Differentially Expressed Genes
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2021 ◽  
Craig H Carlson ◽  
Yongwook Choi ◽  
Agnes P Chan ◽  
Christopher D Town ◽  
Lawrence B Smart

Many studies have highlighted the complex and diverse basis for heterosis in inbred crops. Despite the lack of a consensus model, it is vital that we turn our attention to understanding heterosis in undomesticated, heterozygous, and polyploid species, such as willow (Salix spp.). Shrub willow is a dedicated energy crop bred to be fast-growing and high yielding on marginal land without competing with food crops. A trend in willow breeding is the consistent pattern of heterosis in triploids produced from crosses between diploid and tetraploid species. Here, we test whether differentially expressed genes are associated with heterosis in triploid families derived from diploid S. purpurea, diploid S. viminalis, and tetraploid S. miyabeana parents. Three biological replicates of shoot tips from all family progeny and parents were collected after 12 weeks in the greenhouse and RNA extracted for RNA-Seq analysis. This study provides evidence that nonadditive patterns of gene expression are correlated with nonadditive phenotypic expression in interspecific triploid hybrids of willow. Expression-level dominance was most correlated with heterosis for biomass yield traits and was highly enriched for processes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. In addition, there was a global dosage effect of parent alleles in triploid hybrids, with expression proportional to copy number variation. Importantly, differentially expressed genes between family parents were most predictive of heterosis for both field and greenhouse collected traits. Altogether, these data will be used to progress models of heterosis to complement the growing genomic resources available for the improvement of heterozygous perennial bioenergy crops.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1616
Yongil Yang ◽  
Cory Gardner ◽  
Pallavi Gupta ◽  
Yanhui Peng ◽  
Cristiano Piasecki ◽  

The evolution of herbicide-resistant weed species is a serious threat for weed control. Therefore, we need an improved understanding of how gene regulation confers herbicide resistance in order to slow the evolution of resistance. The present study analyzed differentially expressed genes after glyphosate treatment on a glyphosate-resistant Tennessee ecotype (TNR) of horseweed (Conyza canadensis), compared to a susceptible biotype (TNS). A read size of 100.2 M was sequenced on the Illumina platform and subjected to de novo assembly, resulting in 77,072 gene-level contigs, of which 32,493 were uniquely annotated by a BlastX alignment of protein sequence similarity. The most differentially expressed genes were enriched in the gene ontology (GO) term of the transmembrane transport protein. In addition, fifteen upregulated genes were identified in TNR after glyphosate treatment but were not detected in TNS. Ten of these upregulated genes were transmembrane transporter or kinase receptor proteins. Therefore, a combination of changes in gene expression among transmembrane receptor and kinase receptor proteins may be important for endowing non-target-site glyphosate-resistant C. canadensis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Haitao Zhu ◽  
Hua Chen ◽  
Degang Ding ◽  
Shui Wang ◽  
Xiaofeng Dai ◽  

In an effort to bolster our understanding of regulation of bone formation in the context of osteoporosis, we screened out differentially expressed genes in osteoporosis patients with high and low bone mineral density by bioinformatics analysis. PIK3R1 is increasingly being nominated as a pivotal mediator in the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts that is closely related to bone formation. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the way that PIK3R1 affects bone metabolism are not fully elucidated. We intended to examine the potential mechanism by which PIK3R1 regulates osteoblast differentiation. Enrichment analysis was therefore carried out for differentially expressed genes. We noted that the estrogen signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and osteoclast differentiation were markedly associated with ossification, and they displayed enrichment in PIK3R1. Based on western blot, qRT-PCR, and differentiation analysis in vitro, we found that upregulation of PIK3R1 enhanced osteoblastic differentiation, as evidenced by increased levels of investigated osteoblast-related genes as well as activities of ALP and ARS, while it notably decreased levels of investigated osteoclast-related genes. On the contrary, downregulation of PIK3R1 decreased levels of osteoblast-related genes and increased levels of osteoclast-related genes. Besides, in vitro experiments revealed that PIK3R1 facilitated proliferation and repressed apoptosis of osteoblasts but had an opposite impact on osteoclasts. In summary, PIK3R1 exhibits an osteoprotective effect via regulating osteoblast differentiation, which can be represented as a promising therapeutic target for osteoporosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chenxi Xiang ◽  
Huimin Ni ◽  
Zhina Wang ◽  
Binbin Ji ◽  
Bo Wang ◽  

Over 50% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although there are a few therapeutic strategies for DLBCL, most of them are more effective in limited-stage cancer patients. The prognosis of patients with advanced-stage DLBCL is usually poor with frequent recurrence and metastasis. In this study, we aimed to identify gene expression and network differences between limited- and advanced-stage DLBCL patients, with the goal of identifying potential agents that could be used to relieve the severity of DLBCL. Specifically, RNA sequencing data of DLBCL patients at different clinical stages were collected from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Differentially expressed genes were identified using DESeq2, and then, weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and differential module analysis were performed to find variations between different stages. In addition, important genes were extracted by key driver analysis, and potential agents for DLBCL were identified according to gene-expression perturbations and the Crowd Extracted Expression of Differential Signatures (CREEDS) drug signature database. As a result, 20 up-regulated and 73 down-regulated genes were identified and 79 gene co-expression modules were found using WGCNA, among which, the thistle1 module was highly related to the clinical stage of DLBCL. KEGG pathway and GO enrichment analyses of genes in the thistle1 module indicated that DLBCL progression was mainly related to the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, neutrophil activation, secretory granule membrane, and carboxylic acid binding. A total of 47 key drivers were identified through key driver analysis with 11 up-regulated key driver genes and 36 down-regulated key diver genes in advanced-stage DLBCL patients. Five genes (MMP1, RAB6C, ACCSL, RGS21 and MOCOS) appeared as hub genes, being closely related to the occurrence and development of DLBCL. Finally, both differentially expressed genes and key driver genes were subjected to CREEDS analysis, and 10 potential agents were predicted to have the potential for application in advanced-stage DLBCL patients. In conclusion, we propose a novel pipeline to utilize perturbed gene-expression signatures during DLBCL progression for identifying agents, and we successfully utilized this approach to generate a list of promising compounds.

2021 ◽  
Breedge Callaghan ◽  
Karen Lester ◽  
Brian Lane ◽  
Xiaochen Fan ◽  
Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall ◽  

Abstract Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease resulting in progressive optic neuropathy and is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the predominant form affecting 65.5 million people globally. Despite the prevalence of POAG and the identification of over 120 glaucoma related genetic loci, the underlaying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling pathway is implicated in the molecular pathology of POAG. To gain a better understanding of the role TGF-β2 plays in the glaucomatous changes to the molecular pathology in the trabecular meshwork, we employed RNA-Seq to delineate the TGF-β2 induced changes in the transcriptome of normal primary human trabecular meshwork cells (HTM). We identified a significant number of differentially expressed genes and associated pathways that contribute to the pathogenesis of POAG. The differentially expressed genes were predominantly enriched in ECM regulation, TGF-β signalling, proliferation/apoptosis, inflammation/wound healing, MAPK signalling, oxidative stress and RHO signalling. Canonical pathway analysis confirmed the enrichment of RhoA signalling, inflammatory-related processes, ECM and cytoskeletal organisation in HTM cells in response to TGF-β2. We also identified novel genes and pathways that were affected after TGF-β2 treatment in the HTM, suggesting additional pathways are activated, including Nrf2, PI3K-Akt, MAPK and HIPPO signalling pathways. The identification and characterisation of TGF-β2 dependent differentially expressed genes and pathways in HTM cells is essential to understand the patho-physiology of glaucoma and to develop new therapeutic agents.

Hang Du ◽  
Jingling Tang ◽  
Xiaoyun Li ◽  
Xinjun Wang ◽  
Liyun Wu ◽  

Lymph node metastasis indicates a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of lymph node metastasis, we analyzed transcriptome characteristics of the pre-metastatic lymph node, a putative microenvironment favorable for the seeding and proliferation of cancer cells. Thus, we tried to compare and elucidate the transcriptional and immune characteristics of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) with matched non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSNs) in colorectal cancer patients. In this study, a total of 38 pairs of SNs and NSNs were collected, in which 26 pairs of non-metastatic lymph nodes were subjected to RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis for the gene expression profiles. There were 16 differentially expressed genes between SNs and NSNs being identified, including 9 upregulated and 7 downregulated genes in SN. Gene Ontology (GO) classification analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in leukocyte differentiation, chemokine secretion, and immune system regulation. In the meantime, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that immune-related signaling pathways, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling, were enriched in NSN, while cell proliferation–related signaling pathways were enriched in SN, including MYC signaling and G2M checkpoint signaling. We further identified SIGLEC15 as a top upregulated gene in SN. However, RNAscope assay showed that SIGLEC15 was not largely co-expressed with M2 macrophage marker CD163. We then selected eight pairs of lymph nodes for further cytological studies. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that Siglec-15 was expressed on all myeloid cell subsets. The relative expression of SEGLEC15 (SN/NSN) was correlated with the microsatellite instability (MSI) status in colorectal cancer patients. Further studies found that small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-mediated silencing of SLGLEC15 can enhance the anti-tumor function of T cells, as indicated by cytokine release analysis. In conclusion, we presented here a first report on the gene expression profiling of the pre-metastatic lymph node in colorectal cancer. The findings in this study suggest that SIGLEC15 plays an important role in SN immunosuppression. SEGLEC15 silencing could be a therapeutic strategy for restoring T cell function in tumor SNs.

2021 ◽  
Rebecca K Marcus ◽  
Sammy Ferri-Borgogno ◽  
Abdel Hosein ◽  
Wai Chin Foo ◽  
Bidyut Ghosh ◽  

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a primary biliary malignancy that harbors a dismal prognosis. Oncogenic mutations of KRAS and loss of function mutations of BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) have been identified as recurrent somatic alterations in ICC. However, an autochthonous genetically engineered mouse model of ICC that genocopies the co-occurrence of these mutations has never been developed. By crossing Albumin-Cre mice bearing conditional alleles of mutant Kras and/or floxed Bap1, Cre-mediated recombination within the liver was induced. Mice with hepatic expression of mutant KrasG12D alone (KA), bi-allelic loss of hepatic Bap1 (BhomoA), and heterozygous loss of Bap1 in conjunction with mutant KrasG12D expression (BhetKA) developed primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but no discernible ICC. In contrast, mice with homozygous loss of Bap1 in conjunction with mutant KrasG12D expression (BhomoKA) devel-oped discrete foci of HCC and ICC. Further, the median survival of BhomoKA mice was significantly shorter at 24 weeks, when compared to median survival of ≥40 weeks in BhetKA mice and approximately 50 weeks in BhomoA and KA mice (p <0.001). Microarray analysis performed on liver tissue from KA and BhomoKA mice identified differentially expressed genes in the setting of BAP1 loss and suggests that deregulation of ferroptosis might be one mechanism by which loss of BAP1 cooperates with oncogenic Ras in hepato-biliary carcinogenesis. Our autochthonous model provides an in vivo platform to further study this lethal class of neoplasm.

2021 ◽  
Tengfei Dou ◽  
Shixiong Yan ◽  
Lixian Liu ◽  
Kun Wang ◽  
Zonghui Jian ◽  

Abstract Background: Melanin is an important antioxidant in food, and has been used in medicine and cosmetology. Chicken meat with high melanin content from black-boned chickens have been considered a high nutritious food with potential medicinal properties. The molecular mechanism of melanogenesis of skeletal muscle in black-boned chickens remain poorly understood. This study investigated the biological gene-metabolite associations regulating the muscle melanogenesis pathways in Wuliangshan black-boned chickens with two normal boned chicken breeds as control.Results: We identified 25 differentially expressed genes and 11 transcription factors in the melanogenesis pathways. High levels of the meat flavor compounds inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine, lysophospholipid, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, and nicotinamide mononucleotide were found in Wuliangshan black-boned chickens.Conclusion: Integrative analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed the dual physiological functions of the PDZK1 gene, involved in pigmentation and/or melanogenesis and regulating the phospholipid signaling processes in muscle of black boned chickens.

2021 ◽  
Longjiang Di ◽  
Maoli Gu ◽  
Yan Wu ◽  
Guoqiang Liu ◽  
Lishuo Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Prostate cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in male individuals. The Synaptosome associated protein 25 (SNAP25) gene is a key mediator of multiple biological functions in tumours. However, its significant impact on the prognosis in prostate cancer remains to be elucidated.Methods We performed a comprehensive analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset (TCGA) to identify the differentially expressed genes between prostate cancer and normal prostate tissue. We subjected the differentially expressed genes to gene ontology analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional analysis, and constructed a protein-protein interaction network. We then screened for pivotal genes to identify the hub genes of prognostic significance by performing Cox regression analysis. We identified SNAP25 as one such gene and analysed the relationship between its expression in prostate cancer to poor prognosis using Studio R. Results TCGA database demonstrated that SNAP25 was significantly downregulated in prostate cancer, and that its expression was significantly correlated with the Gleason score and pathological TNM stage of patients. The association between SNAP25 expression and tumour-infiltrating immune cells was evaluated using the Tumour Immune Estimation Resource site. Gene set enrichment and gene ontology analyses were used to analyse the function of SNAP25. We found that SNAP25 expression strongly correlated with overall survival in the Gleason score. In addition, SNAP25 was involved in the activation, differentiation, and migration of immune cells, and its expression was positively correlated with immune infiltration, including of B cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. SNAP25 expression was also positively correlated with chemokines/chemokine receptors, suggesting that SNAP25 might regulate the migration of immune cells. These molecular experiment results validate the low expression of SNAP25 seen in prostate cancer cells.Conclusion Our findings indicate a relationship between SNAP25 expression and prostate cancer, demonstrating that SNAP25 is a potential prognostic biomarker due to its vital role in immune infiltration.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Bin Gao ◽  
Lijuan Wang ◽  
Na Zhang ◽  
Miaomiao Han ◽  
Yubo Zhang ◽  

<b><i>Objective:</i></b> Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) is a common cancer with high morbidity and mortality in renal cancer. Thus, the transcriptome data of KIRC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were analyzed and drug candidates for the treatment of KIRC were explored through the connectivity map (CMap) database. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The transcriptome data of KIRC patients were downloaded from TCGA database, and KIRC-associated hub genes were screened out through differential analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Afterward, the CMap database was used to select drug candidates for KIRC treatment, and the drug-targeted genes were obtained through the STITCH database. A PPI network was constructed by combining drug-targeted genes with hub genes that affected the pathogenesis of KIRC to obtain final hub genes. Finally, combining hub genes and KIRC-associated hub genes, the pathways affected by drugs were explored by pathway enrichment analysis. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A total of 2,312 differentially expressed genes were found in patients, which were concentrated in immune cell activity, cytokine, and chemokine secretion pathways. Drug screening disclosed 5 drug candidates for KIRC treatment: fedratinib, Ly344864, geldanamycin, AS-605240, and luminespib. Based on drug-targeted genes and KIRC-associated hub genes, 16 hub genes were screened out. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that drugs mainly affected pathways such as neuroactive ligand pathways, cell adhesion, and chemokines. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> The above results indicated that fedratinib, LY 344864, geldanamycin, AS-605240, and luminespib could be used as candidates for KIRC therapy. The findings from this study will make contributions to the treatment of KIRC in the future.

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