extrinsic factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Qihua Liu ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Jingyi Zhou ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
Yiran Li

This purpose of this study is to develop a research model by extending the theory of planned behavior in a new application context, and applies it to investigate the extrinsic factors influencing people’s attitude towards donating to medical crowdfunding projects appearing on mobile social networking sites (MSNS) and their intention to donate. A survey of 356 Chinese users was conducted and structural equation modeling was used to validate the proposed model and hypotheses. The results indicate that project information, retweeter information and MSNS information all have the significant effect on the general attitude towards donating to medical crowdfunding projects, and general attitude positively affects people’s donation intention. In addition, perceived behavioral control also has positive effect on people’s donation intention, while experienced donating to medical crowdfunding projects has negative effect on people’s donation intention. The research findings provide important theoretical and practical implications.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 206
Katharina Pälchen ◽  
Ben Van den Wouwer ◽  
Dorine Duijsens ◽  
Marc E. Hendrickx ◽  
Ann Van Loey ◽  

Processing results in the transformation of pulses’ structural architecture. Consequently, digestion is anticipated to emerge from the combined effect of intrinsic (matrix-dependent) and extrinsic (processed-induced) factors. In this work, we aimed to investigate the interrelated effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on pulses’ structural architecture and resulting digestive consequences. Three commercially relevant pulses (chickpea, pea, black bean) were selected based on reported differences in macronutrient and cell wall composition. Starch and protein digestion kinetics of hydrothermally processed whole pulses were assessed along with microstructural and physicochemical characteristics and compared to the digestion behavior of individual cotyledon cells isolated thereof. Despite different rates of hardness decay upon hydrothermal processing, the pulses reached similar residual hardness values (40 N). Aligning the pulses at the level of this macrostructural property translated into similar microstructural characteristics after mechanical disintegration (isolated cotyledon cells) with comparable yields of cotyledon cells for all pulses (41–62%). We observed that processing to equivalent microstructural properties resulted in similar starch and protein digestion kinetics, regardless of the pulse type and (prolonged) processing times. This demonstrated the capacity of (residual) hardness as a food structuring parameter in pulses. Furthermore, we illustrated that the digestive behavior of isolated cotyledon cells was representative of the digestion behavior of corresponding whole pulses, opening up perspectives for the incorporation of complete hydrothermally processed pulses as food ingredients.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104858
Carel Viljoen ◽  
Dina C (Christa) Janse van Rensburg ◽  
Willem van Mechelen ◽  
Evert Verhagen ◽  
Bruno Silva ◽  

ObjectiveTo review and frequently update the available evidence on injury risk factors and epidemiology of injury in trail running.DesignLiving systematic review. Updated searches will be done every 6 months for a minimum period of 5 years.Data sourcesEight electronic databases were searched from inception to 18 March 2021.Eligibility criteriaStudies that investigated injury risk factors and/or reported the epidemiology of injury in trail running.ResultsNineteen eligible studies were included, of which 10 studies investigated injury risk factors among 2 785 participants. Significant intrinsic factors associated with injury are: more running experience, level A runner and higher total propensity to sports accident questionnaire (PAD-22) score. Previous history of cramping and postrace biomarkers of muscle damage is associated with cramping. Younger age and low skin phototypes are associated with sunburn. Significant extrinsic factors associated with injury are neglecting warm-up, no specialised running plan, training on asphalt, double training sessions per day and physical labour occupations. A slower race finishing time is associated with cramping, while more than 3 hours of training per day, shade as the primary mode of sun protection and being single are associated with sunburn. An injury incidence range 0.7–61.2 injuries/1000 hours of running and prevalence range 1.3% to 90% were reported. The lower limb was the most reported region of injury, specifically involving blisters of the foot/toe.ConclusionLimited studies investigated injury risk factors in trail running. Our review found eight intrinsic and nine extrinsic injury risk factors. This review highlighted areas for future research that may aid in designing injury risk management strategies for safer trail running participation.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42021240832.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Charles Nignan ◽  
Bèwadéyir Serge Poda ◽  
Simon Péguédwindé Sawadogo ◽  
Hamidou Maïga ◽  
Kounbobr Roch Dabiré ◽  

AbstractThe mating behaviour of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae complex is an important aspect of its reproduction biology. The success of mosquito release programmes based on genetic control of malaria crucially depends on competitive mating between both laboratory-reared and wild individuals, and populations from different localities. It is known that intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence the mating success. This study addressed some of the knowledge gaps about factors influcencing mosquito mating success. In semi-field conditions, the study compared the mating success of three laboratory-reared and wild allopatric An. coluzzii populations originating from ecologically different locations in Burkina Faso. Overall, it was found that colonization reduced the mating competitiveness of both males and females compared to that of wild type individuals. More importly, females were more likely to mate with males of their own population of origin, be it wild or colonised, suggesting that local adaptation affected mate choice. The observations of mating behaviour of colonized and local wild populations revealed that subtle differences in behaviour lead to significant levels of population-specific mating. This is the first study to highlight the importance of local adaptation in the mating success, thereby highlighting the importance of using local strains for mass-rearing and release of An. coluzzii in vector control programmes.

Therdsak Prammananan ◽  
Deanpen Japrung

Abstract The pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is responsible for tuberculosis, which is well known as the globally leading cause of death. The likelihood of false negative interpretation as well as potential influence from intrinsic and extrinsic factors are considerably minimized by the incorporation of internal control (IC) detection in the developed assay platform. Ratiometric electrochemical (REC) biosensor for detection of MTB was developed based on the IC integration via duplex PCR (dPCR) and a dual-signal electrochemical readout. The MTB- or IC-specific PNA probe was labeled with methylene blue (MB) or ferrocene (FC), respectively at the C terminus, producing a strong square wave voltammetry signal. Interaction of the ICdPCR product could induce changes in the dynamics of these two redox-labeled PNA probes (MTB-MB and IC-FC) that were attached to the screen-printed gold electrode via formation of a self-assembled monolayer. Using this MB as a reporter and FC as an IC, the REC ICdPCR biosensor achieved a broad detection range from 10 fM to 10 nM and a detection limit of 1.26 fM, corresponding to approximately 2.5 bacteria cells. The REC ICdPCR biosensor was applied to MTB measurement in practical samples, exhibiting high accuracy and more importantly high practicability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Gina Gheorghe ◽  
Camelia Cristina Diaconu ◽  
Vlad Ionescu ◽  
Gabriel Constantinescu ◽  
Nicolae Bacalbasa ◽  

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive malignant neoplastic diseases. The incidence and mortality rates of this disease vary depending on geographical area, which might be explained by the different exposure to risk factors. To improve the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer, different approaches are needed for an earlier diagnosis. Identification of risk factors and implementation of screening strategies are essential for a better prognosis. Currently, the risk factors for pancreatic cancer fall into two broad categories, namely extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors include alcohol consumption, smoking, a diet rich in saturated fats, and viral infections such as chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. The pathophysiological mechanisms explaining how these hepatotropic viruses contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer are not fully elucidated. The common origin of hepatocytes and pancreatic cells in the multipotent endodermal cells, the common origin of the blood vessels and biliary ducts of the pancreas and the liver, or chronic inflammatory changes may be involved in this interaction. A careful monitoring of patients with viral liver infections may contribute to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and improve the prognosis of these patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 527-538
Diah Pranitasari ◽  
Irfan Maulana

This study aims to determine the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence students' motivation to complete their thesis by using self-efficacy variables, the need for achievement, campus environment, and lecturer learning methods to the motivation to complete their thesis at the Indonesian College of Economics. This research method is a questionnaire survey method. The population in this study were morning regular students and evening regular students of the Indonesian College of Economics who graduated in 2019 by 311 people and the study sample was 164 people. The analysis used is SEM- PLS and SmartPLS 3.0 software. The results of this study indicate 3 variables that affect regular morning students: (1) Self-efficacy affects the motivation to complete a thesis of 29.1%. (2) The need for achievement influences the motivation to complete the thesis by 31.9%. (3) Campus environment towards motivation to complete the thesis is 37.5%. And there are 2 variables that affect regular night students: (1) The need for achievement influences the motivation to complete the thesis by 55.5%. (2) The campus environment influences the motivation to complete the thesis by 40.3%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Dimitrios Lytras ◽  
Evaggelos Sykaras ◽  
Paris Iakovidis ◽  
Konstantinos Kasimis ◽  
Ioannis Myrogiannis ◽  

Background. Elderly falls constitute a global problem with huge social and economic aspects. Fall risk factors are both intrinsic (physical and psychological) and extrinsic (related with environmental safety). Aim. To record both intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors and their correlation in elderly fallers in order to suggest specific guidelines for their medical care and environmental modification inside and outside the home. Method. The study involved 150 elderly fallers (median age 70 (67-74)), who completed a record containing information on known risk factors related to their health status, as well as information on the conditions and causes that led to the fall. Each fall was considered an independent event, while measurements were performed regarding balance, strength, their functional ability, and the fear of a possible fall. Descriptive analysis and frequency analysis were used to record the health and activity status of the participants as well as the fall-related environmental factors. Severity of each fall event across a variety of locations was examined using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the effect of the mean values of functional tests and medical records on the number of fall events. Results. In the span of 12 months, a total of 304 fall events were recorded. Regarding location, 77.6% occurred indoors; more frequent were the bedroom (28.6%) and the bathroom (28%). The interior stairs (10.5%), the kitchen (4.9%), and the living room (3.3%) were the less frequent locations. Concerning danger, falling on the interior stairs caused the longest hospitalization, followed by the kitchen and the bathroom. Extrinsic factors that led to both indoor and outdoor falls were the administration of psychotropic medication, poor space ergonomics, lack of basic safety standards, and poor lighting conditions. Vision problems and dizziness resulted in more falls than other intrinsic factors. Furthermore, reduced performance in the FICSIT-4 test and the 30-Second Chair Stand Test, as well as high scores in the CONFbal–GREEK questionnaire and the Short FES-I, shows a linear relationship with an increased number of falls. Conclusions. Ergonomic interventions can help prevent indoor elderly falls. Poor construction and lack of adequate lighting mainly cause outdoor falls. Regular eye examinations, management of vertigo, improvement of the balance and strength of the lower limbs, and reduction of fear of impending falls are the intrinsic factors that help prevent falls the most.

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Antonio Enrico Zaurito ◽  
Markus Tschurtschenthaler

The intestinal mucosa is a highly absorptive organ and simultaneously constitutes the physical barrier between the host and a complex outer ecosystem. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) represent a special node that receives signals from the host and the environment and translates them into corresponding responses. Specific molecular communication systems such as metabolites are known to transmit information across the intestinal boundary. The gut microbiota or food-derived metabolites are extrinsic factors that influence the homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium, while mitochondrial and host-derived cellular metabolites determine the identity, fitness, and regenerative capacity of IECs. Little is known, however, about the role of intrinsic and extrinsic metabolites of IECs in the initiation and progression of pathological processes such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer as well as about their impact on intestinal immunity. In this review, we will highlight the most recent contributions on the modulatory effects of intestinal metabolites in gut pathophysiology, with a particular focus on metabolites in promoting intestinal inflammation or colorectal tumorigenesis. In addition, we will provide a perspective on the role of newly identified oncometabolites from the commensal and opportunistic microbiota in shaping response and resistance to antitumor therapy.

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