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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Chia-Hao Chang ◽  
Chia-Der Lin ◽  
Ching-Liang Hsieh

Acupuncture has long been used to relieve some inner ear diseases such as deafness and tinnitus. The present study examined the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in animals. A NIHL rat model was established. Electroacupuncture pretreatment at 2 Hz or posttreatment at the right Zhongzhu (TE3) acupoint was applied for 1 hour. Auditory thresholds were measured using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), and histopathology of the cochlea was examined. The results indicated that the baseline auditory threshold of ABR was not significantly different between the control (no noise), EA-only (only EA without noise), noise (noise exposure only), pre-EA (pretreating EA then noise), and post-EA (noise exposure then posttreating with EA) groups. Significant auditory threshold shifts were found in the noise, pre-EA, and post-EA groups in the immediate period after noise exposure, whereas auditory recovery was better in the pre-EA and post-EA groups than that in the noise group at the three days, one week (W1), two weeks (W2), three weeks (W3), and four weeks(W4) after noise stimulation. Histopathological examination revealed greater loss of the density of spiral ganglion neurons in the noise group than in the control group at W1 and W2. Although significant loss of spiral ganglion loss happened in pre-EA and post-EA groups, such loss was less than the loss of the noise group, especially W1. These results indicate that either pretreatment or posttreatment with EA may facilitate auditory recovery after NIHL. The detailed mechanism through which EA alleviates NIHL requires further study.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 1072
Author(s):  
Jan Scott ◽  
Mohamed Lajnef ◽  
Romain Icick ◽  
Frank Bellivier ◽  
Cynthia Marie-Claire ◽  
...  

Optimal classification of the response to lithium (Li) is crucial in genetic and biomarker research. This proof of concept study aims at exploring whether different approaches to phenotyping the response to Li may influence the likelihood of detecting associations between the response and genetic markers. We operationalized Li response phenotypes using the Retrospective Assessment of Response to Lithium Scale (i.e., the Alda scale) in a sample of 164 cases with bipolar disorder (BD). Three phenotypes were defined using the established approaches, whilst two phenotypes were generated by machine learning algorithms. We examined whether these five different Li response phenotypes showed different levels of statistically significant associations with polymorphisms of three candidate circadian genes (RORA, TIMELESS and PPARGC1A), which were selected for this study because they were plausibly linked with the response to Li. The three original and two revised Alda ratings showed low levels of discordance (misclassification rates: 8–12%). However, the significance of associations with circadian genes differed when examining previously recommended categorical and continuous phenotypes versus machine-learning derived phenotypes. Findings using machine learning approaches identified more putative signals of the Li response. Established approaches to Li response phenotyping are easy to use but may lead to a significant loss of data (excluding partial responders) due to recent attempts to improve the reliability of the original rating system. While machine learning approaches require additional modeling to generate Li response phenotypes, they may offer a more nuanced approach, which, in turn, would enhance the probability of identifying significant signals in genetic studies.


Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 3531
Author(s):  
María Virginia Candal ◽  
Maryam Safari ◽  
Mercedes Fernández ◽  
Itziar Otaegi ◽  
Agurtzane Múgica ◽  
...  

The recyclability of opaque PET, which contains TiO2 nanoparticles, has not been as well-studied as that of transparent PET. The objective of this work is to recycle post-consumer opaque PET through reactive extrusion with Joncryl. The effect of the reactive extrusion process on the molecular structure and on the thermal/mechanical/rheological properties of recycling post-consumer opaque PET (r-PET) has been analyzed. A 1% w/w Joncryl addition caused a moderate increase in the molecular weight. A moderate increase in chain length could not explain a decrease in the overall crystallization rate. This result is probably due to the presence of branches interrupting the crystallizable sequences in reactive extruded r-PET (REX-r-PET). A rheological investigation performed by SAOS/LAOS/elongational studies detected important structural modifications in REX-r-PET with respect to linear r-PET or a reference virgin PET. REX-r-PET is characterized by a slow relaxation process with enlarged elastic behaviors that are characteristic of a long-chain branched material. The mechanical properties of REX-r-PET increased because of the addition of the chain extender without a significant loss of elongation at the break. The reactive extrusion process is a suitable way to recycle opaque PET into a material with enhanced rheological properties (thanks to the production of a chain extension and long-chain branches) with mechanical properties that are comparable to those of a typical virgin PET sample.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ignacio Cifre ◽  
Maria T. Miller Flores ◽  
Lucia Penalba ◽  
Jeremi K. Ochab ◽  
Dante R. Chialvo

The center stage of neuro-imaging is currently occupied by studies of functional correlations between brain regions. These correlations define the brain functional networks, which are the most frequently used framework to represent and interpret a variety of experimental findings. In the previous study, we first demonstrated that the relatively stronger blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) activations contain most of the information relevant to understand functional connectivity, and subsequent work confirmed that a large compression of the original signals can be obtained without significant loss of information. In this study, we revisit the correlation properties of these epochs to define a measure of nonlinear dynamic directed functional connectivity (nldFC) across regions of interest. We show that the proposed metric provides at once, without extensive numerical complications, directed information of the functional correlations, as well as a measure of temporal lags across regions, overall offering a different and complementary perspective in the analysis of brain co-activation patterns. In this study, we provide further details for the computations of these measures and for a proof of concept based on replicating existing results from an Autistic Syndrome database, and discuss the main features and advantages of the proposed strategy for the study of brain functional correlations.


Author(s):  
Inain Jaies ◽  
Feroz Ahmad Shah ◽  
Shabir Ahmad Dar ◽  
Syed Shariq Nazir Qadiri ◽  
Asifa Wali ◽  
...  

Bacterial diseases in fishes create one of the alarming situations that render significant loss to the fishing industries and aquacultural farm units worldwide. Various drugs have been formulated, standardized, and used in the industry to combat bacterial infections. However, non-judicious drugs can lead to pharmacological problems and induction of toxicity in fishes, leaving them less suitable for human consumption. These drugs can be supplemented with the natural herb plants having antibacterial activities, although they cannot be used solely to curb the menace. Therefore, the review put forth an idea, which plant herbs can be used as antibacterial drugs in fishes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rabindranath Singha ◽  
Aminul Islam ◽  
Pranab Ghosh

AbstractA convenient and efficient solvent-free, facile, one-pot three-component graphene oxide catalysed approach has been described for the synthesis of chromeno-[4,3-b]quinolin-6-one derivatives from 4-hydroxycoumarin with aldehydes and aromatic amines. Graphene oxide (GO) has proved to be a new class of heterogeneous carbocatalyst which could be easily recovered and reused up to 5th run without significant loss of its catalytic activity. A broad scope of substrate applicability is offered and a plausible mechanism is also suggested for this developed protocol.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kelly Conde-Pérez ◽  
Juan C. Vázquez-Ucha ◽  
Laura Álvarez-Fraga ◽  
Lucía Ageitos ◽  
Soraya Rumbo-Feal ◽  
...  

Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant pathogen that represents a serious threat to global health. A. baumannii possesses a wide range of virulence factors that contribute to the bacterial pathogenicity. Among them, the siderophore acinetobactin is one of the most important, being essential for the development of the infection. In this study we performed an in-depth analysis of the acinetobactin cluster in the strain A. baumannii ATCC 17978. For this purpose, nineteen individual isogenic mutant strains were generated, and further phenotypical analysis were performed. Individual mutants lacking the biosynthetic genes entA, basG, basC, basD, and basB showed a significant loss in virulence, due to the disruption in the acinetobactin production. Similarly, the gene bauA, coding for the acinetobactin receptor, was also found to be crucial for the bacterial pathogenesis. In addition, the analysis of the ΔbasJ/ΔfbsB double mutant strain demonstrated the high level of genetic redundancy between siderophores where the role of specific genes of the acinetobactin cluster can be fulfilled by their fimsbactin redundant genes. Overall, this study highlights the essential role of entA, basG, basC, basD, basB and bauA in the pathogenicity of A. baumannii and provides potential therapeutic targets for the design of new antivirulence agents against this microorganism.


2021 ◽  
pp. 147332502110517
Author(s):  
Eleni M Gaveras ◽  
Vanessa D Fabbre ◽  
Braveheart Gillani ◽  
Steff Sloan

Transgender people (collectively referred to here as trans) experience disproportionate rates of suicidal ideation and behavior (plans and attempts) attributed to complex constellations of structural and individual factors. Interpretive methods in suicide research elucidate and contextualize intricate patterns of risk factors and strategies for recovery. The life narratives of trans older adults offer unique insights into past suicidal behavior and recovery after distress has diminished and perspective has been gained. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experiences of suicidal ideation and behavior in the biographical interviews of 14 trans older adults as part of the project To Survive on This Shore ( N = 88). Data analysis was conducted using a two-phase narrative analysis. Trans older adults contextualized suicide attempts, plans, ideation, and recovery as navigating impossible to possible paths. Impossible paths were seen as hopelessness in their life direction, often after a significant loss. Possible paths were described as pathways to recovery from crises. Transitions from impossible to possible paths were narrated as a turning point or moment of strength combined with outreach to family, friends, or mental health professionals. Narrative approaches hold the potential to illuminate pathways to well-being among trans persons with lived experiences of suicidal ideation and behavior. For social work practitioners, therapeutic narrative work around past suicidal ideation and behavior with trans older adults holds promise for suicidal prevention by identifying important supportive resources and previously used coping skills in crises.


AppliedChem ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 75-88
Author(s):  
Mahmood Tajbakhsh ◽  
Ali Ramezani ◽  
Mohammad Qandalee ◽  
Mobina Falahati ◽  
Carlos J. Durán-Valle ◽  
...  

Cross-coupling reactions leading to carbon–heteroatom bonds yield compounds that attract substantial interest due to their role as structural units in many synthetic protocols for bioactive and natural products. Therefore, many research works aim at the improvement of heterogeneous catalytic protocols. We have studied the use of magnetite nanoparticles and solid base compounds in organic synthetic reactions in carbon–heteroatom bond formation because they can be flocculated and dispersed, and reversibly controlled by applying a magnetic field. In this work, we have developed an efficient and simple synthetic approach for the C–O/C–N cross-coupling reaction under ligand-free conditions by using CuI as a catalyst and KF/Fe3O4 as a base. We performed the nucleophilic aromatic substitution of electron-deficient aryl halides and phenols. It was found that both the solvent nature and the base have a profound influence on the reaction process. This approach affords good to excellent yields of arylated products. KF/Fe3O4 displayed convenient magnetic properties and could be easily separated from the reaction using a magnet and recycled several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. This method has been successfully investigated for the Ullmann coupling reaction.


Synlett ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Misa Kawase ◽  
Kyosuke Matsuoka ◽  
Tsutomu Shinagawa ◽  
Go Hamasaka ◽  
Yasuhiro Uozumi ◽  
...  

This paper describes the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction of aryl bromides with potassium aryltrifluoroborates in water catalyzed by linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticles (PS-PdONPs). The reaction of aryl bromides having electron withdrawing groups or electron donating groups took place smoothly to give the corresponding coupling product in high yields. The catalyst recycles five times without significant loss of catalytic activity although a little bit increase in size of Pd NPs was observed after the reaction.


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