treatment discontinuation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Kate St. Cyr ◽  
Jenny J. W. Liu ◽  
Heidi Cramm ◽  
Anthony Nazarov ◽  
Renee Hunt ◽  

Abstract Background Military-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex diagnosis with non-linear trajectories of coping and recovery. Current approaches to the evaluation of PTSD and treatment discontinuation often rely on biomedical models that dichotomize recovery based on symptom thresholds. This approach may not sufficiently capture the complex lived experiences of Veterans and their families. To explore conceptualizations of recovery, we sought perspectives from Veterans and their partners in a pilot study to understand: 1) how Veterans nearing completion of treatment for military-related PTSD and their partners view recovery; and 2) the experience of progressing through treatment towards recovery. Methods We employed a concurrent mixed methods design. Nine Veterans nearing the end of their treatment at a specialized outpatient mental health clinic completed quantitative self-report tools assessing PTSD and depressive symptom severity, and an individual, semi-structured interview assessing views on their treatment and recovery processes. Veterans’ partners participated in a separate interview to capture views of their partners’ treatment and recovery processes. Descriptive analyses of self-report symptom severity data were interpreted alongside emergent themes arising from inductive content analysis of qualitative interviews. Results While over half of Veterans were considered “recovered” based on quantitative assessments of symptoms, individual reflections of “recovery” were not always aligned with these quantitative assessments. A persistent narrative highlighted by participants was that recovery from military-related PTSD was not viewed as a binary outcome (i.e., recovered vs. not recovered); rather, recovery was seen as a dynamic, non-linear process. Key components of the recovery process identified by participants included a positive therapeutic relationship, social support networks, and a toolkit of adaptive strategies to address PTSD symptoms. Conclusions For participants in our study, recovery was seen as the ability to navigate ongoing issues of symptom management, re-engagement with meaningful roles and social networks, and a readiness for discontinuing intensive, specialized mental health treatment. The findings of this study highlight important considerations in balancing the practical utility of symptom severity assessments with a better understanding of the treatment discontinuation-related needs of Veterans with military-related PTSD and their families, which align with a contemporary biopsychosocial approach to recovery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kosuke Ebina ◽  
Toru Hirano ◽  
Yuichi Maeda ◽  
Wataru Yamamoto ◽  
Motomu Hashimoto ◽  

AbstractThis multi-center, retrospective study aimed to clarify the factors affecting drug retention of the Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi) including baricitinib (BAR) and tofacitinib (TOF) in patients with RA. Patients were as follows; females, 80.6%; age, 60.5 years; DAS28-ESR, 4.3; treated with either BAR (n = 166) or TOF (n = 185); bDMARDs- or JAKi-switched cases (76.6%). The reasons for drug discontinuation were classified into four major categories. The drug retention was evaluated at 24 months using the Kaplan–Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modelling adjusted by confounders. Discontinuation rates for the corresponding reasons were as follows; ineffectiveness (22.3%), toxic adverse events (13.3%), non-toxic reasons (7.2%) and remission (0.0%). Prior history of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody (aIL-6R) ineffectiveness significantly increased the risk of treatment discontinuation due to ineffectiveness (p = 0.020). Aging (≥ 75 years) (p = 0.028), usage of PSL ≥ 5 mg/day (p = 0.017) and female sex (p = 0.041) significantly increased the risk of treatment discontinuation due to toxic adverse events. Factors not associated with treatment discontinuation were: number of prior bDMARDs or JAKi, concomitant MTX usage, difference of JAKi, and prior use of TNF inhibitor, CTLA4-Ig or other JAKi.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 207
Francesca Romana Mauro ◽  
Francesca Paoloni ◽  
Stefano Molica ◽  
Gianluigi Reda ◽  
Livio Trentin ◽  

The GIMEMA group investigated the efficacy, safety, and rates of discontinuations of the ibrutinib and rituximab regimen in previously untreated and unfit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Treatment consisted of ibrutinib, 420 mg daily, and until disease progression, and rituximab (375 mg/sqm, given weekly on week 1–4 of month 1 and day 1 of months 2–6). This study included 146 patients with a median age of 73 years, with IGHV unmutated in 56.9% and TP53 disrupted in 22.2%. The OR, CR, and 48-month PFS rates were 87%, 22.6%, and 77%, respectively. Responses with undetectable MRD were observed in 6.2% of all patients and 27% of CR patients. TP53 disruption (HR 2.47; p = 0.03) and B-symptoms (HR 2.91; p = 0.02) showed a significant and independent impact on PFS. The 48-month cumulative rates of treatment discontinuations due to disease progression (DP) or adverse events (AEs) were 5.6% and 29.1%, respectively. AEs leading more frequently to treatment discontinuation were atrial fibrillation in 8% of patients, infections in 8%, and non-skin cancers in 6%. Discontinuation rates due to AEs were higher in male patients (HR: 0.46; p = 0.05), patients aged ≥70 years (HR 5.43, p = 0.0017), and were managed at centers that enrolled <5 patients (HR 5.1, p = 0.04). Patients who discontinued ibrutinib due to an AE showed a 24-month next treatment-free survival rate of 63%. In conclusion, ibrutinib and rituximab combination was an effective front-line treatment with sustained disease control in more than half of unfit patients with CLL. Careful monitoring is recommended to prevent and manage AEs in this patient population.

2021 ◽  
Eda Çelik ◽  
Ömer Araz ◽  
Buğra Kerget ◽  
Elif Yılmazel Uçar ◽  
Metin Akgün ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality that can reduce quality of life due to long-term complications during and after treatment discontinuation. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients for these complications before discontinuing treatment and determine the necessity of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) imaging.Methods: This retrospective study included 116 patients over the age of 18 who received anticoagulant treatment for at least 3 months and presented for treatment discontinuation to the Atatürk University Research Hospital Chest Diseases Outpatient Clinic between January 2015 and September 2019. Results: CTPA performed at treatment discontinuation showed complete thrombus resolution with treatment in 73 patients (62.9%). High pulmonary artery obstruction index (PAOI) at diagnosis was statistically associated with findings of residual or chronic thrombus on CTPA at treatment discontinuation (p=0.001). In the differentiation of patients with residual/chronic thrombus and those with thrombus resolution, D-dimer at a cut-off value of 474 µg/L had 60% sensitivity and 70% specificity. At a cut-off value of 35.5 mmHg, mean pulmonary artery pressure on echocardiography had sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 77%, respectively. At a cut-off of 23.75, PAOI had sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 69%, respectively.Discussion: In addition to physical examination findings, D-dimer and echocardiography were guiding parameters in the evaluation of treatment discontinuation and thrombus resolution in patients presenting to the outpatient clinic for discontinuation of treatment for acute PTE. PAOI at diagnosis may be another important guiding parameter in addition to these examinations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Michael Auer ◽  
Anne Zinganell ◽  
Harald Hegen ◽  
Gabriel Bsteh ◽  
Franziska Di Pauli ◽  

AbstractNatalizumab (NTZ) has been used for treatment of highly active relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). When stopping NTZ the risk of severe rebound phenomenon has to be considered. We aimed to investigate the use of NTZ in clinical routine and focused on identification of potential risk factors for disease reactivation after treatment discontinuation. At the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria, we identified all MS patients who were treated with NTZ and performed a retrospective analysis on therapeutic decision making, disease course before, during and after treatment with NTZ and on risk factors for disease reactivation after NTZ discontinuation. 235 NTZ treated MS patients were included, of whom 105 had discontinued treatment. At NTZ start disease duration was 5.09 (IQR 2.09–10.57) years, average number of total relapses was 4 (IQR 3–6) and median EDSS 2.0 (range 0–6.5), whereby these values significantly decreased over time. Reduction of annualized relapse rate (ARR) on treatment was 93% and EDSS remained stable in 64%. In multivariate regression models only conversion to secondary progressive MS (SPMS) on treatment was significantly associated with lower risk of disease reactivation after NTZ, while ARR before treatment was associated with earlier disease reactivation. We could confirm the high therapeutic efficacy of NTZ which trends to be used earlier in the disease course nowadays. Discontinuation of NTZ seems safe only in patients who convert to SPMS during treatment, while higher ARR before NTZ increases the risk of disease reactivation after treatment discontinuation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Maria Terhart ◽  
Jasper Mecklenburg ◽  
Lars Neeb ◽  
Lucas Hendrik Overeem ◽  
Anke Siebert ◽  

Abstract Background Migraine preventive treatment with CGRP(−receptor) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has a positive effect on patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The German treatment guidelines recommend discontinuing successful treatment with CGRP(−receptor) mAbs after 6–12 months. We aimed to evaluate headache-specific and generic HRQoL for three months after discontinuation of CGRP(−receptor) mAb treatment. Methods We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study, including patients with migraine after 8–12 months of therapy with a CGRP(−R) mAb and before a planned discontinuation attempt. HRQoL was assessed at the time of the last mAbs injection (V1), eight weeks later (V2), and sixteen weeks later (V3). For headache-specific HRQoL, we used the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6). Generic HRQoL was determined with the EuroQol-5-Dimension-5-Level (ED-5D-5L) form, and the Short-Form 12 (SF-12), which comprises a Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) and a Mental Component Summary (MCS-12). Questionnaires’ total scores were compared across the three observation points using nonparametric procedures. Results The study cohort consisted of n = 61 patients (n = 29 treated with the CGRP-receptor mAb erenumab and n = 32 with the CGRP mAbs galcanezumab or fremanezumab). The HIT-6 sum score was 59.69 ± 6.90 at V1 and increased by 3.69 ± 6.21 at V3 (p < 0.001), indicating a greater headache impact on patients’ lives. The mean total EQ-D5-L5 score declined from 0.85 ± 0.17 at V1 by − 0.07 ± 0.18 at V3 (p = 0.013). Both Mental and Physical Component Scores of the SF-12 worsened significantly during treatment discontinuation: The PCS-12 total score decreased by − 4.04 ± 7.90 from V1 to V3 (p = 0.013) and the MCS-12 score by − 2.73 ± 9.04 (p = 0.003). Changes in all questionnaires’ scores but the MCS-12 were already significant in the first month of the drug holiday (V2). Conclusions Our results show a significant decline in headache impact and generic HRQoL of migraine patients after treatment discontinuation of a CGRP(−R) mAb. The observed deterioration is above the established minimally clinically important differences for each of the questionnaires and can therefore be considered clinically meaningful. Monitoring HRQoL during a discontinuation attempt could facilitate the decision whether or not to resume preventive treatment with CGRP(−R) mAbs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Md Mahmudul Hasan ◽  
Gary J. Young ◽  
Jiesheng Shi ◽  
Prathamesh Mohite ◽  
Leonard D. Young ◽  

Abstract Background Buprenorphine is a widely used treatment option for patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). Premature discontinuation from this treatment has many negative health and societal consequences. Objective To develop and evaluate a machine learning based two-stage clinical decision-making framework for predicting which patients will discontinue OUD treatment within less than a year. The proposed framework performs such prediction in two stages: (i) at the time of initiating the treatment, and (ii) after two/three months following treatment initiation. Methods For this retrospective observational analysis, we utilized Massachusetts All Payer Claims Data (MA APCD) from the year 2013 to 2015. Study sample included 5190 patients who were commercially insured, initiated buprenorphine treatment between January and December 2014, and did not have any buprenorphine prescription at least one year prior to the date of treatment initiation in 2014. Treatment discontinuation was defined as at least two consecutive months without a prescription for buprenorphine. Six machine learning models (i.e., logistic regression, decision tree, random forest, extreme-gradient boosting, support vector machine, and artificial neural network) were tested using a five-fold cross validation on the input data. The first-stage models used patients’ demographic information. The second-stage models included information on medication adherence during the early phase of treatment based on the proportion of days covered (PDC) measure. Results A substantial percentage of patients (48.7%) who started on buprenorphine discontinued the treatment within one year. The area under receiving operating characteristic curve (C-statistic) for the first stage models varied within a range of 0.55 to 0.59. The inclusion of knowledge regarding patients’ adherence at the early treatment phase in terms of two-months and three-months PDC resulted in a statistically significant increase in the models’ discriminative power (p-value < 0.001) based on the C-statistic. We also constructed interpretable decision classification rules using the decision tree model. Conclusion Machine learning models can predict which patients are most at-risk of premature treatment discontinuation with reasonable discriminative power. The proposed machine learning framework can be used as a tool to help inform a clinical decision support system following further validation. This can potentially help prescribers allocate limited healthcare resources optimally among different groups of patients based on their vulnerability to treatment discontinuation and design personalized support systems for improving patients’ long-term adherence to OUD treatment.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 3151-3151
Mascha Binder ◽  
Axel Matzdorff ◽  
Falk Nimmerjahn ◽  
Mathias Rummel ◽  
Oliver Meyer ◽  

Abstract BACKGROUND: Eltrombopag is an oral, small-molecule, non-peptide thrombopoietin receptor agonist (TPO-RA) that increases hematopoiesis by inducing proliferation and differentiation of early bone marrow progenitor cells leading to increased platelet production (Erickson-Miller et al., 2010, Sun et al., 2012). Eltrombopag has demonstrated efficacy in adult and pediatric patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and has a well-established safety profile. It is approved in Europe for the treatment of thrombocytopenia, from 6 months following diagnosis, in patients with primary ITP who are refractory to other treatments (e.g. corticosteroids, immunoglobulins). The efficacy of eltrombopag for achieving hemostatic platelet counts (≥ 50 × 10 9/L) in previously treated adult ITP patients with more than 6 months' disease duration is around 80 % (Wong et al., 2017). However, there is insufficient data on safety and efficacy of TPO-RAs in newly diagnosed ITP patients. AIM: The aim of this trial (NCT04346654; CETB115JDE01) is to compare the ability of eltrombopag in combination with a short course of high-dose dexamethasone to induce a sustained response off treatment in comparison to dexamethasone monotherapy in newly diagnosed primary ITP patients. METHODS: This is a Phase II, multicenter, randomized (1:1), open-label study (see Figure 1). Arm A: Eltrombopag + short course of high-dose dexamethasone Arm B: 1-3 cycles of high-dose dexamethasone Adult patients with newly diagnosed primary ITP who have platelet counts &lt; 30 × 10 9/L and require treatment will be screened, and if eligible, will be randomized to either Arm A or Arm B. The study will be conducted in the following periods: Treatment / Tapering Period: Arm A: Patients will receive eltrombopag in combination with a short course of high-dose dexamethasone beginning at day 1. The dose of dexamethasone will be 40 mg QD (daily; quaque die) for 4 consecutive days and limited to 1 cycle. The starting dose of eltrombopag will be 50 mg QD in order to achieve the target platelet count of ≥ 50 × 10 9/L. Patients who reach platelet counts ≥ 30 × 10 9/L and maintain counts ≥ 30 × 10 9/L during the tapering phase (week 20 - week 26) will be eligible for treatment discontinuation starting from week 26. During the tapering phase, eltrombopag will be decreased by 25 mg every 2 weeks to a minimum dose of 25 mg every other day for all patients. Arm B: Treatment in the control arm consists of 1-3 cycles of high-dose dexamethasone administered orally at a dose of 40 mg QD for 4 consecutive days at 2-4 week intervals. Patients will be treated up to 12 weeks during the treatment period with dexamethasone. If the platelet counts are &gt; 150 × 10 9/L no further course of dexamethasone will be given. Patients who reach platelet counts ≥ 30 × 10 9/L and maintain counts ≥ 30 × 10 9/L after 1-3 cycles of dexamethasone treatment will be eligible for treatment discontinuation. Observation period: After completion of the treatment period, patients will be observed for sustained response off treatment defined as: maintain platelet counts ≥ 30 × 10 9/L after treatment discontinuation and no bleeding events ≥ Grade II and without the use of any rescue therapy until week 52 and week 78 respectively, after study start The study is designed to include 106 adult patients with newly diagnosed primary ITP at 30 sites in Germany. Patients meeting any of the following criteria are not eligible for inclusion in this study: Previous history of treatment for ITP except 3 days of ITP rescue medication within 7 days before study randomization Patients with diagnosis of secondary thrombocytopenia Patients who have life threatening bleeding complications per physician´s discretion Patients with a history of thromboembolic events or known risk factors for thromboembolism The primary objective is the rate of sustained responses off treatment at 52 weeks. Key secondary objectives include the duration of sustained response off treatment, the rate of sustained response off treatment at 78 weeks as well as patient-oriented outcomes for health-related quality of life. Currently, the study is recruiting patients, expected to be completed by 2022. CONCLUSION: This trial will evaluate the potential of eltrombopag in combination with steroids to increase the rate of sustained response off treatment in comparison to steroids alone in patients with previously untreated primary ITP. Figure 1 Figure 1. Disclosures Binder: Deutsche Krebsgellschaft, Medconcept GmbH, event Lab. GmbH: Honoraria, Other: Speaker Activity; Amgen GmbH, Janssen-Cilage GmbH, DGHO, Art tempi, Tumorzentrum Anhalt MD, Uniklinikum Hamburg, Sanofi Aventis: Honoraria, Other: Speaker Activity. Matzdorff: Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria; Argenx: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Grifols: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Roche: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company; UCB: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Meyer: Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria; Grifols: Consultancy, Honoraria; SOBI: Consultancy, Honoraria. Tesanovic: Novartis Pharma GmbH: Current Employment. Sauer: Novartis Pharma GmbH: Current Employment. OffLabel Disclosure: Eltrombopag is approved in Europe for the treatment of thrombocytopenia, from 6 months following diagnosis, in patients with primary ITP who are refractory to other treatments (e.g. corticosteroids, immunoglobulins). In this study Eltrombopag will be administered as first-line therapy in ITP.

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