mun ◽  
Jason D. Hinman

Inflammation and its myriad pathways are now recognized to play both causal and consequential roles in vascular brain health. From acting as a trigger for vascular brain injury, as evidenced by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to steadily increasing the risk for chronic cerebrovascular disease, distinct inflammatory cascades play differential roles in varying states of cerebrovascular injury. New evidence is regularly emerging that characterizes the role of specific inflammatory pathways in these varying states including those at risk for stroke and chronic cerebrovascular injury as well as during the acute, subacute, and repair phases of stroke. Here, we aim to highlight recent basic science and clinical evidence for many distinct inflammatory cascades active in these varying states of cerebrovascular injury. The role of cerebrovascular infections, spotlighted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, and its association with increased stroke risk is also reviewed. Rather than converging on a shared mechanism, these emerging studies implicate varied and distinct inflammatory processes in vascular brain injury and repair. Recognition of the phasic nature of inflammatory cascades on varying states of cerebrovascular disease is likely essential to the development and implementation of an anti-inflammatory strategy in the prevention, treatment, and repair of vascular brain injury. Although advances in revascularization have taught us that time is brain, targeting inflammation for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease will undoubtedly show us that timing is brain.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Constanze Hoebinger ◽  
Dragana Rajcic ◽  
Tim Hendrikx

The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), ranging from simple steatosis to inflammatory steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, continues to rise, making it one of the major chronic liver diseases and indications for liver transplantation worldwide. The pathological processes underlying NAFLD not only affect the liver but are also likely to have systemic effects. In fact, growing evidence indicates that patients with NAFLD are at increased risk for developing atherosclerosis. Indeed, cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality in NAFLD patients. Here, we aim to address common pathophysiological molecular pathways involved in chronic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. In particular, we focus on the role of oxidized lipids and the formation of oxidation-specific epitopes, which are important targets of host immunity. Acting as metabolic danger signals, they drive pro-inflammatory processes and thus contribute to disease progression. Finally, we summarize encouraging studies indicating that oxidized lipids are promising immunological targets to improve intervention strategies for NAFLD and potentially limit the risk of developing atherosclerosis.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tamara Zorbaz ◽  
Nimrod Madrer ◽  
Hermona Soreq

Inflammatory stimuli and consequent pro-inflammatory immune responses may facilitate neurodegeneration and threaten survival following pathogen infection or trauma, but potential controllers preventing these risks are incompletely understood. Here, we argue that small RNA regulators of acetylcholine (ACh) signaling, including microRNAs and transfer RNA fragments may tilt the balance between innate and adaptive immunity, avoid chronic inflammation and prevent the neuroinflammation-mediated exacerbation of many neurological diseases. While the restrictive permeability of the blood-brain barrier protects the brain from peripheral immune events, this barrier can be disrupted by inflammation and is weakened with age. The consequently dysregulated balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes may modify the immune activities of brain microglia, astrocytes, perivascular macrophages, oligodendrocytes and dendritic cells, leading to neuronal damage. Notably, the vagus nerve mediates the peripheral cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex and underlines the consistent control of body-brain inflammation by pro-inflammatory cytokines, which affect cholinergic functions; therefore, the disruption of this reflex can exacerbate cognitive impairments such as attention deficits and delirium. RNA regulators can contribute to re-balancing the cholinergic network and avoiding its chronic deterioration, and their activities may differ between men and women and/or wear off with age. This can lead to hypersensitivity of aged patients to inflammation and higher risks of neuroinflammatory-driven cholinergic impairments such as delirium and dementia following COVID-19 infection. The age- and sex-driven differences in post-transcriptional RNA regulators of cholinergic elements may hence indicate new personalized therapeutic options for neuroinflammatory diseases.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Junhua Xie ◽  
Lien Van Hoecke ◽  
Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating age-related neurodegenerative disorder with an alarming increasing prevalence. Except for the recently FDA-approved Aducanumab of which the therapeutic effect is not yet conclusively proven, only symptomatic medication that is effective for some AD patients is available. In order to be able to design more rational and effective treatments, our understanding of the mechanisms behind the pathogenesis and progression of AD urgently needs to be improved. Over the last years, it became increasingly clear that peripheral inflammation is one of the detrimental factors that can contribute to the disease. Here, we discuss the current understanding of how systemic and intestinal (referred to as the gut-brain axis) inflammatory processes may affect brain pathology, with a specific focus on AD. Moreover, we give a comprehensive overview of the different preclinical as well as clinical studies that link peripheral Inflammation to AD initiation and progression. Altogether, this review broadens our understanding of the mechanisms behind AD pathology and may help in the rational design of further research aiming to identify novel therapeutic targets.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document