placental function
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 154-159
A. Subanova

A study was carried out of women with arterial hypotension against the background of the development of the pathological state of the fetus and newborns born to women living in two different climatic regions of Osh city and in the highlands of Chon-Alay district of Osh region. In the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications caused by arterial hypotension, the leading importance is attached to vascular disorders and microcirculation disorders, leading to systemic hemodynamic changes in the body of a pregnant woman. It was found that in mountainous terrain, arterial hypotension and exogenous hypoxia affect the “mother–placenta–fetus–newborn” system, increasing the load on the respiratory, circulatory and hematopoietic organs of the mother, and also leads to impaired placental function.

2022 ◽  
pp. 95-116
Graham J. Burton ◽  
Tereza Cindrova-Davies ◽  
Hong Wa Yung ◽  
Robert N. Taylor

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S624
Jacqueline M. Powell ◽  
Victoria H. Roberts ◽  
Terry K. Morgan ◽  
Juanito D. Terrobias ◽  
Jamie O. Lo

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Monika Dawid ◽  
Ewa Mlyczyńska ◽  
Małgorzata Jurek ◽  
Natalia Respekta ◽  
Karolina Pich ◽  

The apelinergic system, which includes the apelin receptor (APJ) as well as its two specific ligands, namely apelin and ELABELA (ELA/APELA/Toddler), have been the subject of many recent studies due to their pleiotropic effects in humans and other animals. Expression of these factors has been investigated in numerous tissues and organs—for example, the lungs, heart, uterus, and ovary. Moreover, a number of studies have been devoted to understanding the role of apelin and the entire apelinergic system in the most important processes in the body, starting from early stages of human life with regulation of placental function and the proper course of pregnancy. Disturbances in the balance of placental processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, or hormone secretion may lead to specific pregnancy pathologies; therefore, there is a great need to search for substances that would help in their early diagnosis or treatment. A number of studies have indicated that compounds of the apelinergic system could serve this purpose. Hence, in this review, we summarized the most important reports about the role of apelin and the entire apelinergic system in the regulation of placental physiology and pregnancy.

Anne S. Siegmund ◽  
Petronella G. Pieper ◽  
Caterina M. Bilardo ◽  
Sanne J. Gordijn ◽  
T. Yee Khong ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 100566
Liang Song ◽  
Yiming Huang ◽  
Junqing Long ◽  
Yuanfan Li ◽  
Zongqin Pan ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuheng Yang ◽  
Wei Zheng ◽  
Chen Yang ◽  
Ruowen Zu ◽  
Shiyu Ran ◽  

ObjectiveSupraphysiological hormone exposure, in vitro culture and embryo transfer throughout the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) procedures may affect placental development. The present study aimed to identify differences in genomic expression profiles between IVF-ET and naturally conceived placentals and to use this as a basis for understanding the underlying effects of IVF-ET on placental function.MethodsFull-term human placental tissues were subjected to next-generation sequencing to determine differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) and genes (DEGs) between uncomplicated IVF-ET assisted and naturally conceived pregnancies. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and transcription factor enrichment analysis were used for DEmiRs. MiRNA-mRNA interaction and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed. In addition, hub genes were obtained by using the STRING database and Cytoscape. DEGs were analyzed using GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated through qRT-PCR.ResultsCompared against natural pregnancies, 12 DEmiRs and 258 DEGs were identified in IVF-ET placental tissues. In a validation cohort, it was confirmed that hsa-miR-204-5p, hsa-miR-1269a, and hsa-miR-941 were downregulation, while hsa-miR-4286, hsa-miR-31-5p and hsa-miR-125b-5p were upregulation in IVF-ET placentas. Functional analysis suggested that these differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in angiogenesis, pregnancy, PI3K-Akt and Ras signaling pathways. The miRNA-mRNA regulatory network revealed the contribution of 10 miRNAs and 109 mRNAs while EGFR was the most highly connected gene among ten hub genes in the PPI network.ConclusionEven in uncomplicated IVF-ET pregnancies, differences exist in the placental transcriptome relative to natural pregnancies. Many of the differentially expressed genes in IVF-ET are involved in essential placental functions, and moreover, they provide a ready resource of molecular markers to assess the association between placental function and safety in IVF-ET offspring.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (22) ◽  
pp. 12116
Shingo Haneda ◽  
Pouya Dini ◽  
Alejandro Esteller-Vico ◽  
Kirsten E. Scoggin ◽  
Edward L. Squires ◽  

A sufficient vascular network within the feto-maternal interface is necessary for placental function. Several pregnancy abnormalities have been associated with abnormal vascular formations in the placenta. We hypothesized that growth and expansion of the placental vascular network in the equine (Equus caballus) placenta is regulated by estrogens (estrogen family hormones), a hormone with a high circulating concentration during equine gestation. Administration of letrozole, a potent and specific inhibitor of aromatase, during the first trimester (D30 to D118), decreased circulatory estrone sulfate concentrations, increased circulatory testosterone and androstenedione concentrations, and tended to reduce the weight of the fetus (p < 0.1). Moreover, the gene expression of CYP17A1 was increased, and the expression of androgen receptor was decreased in the D120 chorioallantois (CA) of letrozole-treated mares in comparison to that of the control mares. We also found that at D120, the number of vessels tended to decrease in the CAs with letrozole treatment (p = 0.07). In addition, expression of a subset of angiogenic genes, such as ANGPT1, VEGF, and NOS2, were altered in the CAs of letrozole-treated mares. We further demonstrated that 17β-estradiol increases the expression of ANGPT1 and VEGF and increases the angiogenic activity of equine endothelial cells in vitro. Our results from the estrogen-suppressed group demonstrated an impaired placental vascular network, suggesting an estrogen-dependent vasculogenesis in the equine CA during the first trimester.

Cheryl S. Rosenfeld

The conceptus is most vulnerable to developmental perturbation during its early stages when the events that create functional organ systems are being launched. As the placenta is in direct contact with maternal tissues, it readily encounters any xenobiotics in her bloodstream. Besides serving as a conduit for solutes and waste, the placenta possesses a tightly regulated endocrine system that is, of itself, vulnerable to pharmaceutical agents, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and other environmental toxicants. To determine whether extrinsic factors affect placental function, transcriptomics and other omics approaches have become more widely used. In casting a wide net with such approaches, they have provided mechanistic insights into placental physiological and pathological responses and how placental responses may impact the fetus, especially the developing brain through the placenta-brain axis. This review will discuss how such omics technologies have been utilized to understand effects of EDCs, including the widely prevalent plasticizers bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), and phthalates, other environmental toxicants, pharmaceutical agents, maternal smoking, and air pollution on placental gene expression, DNA methylation, and metabolomic profiles. It is also increasingly becoming clear that miRNA (miR) are important epigenetic regulators of placental function. Thus, the evidence to date that xenobiotics affect placental miR expression patterns will also be explored. Such omics approaches with mouse and human placenta will assuredly provide key biomarkers that may be used as barometers of exposure and can be targeted by early mitigation approaches to prevent later diseases, in particular neurobehavioral disorders, originating due to placental dysfunction.

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