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Significance These included the death of 53 gendarmes at Inata in November and an ambush that killed over 40 government-affiliated vigilantes near Ouahigouya in December. Public anger is producing protests and backlash that have put President Roch Marc Christian Kabore’s administration under intense pressure, including possible coup plotting exposed by arrests this week. Impacts Local dialogue efforts with jihadists may be inhibited by harder-line government policies. Kabore’s administration will struggle to define and pursue its ‘national reconciliation’ project. Burkina Faso’s 2021-25 national development plan may deliver modest improvements in growth prospects. Burkina Faso will have longer-term problems operationalising military cooperation with neighbours.

Maryna Okladna ◽  
Kseniia Naumova ◽  
Violetta Myrhorod

Problem setting. Problems of international relations and foreign policy have always been in the center of public attention of analysts, politicians and journalists. Although secret diplomacy is a highly controversial phenomenon in terms of public morality, it is an effective means of pursuing defense policy, military cooperation and establishing international relations for peace. In practice, secret diplomacy has various forms of implementation, such as holding “closed” conferences, signing secret multilateral agreements, providing covert instructions, and others. Any form of implementation must take into account the fact that the ultimate goal is to achieve the maximum national interest with a minimum of controversy and resentment from others. Analysis of recent researches and publications. Among Ukrainian scholars, D. Kostyuk and D. Kurillo, S. Pik and others. Anthony John Wanis-ST., a professor of the American University’s School of International Service in Washington, D.C., made a significant contribution to the study of secret diplomacy. John, Cornelius Biola, a professor at Oxford University, and Aaron Klieman, a professor at Tel Aviv University. Target of research is to define the concept of secret diplomacy, analyze the main ways of its implementation, as well as explore the features of their functioning in international relations. Article’s main body. The research is devoted to the definition of “secret diplomacy” and analysis of the main ways of its implementation. Peculiarities of the functioning of forms of secret diplomacy in international relations have been studied. Forms of secret diplomacy include “closed” conferences, secret bilateral and tripartite agreements, the provision of secret instructions by states to diplomats, correspondence through closed channels, and non-public diplomacy. The definition of “secret diplomacy” is proposed. Examples of the application of secret diplomacy in practice have been studied. “Secret” conferences are a very effective way to reach agreement on some common issues, they are difficult because of both the organization and the stage: the more participants in the negotiations, the more difficult it is to maintain secrecy and control information leaks. Details of such negotiations are often leaked to the media, causing serious harm to participants. The signing of secret bilateral and tripartite agreements allows countries to significantly expand the range of issues under discussion, including all issues, from cooperation in various sectors of the economy, military cooperation to joint action in the international arena. The practice of giving secret instructions to diplomats is often used: when sending a diplomatic mission, the state provides its members with a number of mandatory secret instructions, as well as coordinates its work during negotiations. Closed channel correspondence, the biggest advantage of which is the small number of people who take part in it, which in turn allows the sender and recipient to keep all correspondence secret, preventing the essence of correspondence from being revealed to third parties. Non-public diplomacy consists of negotiations officially authorized by the leadership of states, which take place between the parties to the conflict in secret from other parties. Conclusions and prospects for the development. Despite the disadvantages, covert diplomacy can create an enabling environment for constructive negotiations by isolating foreign policy figures from public speaking, giving them the highest level of security, informality, autonomy and the ability to “save face” in public. It is not a universal way to solve all problems, but, in our opinion, it is an effective method of resolving protracted conflicts that negatively affect world politics.

Grzegorz Bazyur

This article by Grzegorz Baziur concerns the geostrategic importance of Belarus in the context of the „Russian road to the West” in the light of the neo-imperial policy of the Russian Federation, implemented by the authorities under the leadership of President Vladimir Putin. In the introduction, the author presented the aims of the article, research methods and his theses, and in the first part he described Belarusian-Russian relations in terms of military cooperation and the Russian vision of security policy in the West. In the last part of the text, the author asks the question - is there anything to fear from Belarus in the context of the Belarusian-Russian alliance under Russia's hegemony? In this part, he discusses the meanders of Polish-Belarusian relations with Russia in the background, and the whole article concludes with conclusions on the security perspectives of Belarus and its neighboring countries, including Poland.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 338-349
Arman Artakovich Mikaelian ◽  
Vladimir Mikhailovich Morozov

The article analyses the US influence on Israeli policy towards both China and India. The United States has had and still has a significant influence on the dynamics of Israeli-Chinese and Israeli-Indian relations. The relevance of the issue stems from the growing importance of China and India in the world affairs amid rising tensions between the US and China that are spilling into a trade war. The article aims to explore the US influence on Israels policy in Asia. It examines the way how the Israeli leadership has adapted to Washingtons influence while promoting its strategic cooperation with China and India. The study comprises historical method, comparative analysis and historical-systematic analysis. The author comes to the following conclusions. First, Washingtons influence on Sino-Israeli relations has gone through five development stages: the first stage (1971-1989): implicit US support for the development of Sino-Israeli relations; the second stage (1990-1998): American criticism of military and technical cooperation between Israel and China; the third stage (1999-2005): Washingtons shift from criticism to pressure policy in order to prevent the Israeli leadership from military cooperation with China; the fourth stage (2006-2016): Israels acceptance of US demands and refusal to supply arms to Beijing (with Tel Aviv focusing on the development of trade and economic relations with China); the fifth stage (2017 - present): U.S. criticism of Israeli-Chinese economic cooperation amid worsening contacts between Beijing and Washington. The Israeli government is trying to meet Washingtons demands as well as preserve its strategic economic relations with Beijing. Second, the US factor, on the contrary, contributed to normalization of Indian-Israeli relations, having a positive impact on the development of trade, economic and military cooperation between Tel Aviv and New Delhi. Third, the US actions can be explained by an attempt to preserve its national interests. At the same time, the author stresses that the US influence on Israels policy in Asia complies with Washingtons regional priorities set forth in the 2017 US National Security Strategy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (S3) ◽  
Elvira Titko ◽  
Ilona Kurovska ◽  
Petro Korniienko ◽  
Irena A. Balzhyk ◽  
Ganna M. Stoyatska

The issue of civil-military cooperation has relatively recently taken its rightful place among the scientific works of Ukrainian scientists. For Ukraine, this issue is gaining relevance in the context of "Crimean events" and hostilities in eastern Ukraine. In addition, in the context of civil-military cooperation, respect for fundamental human rights should not be forgotten. Equality in CIMIC operations is often overlooked when considering relevant issues, although the international community has long emphasized the need for gender equality and proportional representation of the opposite sex in the armed forces and civilian professions that interact with them. The aim of the study is a detailed analysis of the peculiarities of civil-military interaction on the basis of the norms of international organizations, analysis of the place of gender policy in the relevant issue and interpretation of the ECtHR's practice on certain issues related to civil-military interaction. The leading research method is the formal-legal method, the application of which provided an effective analysis of the legal framework of international law, doctrinal approaches and practice of the ECtHR in the context of the place of human rights protection in the system of civil-military interaction.

Larisa B. Zhabaeva ◽  

Introduction. The early 1930s saw a more active Russian-Mongolian interaction, including regular meetings and confidential conversations between the leaders of the USSR and the Mongolian People’s Republic. I. V. Stalin and the others of the top Soviet leadership started to pay more attention to the situation in Mongolia. This was largely justified by the sharp aggravation of the international situation in the Far East, with aggressive acts of imperialist Japan in the region and its further plans on the Asian continent, of which they made no secret. Under the circumstances, the USSR leaders sought to ensure the protection of its interests in the region. This article aims at examining and interpreting the significance of the Soviet-Mongolian summit that took place on November 24, 1934. Data and research methods. The author draws on a collection of documents on Russian-Mongolian military cooperation, which contains recordings of conversations between the top leadership of the two countries on military cooperation. Results. The main issue of the confidential conversation between Stalin, with the closest to him in the top Soviet leadership, and the Mongolian delegation, with Prime Minister Peljidiin Genden at the head, was a discussion of the urgent problem of how Mongolia would uphold its independence in the event of an attack from Japan: “what will you do if your situation worsens”? (Stalin) The materials of the meeting allow to understand the role of the USSR’s foreign policy in relation to Mongolia; to consider the course of discussions around the principal issues that interested both sides; and to shed light on the influence exerted by the Kremlin on the policy of the Mongolian government in terms of the ways of protecting the independence of the MPR. Stalin stressed the need to conclude a pact of mutual assistance; Genden agreed to start negotiations and was ready to elaborate practical steps. The Mongolian leadership was fully aware that the USSR was the only ally of the Mongolian People’s Republic in the Far East. Conclusions. The summit meeting of November 24, 1934 became an important milestone in the history of bilateral relations between the USSR and the MPR. The negotiations proved to be of key importance for promoting their further military cooperation. The pact of mutual assistance signed in 1936 provided for the presence of the Soviet armed forces in Mongolia and served as a guarantee of the country’s security.

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