Mountainous Terrain
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 154-159
A. Subanova

A study was carried out of women with arterial hypotension against the background of the development of the pathological state of the fetus and newborns born to women living in two different climatic regions of Osh city and in the highlands of Chon-Alay district of Osh region. In the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications caused by arterial hypotension, the leading importance is attached to vascular disorders and microcirculation disorders, leading to systemic hemodynamic changes in the body of a pregnant woman. It was found that in mountainous terrain, arterial hypotension and exogenous hypoxia affect the “mother–placenta–fetus–newborn” system, increasing the load on the respiratory, circulatory and hematopoietic organs of the mother, and also leads to impaired placental function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 60-73
Petrit Imeraj ◽  
Maaruf Ali ◽  
Gent Imeraj

The Albanian Alps are situated in a mountainous block in the Northern Albania region, in the counties of Shkodër (also known as Shkodra or Gegëria) and Kukës (Kukësi). The nature of the mountainous terrain formation has led to the creation of isolated communities. The need for integrating these scattered communities into a cohesive co-operating community for area sustainability is now possible by using the Internet to link them all onto an online system. To deal with natural catastrophes, disaster management cells will be created which will serve as hubs. These hubs will be located at geographically strategic positions that will enable a predetermined geofenced region for evaluation of different disasters viz. forest fires, landslide, flooding, avalanches, the burial of villages under heavy snowfalls, etc. These cells will connect the particular case with the most appropriate disaster relief, rescue service and EMR (Emergency Medical Responder), first aid services (e.g. Green Crescent/Red Cross) and EMT (Emergency Medical Technician) personnel. The cells shall be managed by locally trained human resources with the necessary equipment to provide the monitoring/analyses and first aid assistance in case of need. The technology needed for the monitoring and geotechnical management of the isolated Alpine communities will be described. The socio-economic impact of the deployment of these technologies aiding in the sustainability of these vulnerable communities will conclude the research.

Oscar López ◽  

A common perception about contemporary art is the perception that it excludes a majority of people as being its legitimate viewers or judges, by virtue of the fact that it contains exclusive or encrypted messages. A small, privileged group of experts grant value, acceptance and endow public popularity of such works for the market and media. In this research we seek to provide an insight into a cluster of contemporary abstract art forms and show how such art forms anticipate closer and more common sensory and hermeneutic experience. Art like that of Hamish Fulton is built on experiences that enables us to connect with them, thereby redefining the concepts and ideas of these arts through an alternative phenomenological experience of their methods and processes of making art. Fulton’s art is based on a visual translation of his experiences of healing walks through mountainous terrain. We may build a personal, general methodology of interpretation by building personal synergistic links with the methods of creation – that could in turn generate therapeutic effects both in the viewer or in the interpreter of such art, through self-reflection and re-construction of the concepts proposed in the framing. Likewise, we will reflect briefly on art therapeutic projects that we studied for patients with ADHD. We analyze the expressions and suggest a method of therapeutic art creation based on similar processes as in Fulton.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
pp. 285-297
Władysław Makarski

The article presents the state of research into the toponym Biłgoraj: initially incorrectly interpreted as a topographic name consisting of the segment Biel- “swamp” (>Ukrainian Bił-) and the morpheme -goraj “mountainous terrain”. Another interpretation of this toponym says that this name is memorial and physiographic in nature, with its first physiographic part coming from the local adjective *bieły (in general Polish biały “white”), shortened to Bieł- (>Ukrainian Bił-), referring to the first part of the name of the river *Bieła Łada < Biała Łada, which Biłgoraj is located on, and the second morpheme – the memorial one taken from the name of a nearby settlement Goraj, which was the seat of the ancestors of Adam Gorajski, the founder of Biłgoraj, a settlement also located on the river Biała Łada.

Yin Long ◽  
Yoshikuni Yoshida ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Alexandros Gasparatos

Abstract The transport sector is a major contributor to anthropogenic climate change through the emissions of large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from fossil fuel combustion. Private vehicles account for almost half of the transport energy demand, and are thus a major target of climate change mitigation efforts. However, emissions from private vehicles can have large variability due to various geographic, demographic and socioeconomic factors. This study aims to understand how such factors affect private vehicle emissions in Japan using a nationally representative survey of household energy consumption (n=7,370) for 2017. The results indicate a large temporal and spatial variability in private vehicle emissions. Annual emissions show three peaks associated with major holiday seasons in winter and summer. Some of the more noteworthy spatial patterns are the higher emissions in prefectures characterized by low population density and mountainous terrain. Income, city size and the fuel-saving driving behavior all have a significant effect on emissions. The results indicate the need for sub-regional and socioeconomically-sensitive mitigation efforts that reflect the very different emission patterns, and the factors affecting them. The strong effect of city size, which is often much more clear-cut than between prefectures, suggests that it is more appropriate to approach transport decarbonization in Japan at the city level.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 8121
Maria Torres-Falcon ◽  
Omar Rodríguez-Abreo ◽  
Francisco Antonio Castillo-Velásquez ◽  
Alejandro Flores-Rangel ◽  
Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz ◽  

In Mexico and many parts of the world, land cargo transport units (UTTC) operate at high speeds, causing accidents, increased fuel costs, and high levels of polluting emissions in the atmosphere. The speed in road driving, by the carriers, has been a factor little studied; however, it causes serious damage. This problem is reflected in accidents, road damage, low efficiency in the life of the engine and tires, low fuel efficiency, and high polluting emissions, among others. The official Mexican standard NOM-012-SCT-2-2017 on the weight and maximum dimensions with which motor transport vehicles can circulate, which travel through the general communication routes of the federal jurisdiction, establishes the speed limit at the one to be driven by an operator. Because of the new reality, the uses and customs of truck operators have been affected, mainly in their operating expenses. In this work, a mathematical model is presented with which the optimum driving speed of a UTTC is obtained. The speed is obtained employing the equality between the forces required to move the motor unit and the force that the tractor has available. The required forces considered are the force on the slope, the aerodynamic force, and the friction force, and the force available was considered the engine torque. This mathematical method was tested in seven routes in Mexico, obtaining significant savings of fuel above 10%. However, the best performance route possesses 65% flat terrain and 35% hillocks without mountainous terrain, regular type of highway, and a load of 20,000 kg, where the savings increase up to 16.44%.

2021 ◽  
John Sykes ◽  
Pascal Haegeli ◽  
Yves Bühler

Abstract. Potential avalanche release area (PRA) modelling is critical for generating automated avalanche terrain maps which provide low-cost large scale spatial representations of snow avalanche hazard for both infrastructure planning and recreational applications. Current methods are not applicable in mountainous terrain where high-resolution elevation models are unavailable and do not include an efficient method to account for avalanche release in forested terrain. This research focuses on expanding an existing PRA model to better incorporate forested terrain using satellite imagery and presents a novel approach for validating the model using local expertise, thereby broadening its application to numerous mountain ranges worldwide. The study area of this research is a remote portion of the Columbia Mountains in southeastern British Columbia, Canada which has no pre-existing high-resolution spatial data sets. Our research documents an open source workflow to generate high-resolution DEM and forest land cover data sets using optical satellite data processing. We validate the PRA model by collecting a polygon dataset of observed potential release areas from local guides, using a method which accounts for the uncertainty of human recollection and variability of avalanche release. The validation dataset allows us to perform a quantitative analysis of the PRA model accuracy and optimize the PRA model input parameters to the snowpack and terrain characteristics of our study area. Compared to the original PRA model our implementation of forested terrain and local optimization improved the percentage of validation polygons accurately modelled by 11.7 percentage points and reduced the number of validation polygons that were underestimated by 14.8 percentage points. Our methods demonstrate substantial improvement in the performance of the PRA model in forested terrain and provide means to generate the requisite input datasets and validation data to apply and evaluate the PRA model in vastly more mountainous regions worldwide than was previously possible.

Stephen R. Sobie ◽  
Trevor Q. Murdock

Abstract Information about snow water equivalent in southwestern British Columbia is used for flood management, agriculture, fisheries, and water resource planning. This study evaluates whether a process-based, energy balance snow model supplied with high-resolution statistically downscaled temperature and precipitation data can effectively simulate snow water equivalent (SWE) in the mountainous terrain of this region. Daily values of SWE from 1951 to 2018 are simulated at 1 km resolution and evaluated using a reanalysis SWE product (SNODAS), manual snow survey measurements at 41 sites, and automated snow pillows at six locations in the study region. Simulated SWE matches observed inter-annual variability well (R2 > 0.8 for annual maximum SWE) but peak SWE biases of 20% to 40% occur at some sites in the study domain, and higher biases occur where observed SWE is very low. Modelled SWE displays lower bias compared to SNODAS reanalysis at most manual survey locations. Future projections for the study area are produced using 12 downscaled climate model simulations and used to illustrate the impacts of climate change on SWE at 1°C, 2°C, and 3°C of warming. Model results are used to quantify spring SWE changes at different elevations of the Whistler mountain ski resort, and the sensitivity of annual peak SWE in Metro Vancouver municipal watersheds to moderate temperature increases. The results illustrate both the potential utility of a process-based snow model, and identify areas where the input meteorological variables could be improved.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 804-820
Quynh T. Tran ◽  
Kevin Davies ◽  
Saeed Sepasi

In remote areas, extending a power line to the primary electricity grid can be very expensive and power losses are high, making connections to the grid almost impossible. A well-designed microgrid that integrates renewable energy resources can help remote areas reduce investment costs and power losses while providing a reliable power source. Therefore, investigating the design of an independent and economically practical microgrid system for these areas is necessary and plays an important role. This paper introduces a design procedure to design an isolated microgrid using HOMER software for remote areas. In Vietnam, due to the obstruction of the mountainous terrain or the isolated island location, many remote areas or islands need electrification. A simple case study of a hybrid system with a 60 kW peak load demand on Con Dao island in Vietnam is used to illustrate the proposed design method. Specifically, a hybrid system that includes a PV system, batteries, and a diesel generator is designed. To provide the full information of the designed hybrid system designed, each solution is analyzed and evaluated in detail according to the sensitivity parameters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2083 (3) ◽  
pp. 032083
Qi Zhou ◽  
Yuxiang Zhu ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Jiceng Han

Abstract At present, the wind tunnel test results will have certain deviation and distortion when the wind tunnel test is conducted on certain mountainous terrain with complex local terrain and large variation of wind field characteristics due to the accuracy range of the measuring instruments used in wind tunnel test. In order to correct and obtain correct wind tunnel test results, the wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations were conducted on a super-large bridge in the mountainous area of Southwest China, and the wind parameters of the wind field at the bridge site were obtained. The CFD results were compared with the wind tunnel test results to confirm the credibility of the CFD results; a method was proposed to correct the deviated wind tunnel test data based on the CFD simulation results; the deviated wind tunnel test data were corrected and predicted with the above method, and a more satisfactory correction result was obtained.

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