bilateral relations
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-06
Zulkarnain ◽  
Irma Indrayani

This study discusses the effect of China's economic revival on Indonesia's foreign policy orientation. Historically, the relationship between China and Indonesia, which had been severed in 1965 due to ideological conflicts and Indonesia's suspicion of China's support for the Indonesian communist party (PKI), has now been re-establish since the 1990s, which began with China's economic growth. Foreign policy is often caused by a combination of unexpected external forces with unfavorable structural factors. The continued stalemate in China-Indonesia bilateral relations has equally serious consequences for China. China's diplomatic failure against Indonesia has cost China, and that loss cannot be offset by the diplomatic gains generated by the opening of new relations with other ASEAN countries. This study tries to discuss this situation in depth using several approaches to find two variables that become the topic of this thesis: the rise of the Chinese economy and its influence on Indonesia's foreign policy. This research found that Indonesia's bilateral relations with China under the leadership of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono ran normatively and without significant fluctuations.

Significance The China-US joint declaration to enhance climate cooperation, made on the final day of the summit, gives cause for optimism, despite bilateral relations worsening overall. China’s low profile at the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow last November should not be taken as indicating that the country is wavering on its commitment to climate action. Impacts There will be strong political pressure within China to meet climate targets ahead of time. China’s announcement that it will no longer finance overseas coal projects is a clear signal of support for the greening of BRI investments. Beijing will continue pushing for developed countries to meet climate finance commitments to developing countries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 248-264
E. V. Kilinkarova ◽  
A. A. Trofimov

The article provides a systematic review of the scientific works of Russian legal scholars in the field of public finance law in China, in particular tax, budget and currency law. Today, it is premature to talk about fully functioning schools of Chinese law in the Russian legal science. However, at the same time there are examples of successfully conducted fundamental researches on Chinese public finance law. Authors have to admit that the last few years have not been marked by the appearance of any monograph on Chinese public finance law in Russia – the studies conducted today are usually devoted to specific problems and are published on the pages of the relevant journals. There are obvious reasons for this – difficulties in Chinese language learning and understanding specific Chinese legislation, which is characterized by uncertainty, ambiguity and plurality of sources of law. Existing studies can be classified into studies entirely devoted to the study of particular institutions or branches of Chinese law, and studies of a comparative nature. The article examines and systematizes the work of Soviet and Russian legal scholars devoted to various areas of research in the fields of tax, budget and currency law of China, with an assessment of their significance and contribution to the development of the relevant branch of knowledge. The materials in this article may be useful for future researches, which, in turn, can predetermine the strengthening of bilateral relations, as well as the implementation of joint investment projects. The article allows to identify unexplored areas in the considered field, thereby laying the foundation for future research. Authors note research issues that seem to be perspective based on the conducted review.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Ratnaria Wahid ◽  
Norafidah Ismail

The EU has decided to phase out imports of palm oil used in biofuels in the EU by 2030. This affects people in Malaysia who rely on the palm oil business for their livelihood. This chapter examines the events leading up to the EU's anti-palm oil actions and the many ways in which Malaysia has responded to defend its palm oil sector. This includes 1) countering EU's allegation through scientific research, 2) demonstrating its commitment to transform the palm oil industry toward sustainability through certification standards, 3) fostering the commitment to grow palm oil sustainably, 4) garnering support from ASEAN and the international community, 5) expressing its opposition and warnings for retaliatory measures against the EU, and 6) requesting consultation under the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. It presents the political processes that generate policy interventions aimed at defending palm oil trade with the EU alerting that economic decoupling and direct conflict may exacerbate the problem, weaken bilateral relations, and elude good improvements in the palm oil business.

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (6) ◽  
pp. 141-154
Tatiana V. Borzova ◽  
Lyudmila A. Mosunova ◽  

Introduction. The formation and strengthening of the national cultural identity of students is an important condition for maintaining the continuity of generations, fostering personal responsibility for solving global problems of our time. The aim of the article is to present the process of teaching humanitarian students as one of the possibilities for the development of national cultural identity. Materials and methods. When interpreting the results of the experiment, characterizing the features of teaching narrative, the method of observing the process of creating narrative texts by students was used. In assessing the effectiveness of teaching the narrative, the method of qualitative (φ-Fisher's statistical test) and quantitative analysis of written works was used. A total of 167 students from the Department of Philology and Media Communications at Vyatka State University (Kirov, Russia) participated in various stages of the study. Results. Summarized the results of a theoretical and experimental study of the process of teaching students to narrative. It is substantiated that the telling of personal stories is a social practice that develops cultural identity. The psychological and pedagogical conditions, which serve as a starting point for creating their own narrative texts, reflecting the student's personal experience, have been studied. The mechanisms are revealed that contribute to the strengthening of the national code, namely: the establishment in the process of creating a narrative of close bilateral relations between the author's personal experience and its comprehension (the description of personal experience leads to the need to comprehend it, and the generation of new meanings, in turn, enriches personal experience). Fisher's angular transformation was used for statistical verification. As a result, it was revealed that after conducting special training, the number of students who do not experience difficulties in understanding the text based on the development of skills to apply methods of working with a narrative text increased (p≤ 0.01). Teaching narrative creates conditions for a deeper, more complete and detailed understanding of one's cultural identity. Conclusion. The developed scheme of experimental teaching, which describes the features of its content and structure, can be used in teaching university students. The data obtained in the course of the research can be used in the organization of psychological and pedagogical support, in the framework of individual and group work carried out within the boundaries of various academic disciplines at the university.

Patan Pragya ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (02) ◽  
pp. 128-143
Khom Raj Kharel ◽  
Yadav Mani Upadhyay ◽  
Suman Kharel

Bilateral economic cooperation is one of means for improving economic, social and political relations between two countries. Nepal and China have been enjoying good neighborly respects and benefit since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1955. Both countries behave a good neighborhood relations and enjoyed fruitful bilateral cooperation and mutual support and following the social and economic development activities by exchanging cooperation in the areas of trade, tourism, investment and connectivity, building human capital and infrastructure and deepening people to people relations is at the center of Nepal-China bilateral relations. Within Nepal and China, there are marvelous possibilities promoting socio-economic transformation and raising the living standard of people through the mutual cooperation in the areas of mutual interest. Cooperation under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is of great significance for Nepal and China. The present study is conducted with the aim of examining the economic impact of bilateral economic cooperation between Nepal and China. The impact of bilateral cooperation with China in Nepalese economy has been analyzed in terms of FDI flows, trade between Nepal, China and economic assistance from China to Nepal and tourists arrivals from China over the period of 2000-2019 by applying simple statistical tools and simple linear regression model. The results show that there have been positive influences on Nepalese economy with bilateral economic cooperation of China.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 88-120
Mohd Ridwan Talib

This paper aims to analyse the aftermath of Kim Jong Nam’s assassination on the diplomatic relations between Malaysia and North Korea along with the historical evolution of diplomatic relations between both countries since Malaysia’s independence. Little is known about the nature of diplomatic relations between Malaysia and North Korea, especially when public perceptions dictate that both countries barely share any similarities. In appreciating the implications of the murder case from the perspective of international law, an analysis is carried out on the history of diplomatic relations between Putrajaya and Pyongyang. A further study is conducted on the factors which attract Malaysia and North Korea to forge and strengthen their diplomatic relations. Malaysia’s inclusive foreign policy is highlighted via her participation in the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 1970 which promotes peaceful engagement with all countries regardless of their political allegiance, including the Communist-led regime in North Korea. The task of preserving regional safety and bolstering economic prosperity are top on Putrajaya’s priority list. With the volume of bilateral trade between Malaysia and North Korea is steadily increasing and Pyongyang’s continuous provocations of her Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), peaceful engagements with the aim of repairing the damaged diplomatic relations is the best option for both countries. This study concludes that although the relationship between the two nations is severed, it is crucial for Malaysia to consider reviving and enhancing bilateral relations with North Korea, hence benefiting Putrajaya in outlining Malaysia’s future foreign policy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 107 (7) ◽  
pp. 84-95
Anna Andreeva ◽  

In March 2021 the Duclert Commission, a commission of French experts appointed by President Macron, presented their report which immediately became the subject of academic and political debates. The Report examined the French involvement in Rwandan genocide in 1994, and pointed to the major ethical, legal and political dilemmas accompanying states’ involvement into the affairs of other states. We seek to identify major topics raised by the French media in relation to the report, and how possible reconciliation between France and Rwanda was presented in French periodicals. Through post-colonial lenses to the study of states’ foreign policy, we examine how the French role in the genocide was seen in media discourses, and how the media addressed such painful questions as accepting/avoiding state responsibility for its actions. Using qualitative content-analysis, we studied articles from French media outlets Le Monde, Libération and Le Figaro in the period of late March 2021 ‒ July 2021, as well as a few randomly selected articles from other French outlets to have a more complete picture of public debates across a political spectrum. The article concludes that while the media stressed the importance of the Committee’s work for bilateral relations, still, there is no consensus in the French society over France’s responsibility for the genocide: whether acknowledging state responsibility would be a manifestation of weakness and a threat to state security, or masking of certain colonial inclinations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 107 (7) ◽  
pp. 96-104
Sergey Karamaev ◽  

The author traces the stages of development of British–Zimbabwean relations over the past four decades. The work analyzes not only the history, but also the current state of relations between Great Britain and Zimbabwe and assesses the prospects for their development. The author set the task of showing how political cooperation between the former metropolis and its colony developed, the importance of the change of governments and the personality of the heads of state. A special attention is paid to the first president of Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe, who ruled the country for 37 years. An attempt has been made to identify the causes of the crisis in bilateral relations and to assess the attempts to overcome and to move in a progressive development. In addition, the author considers the problem of how the context of the colonial past, economic development, the land issue and the internal policy of Zimbabwe influenced the official London’s position in relation to Harare. Zimbabwe is one of the key states in southeast Africa, traditionally viewed by the UK as a sphere of its interests. Using itsexample, certain conclusions can be drawn about London's foreign policy approach to African countries, as well as the contradictions which become obstacles to the relations’ normalization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (113) ◽  
Shurentana Borjgin

Mutual perception is an important indicator of the degree of closeness between countries, and it can more intuitively reflect the degree of mutual favorability between the two peoples and the perception of each other's national image. Mongolia's perception of China is an important fundamental aspect in the bilateral relations. This article reviews and examines the current research status of the given topic in academic circles. In general, (1) The public opinion surveys of some research institutes on Mongolia’s perception of China are relatively objective and neutral, so their survey results have higher reference value and application value. (2) Regarding the specific studies of Mongolia’s perception of China, some studies are relatively neutral, objective and of keen insights, and some are difficult to divorce from the perspective of the ‘self’ or the western interpretation mode, often presuppose their positions and tend to place too much emphasis on historical and cultural factors. Mongolia's perception of China is the result of the interaction of various factors mainly including history, emotion/psychology, realistic issues, and external factor. Хятадын талаарх монголчуудын ойлголтын тухай судалгааны тойм Хураангуй: Монголчуудын Хятадын талаарх ойлголтын тухай асуудал бол хоёр улсын харилцааны чухал сэдвийн нэг байдаг. Энэхүү өгүүлэл нь академик судалгааны хүрээнд уг сэдвийн судалгааны өнөөгийн байдлыг ангилан дүгнэж харуулах юм. Ерөнхийдөө: (1) судалгааны байгууллагуудын монголчуудын Хятадыг танин мэдэх ойлголттой холбоотой тоо баримт санал асуулга харьцангуй бодитой, тийм учраас судалгааны үр дүн хэрэглээний ач холбогдол өндөр гэж үзэж болно. (2) Хятадын талаарх монголчуудын ойлголтын тухай нарийвчилсан судалгаанаас харахад, зарим судалгаа харьцангуй бодитой төвийг сахисан, гүнзгийрүүлж судалсан байдаг ч зарим судалгаа нь нэг талыг барьсан, соёл хоорондын мөргөлдөөний онолоор тайлбарлаж, анхнаасаа байр суурь дүгнэлт нь тодорхой, хэт түүх соёлын хүчин зүйлийг дөвийлгөсөн шинжтэй байдаг. Монголчуудын Хятадыг танин мэдэх ойлголт нь түүх, сэтгэл зүй, бодит нөхцөл байдал, гадаад хүчин зүйлс зэргийн харилцан үйлчлэлийн үр дүнд бүрэлдсэн юм. Түлхүүр үгс: Монгол, Хятадыг танин мэдэх ойлголт, судалгаа, онцлог

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document