vitro protein
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Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 199
Gokcen Kahraman ◽  
Sebnem Harsa ◽  
Maria Cristina Casiraghi ◽  
Mara Lucisano ◽  
Carola Cappa

The main objective of this study was to develop a healthy rice-based gluten-free bread by using raw, roasted, or dehulled chickpea flours. All breads containing chickpea flours showed a darker crust and were characterized by an alveolar (porosity 41.5–51.4%) and soft crumb (hardness 5.5-14.1 N). Roasted chickpea flour bread exhibited the highest specific volume, the softest crumb, and the slowest staling rate. Enriching rice-based breads with the chickpea flours resulted in increased protein (from 9.72 to 12.03–13.21 g/100 g dm), ash (from 2.01 to 2.45–2.78 g/100 g dm), fat (from 1.61 to 4.58–5.86 g/100 g), and total phenolic contents (from 49.36 up to 80.52 mg GAE/100 g dm), and in reduced (~10–14% and 13.7–17%, respectively) available starch levels and rapidly digestible starch compared to rice bread. Breads with roasted chickpea flour also showed the highest in vitro protein digestibility. The results of this study indicated that the enrichment of rice-based gluten-free breads with chickpea flours improved the technological and nutritional quality of the breads differently according to the processed chickpea flour used, also allowing recovery of a waste product.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 66-78
P. B. Bintu ◽  
A. S. Falmata ◽  
B. K. Maryam ◽  
R. O. Nnenna ◽  
A. L. Hasina ◽  

Awara, a Nigerian soft cheese analogue produced from soy milk using crude coagulant of citric acid and alum. Soybean and banjara bean were used in this study and were evaluated for their proximate composition, mineral element content, antinutritional factors, in vitro protein digestibility and vitamin content using standard procedures. Results obtained indicated that fermented banjara bean awara had a protein content of 2.15±0.01%, and fermented soybean awara had a protein content of 3.75±0.01%. Fermented banjara beans awara and soybean awara had a fat content of 5.16±0.01% and 17.13±0.01% respectively. There were significant differences in the mineral element content of both non fermented and fermented banjara bean and soybean awara. Level of antinutritional factors showed that both tannin and phytic acid were absent in fermented soybean awara. The in vitro protein digestibility of non-fermented and fermented banjara bean and soybean awara significantly increases with time. Vitamin A contents of fermented banjara and soybean awara increased when compared to non-fermented banjara and soybean awara, while a decrease was observed in non-fermented banjara and soybean awara as compared to fermented banjara bean and soybean awara. It can be concluded from this study that fermented soybean awara which is free of antinutritional factors is a more suitable source of protein and fat as a local cheese in this part of the world.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11349
Xiuju Li ◽  
Tommy Tu ◽  
Sicheng Quan ◽  
Francisco J. Quintero ◽  
Richard Fahlman ◽  

The mammalian Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a plasma membrane protein ubiquitously present in humans. It regulates intracellular pH by removing an intracellular proton in exchange for an extracellular sodium. It consists of a 500 amino acid membrane domain plus a 315 amino acid, regulatory cytosolic tail. Here, we investigated the effect of mutation of two amino acids of the regulatory tail, Ser785 and Ser787, that were similar in location and context to two amino acids of the Arabidopsis Na+/H+ exchanger SOS1. Mutation of these two amino acids to either Ala or phosphomimetic Glu did not affect surface targeting but led to a slight reduction in the level of protein expressed. The activity of the NHE1 protein was reduced in the phosphomimetic mutations and the effect was due to a decrease in Vmax activity. The Ser to Glu mutations also caused a change in the apparent molecular weight of both the full-length protein and of the cytosolic tail of NHE1. A conformational change in this region was indicated by differential trypsin sensitivity. We also found that a peptide containing amino acids 783–790 bound to several more proximal regions of the NHE1 tail in in vitro protein interaction experiments. The results are the first characterization of these two amino acids and show that they have significant effects on enzyme kinetics and the structure of the NHE1 protein.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1782
Rosa María Mariscal-Moreno ◽  
Cristina Chuck-Hernández ◽  
Juan de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas ◽  
Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar

The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical composition, thermal properties, quality, and sensorial characteristics of bread with substitution of wheat flour with ayocote bean (Phaseolus coccineus) or black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours at 10, 20, and 30%. Ayocote and black bean contain 21.06 and 23.94% of protein, 3.06 and 5.21% of crude fiber, and 3.1 and 5.21% of ash, respectively, directly influencing bread composition. Bread with ayocote and black bean presented higher values in those components in contrast with control bread. The protein content increased in a range of 14–34%; ash increased by 10% to double, and crude fiber also increased. In vitro protein digestibility was similar for bread with 10% of substitution and control, and it decreased in samples with 30% of wheat substitution. Thermal analysis by DSC denoted that the addition of those legumes reduces retrogradation, as seen in 45.33–65.65 °C endotherm, producing higher endotherms of amylose-lipid complexes and protein denaturalization. Finally, the addition of black bean and ayocote bean decreased specific volume when the replacement percentage was 30% black bean and 20 and 30% for ayocote. An increase in nutrient content without sensorial properties affectation could be observed in substitution around 10 and 20%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 358 ◽  
pp. 129830
Anne Rieder ◽  
Nils Kristian Afseth ◽  
Ulrike Böcker ◽  
Svein Halvor Knutsen ◽  
Bente Kirkhus ◽  

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2285
Gaetano Cardone ◽  
Rubina Rumler ◽  
Sofia Speranza ◽  
Alessandra Marti ◽  
Regine Schönlechner

Despite being considered a climate-resilient crop, sorghum is still underutilized in food processing because of the limited starch and protein functionality. For this reason, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sprouting time on sorghum functional properties and the possibility to exploit sprouted sorghum in bread making. In this context, red sorghum was sprouted for 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h at 27 °C. Sprouting time did not strongly affect the sorghum composition in terms of total starch, fiber, and protein contents. On the other hand, the developed proteolytic activity had a positive effect on oil-absorption capacity, pasting, and gelation properties. Conversely, the increased α-amylase activity in sprouted samples (≥36 h) altered starch functionality. As regards sorghum-enriched bread, the blends containing 48 h-sprouted sorghum showed high specific volume and low crumb firmness. In addition, enrichment in sprouted sorghum increased both the in vitro protein digestibility and the slowly digestible starch fraction of bread. Overall, this study showed that 48 h-sprouted sorghum enhanced the bread-making performance of wheat-based products.

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