essential amino acids
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Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 214
Daniela S. Poșta ◽  
Isidora Radulov ◽  
Ileana Cocan ◽  
Adina A. Berbecea ◽  
Ersilia Alexa ◽  

In this study, the nutritional potential of some hazelnut varieties from the spontaneous flora of Romania was analyzed as a means to increase the sustainability of the local production. The chemical composition from hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from spontaneous flora was determined in terms of mineral substances, protein, as well as essential and non-essential amino acids. The eight amino acids investigated had the following average values: Arg—0.68 g/100 g, Phe—0.415 g/100 g, Ser—0.277 g/100 g, Glu—0.188 g/100 g, Asp—0.133 g/100 g, Pro—0.038 g/100 g, and Lys—0.031 g/100 g. The average values of metal content were in the ranges: 88.39–146.98 µg·g−1 (Fe); 96.93–123.23 µg·g−1(Zn); 46.68–100.38 µg·g−1 (Cu); 26.00–87.78 µg·g−1 (Mn); 4.87–32.19 µg·g−1 (Ni); 1.87–2.84 µg·g−1 (Cr); and 1.29–1.86 µg·g−1 (Cd). Crude protein content values were in the range 16.33–22.31%. In order to harness this nutritional potential, the variety with superior quality indices was included, in the form of flour, in biscuit-type baked goods that were characterized from nutritional and sensory points of view. The results showed that the content of polyphenols increased with the addition of hazelnut flour, as did the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Stefan Dietrich ◽  
Iris Trefflich ◽  
Per Magne Ueland ◽  
Juliane Menzel ◽  
Katharina J. Penczynski ◽  

Abstract Purpose It has been estimated that most vegans meet the total protein requirements, but whether this is also true for individual essential amino acids (AAs) is unclear. Furthermore, a shift in protein intake is suggested to alter microbiota composition, but this association is unknown in terms of veganism or individual AAs. This cross-sectional study compared vegans and omnivores regarding dietary intake and plasma concentration of AAs. The prevalence of insufficient intake of essential AAs among vegans was determined using estimated average requirements (EAR) of WHO. Moreover, correlations between AAs intake and gut microbiota were investigated. Methods Data of 36 vegans and 36 omnivores (30–60 years) were analysed. AA intake, AA plasma concentrations and gut microbiota were ascertained by three-day weighed food protocols, gas/liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively. Results At almost the same energy intake, the intake of 9 AAs in vegans was significantly lower than in omnivores, with median differences of − 27.0% to − 51.9%. However, only one female vegan showed total protein and lysine intake below the EAR. Vegans showed lower lysine (− 25.0%), but higher glycine (+ 25.4%) and glutamate (+ 13.1%) plasma concentrations than omnivores. Correlation patterns between AA intake and bacterial microbiota differed between vegans and omnivores. In vegans 19 species and in omnivores 5 species showed correlations with AA intake. Conclusion Vegans consumed apparently sufficient but lower AAs than omnivores. In addition, the different AAs intake seems to influence the microbiota composition. The use of short-term dietary data without considering usual intake limits these findings.

Maryam Abdulkadir Dangambo ◽  
Adamu Jibrin Alhassan ◽  
Atiku Muhammad Kano ◽  
Hafiz Abubakar ◽  
Zinat Suleiman Muhammad

Background and aims: Amino acids composition of local and regional dietary proteins determines the protein quality. The study was aimed at evaluating amino acid profiles of some selected traditional diets commonly consumed in Jigawa (JG), Kano (KN) and Katsina (KT) States, Northwest Zone-Nigeria. Methods: The selected prepared diets (four per state) include; JG Tuwon masara using white maize served with Kuka soup (JG TMW SWKS), JG Tuwon masara using yellow maize served with Kuka soup (JG TMY SWKS), JG Danwake served with groundnut oil and pepper (JG Danwake SWGOP), JG Moimoi, KN Tuwon masara using white maize served with Kuka soup (KN TMW SWKS), KN Tuwon masara using yellow maize served with Kuka soup (KN TMY SWKS), KN rice and beans served with groundnut oil and pepper (KN Rice and Beans SWGOP), KN Danwake served with groundnut oil and pepper (KN Danwake SWGOP), KT Tuwon masara using white maize served with Kuka soup (KT TMW SWKS), KT Tuwon masara using yellow maize served with Kuka soup (KT TMY SWKS), KT Danwake served with groundnut oil and pepper (KT Danwake SWGOP) and KT Dambu. The preparations were dried and grounded into powdered form and analyzed using standard methods. Results: The amino acid profile of the diets consumed in the three states show higher content of total non-essential amino acids (NEAA) compared with essential amino acids (EAA). The amino acid score of the prepared diets though higher than the standard amino acid score by WHO/FAO/UNU (2007), may support the normal growth of all age groups except lysine. The limiting amino acid score was found to be either lysine or SAA (cysteine + methionine) in all the 3 states’ diets. Histidine was found to have the highest score in all the diets except in JG Moimoi and KN Danwake served with groundnut oil and pepper (SWGOP) respectively. The low levels of lysine and SAA in some of the diets may be due to low contents of these amino acids in the ingredients used. Conclusion: This study showed that, the amino acid score of the prepared diets though higher than the standard amino acid score established by WHO/FAO/UNU may support the normal growth of infants, children as well as adults except lysine. Keywords: traditional diets, amino acids, amino acid profile, amino acid score.

2022 ◽  
Zhanna Victorovna Novikova ◽  
Sophie Mikhailovna Sergeeva ◽  
Dmitry Sergeevich Lavrinovich ◽  
Anton Alexeyevich Maksimkin

This research examined the scientific basis for an integrated approach to broadening bread and flour products. The effect of chia seeds on the organoleptic and physical-chemical indicators of the ”sweet bun” (brioche) was studied to substantiate the use of plant raw materials in the technology of bread and flour product preparation.Chia seeds contain essential amino acids, vitamins (mainly B), minerals (calcium, potassium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc) and antioxidants, so it is possible to use chia seeds to obtain a product that combines high organoleptic properties and is also enriched with essential substances. The findings from the organoleptic evaluation of the test specimens indicated that the added ingredients significantly affected the appearance, crust color and crumb condition;however,there was no change in the taste and smell of the pastry. The effect of chia seeds on the quality of the products during storage was assessed. It was found that when using chia seeds in the amount of 10% of the mass of flour, after 24 hours the decline in taste, smell,crumb elasticity and friabilitywas less noticeable. In addition, the analysis of the chemical composition of the brioche bun showed thatthe products with chia seeds were highly nutritious. Thus, the content of dietary fiber in the model specimen wastwo times higher than the values of the control specimen (10% of the daily requirement); the content of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids was equivalent to 87.9% and 19.2% of the daily requirement, respectively. The use of chia seeds in a butter bun recipe (brioche) therefore enables theexpansion of the range of food products enriched with essential ingredients. Keywords: bread and flour products, sweet bun, brioche, chia seeds

2022 ◽  
Berra Erkosar ◽  
Cindy Dupuis ◽  
Fanny Cavigliasso ◽  
Loriane Savary ◽  
Hector Gallart-Ayala ◽  

Juveniles are often first to suffer from nutrient shortage, and juvenile undernutrition is likely an important force of natural selection shaping animal physiology, with consequences potentially extending into adulthood. We combined RNAseq, targeted metabolomics and genomics to study the consequences of experimental evolution under juvenile undernutrition for metabolism of reproductively active adult females of Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to six Control populations maintained on standard diet, six Selected populations evolved for over 230 generations on a nutrient-poor larval diet showed major changes in adult gene expression and metabolite abundance. In particular, Selected flies were relatively deficient in essential amino acids and purine nucleotides, but showed overabundance of several non-essential amino-acids involved in purine synthesis and overexpression of multiple enzymes catalyzing this pathway. Selected flies also accumulated medium-chain acylcarnitines suggestive of congestion in beta-oxidation, possibly linked to deficiency of electron transporters. Some aspects of the metabolic profile of Selected flies resembled that of flies subject to starvation. Furthermore, differences between Selected and Control populations in adult gene expression were in general positively correlated with differences in larval expression, consistent with pleiotropy in gene regulation between the life stages. Finally, Selected flies were less fit in terms of fecundity than Controls even when both were raised under the conditions under which the Selected populations evolved. These results suggest that evolutionary adaptation to juvenile undernutrition has large pleiotropic consequences for adult metabolism, and that they are costly rather than adaptive for adult fitness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 700-709
Malika MEZIANE ◽  
Abdelkader DILMI BOURAS ◽  

Wheat bread is a widely consumed commodity around the world. It is poor and imbalanced in some essential amino acids. The aim of this study is to fortify wheat bread with whey proteins (WP), in order to inhence its nutri-tional value and to improve the balance of its essential amino acids. The composition of the different flours and breads enriched with WP was deter-mined by standard methods. The alveograph’s results show that the tenacity increases and the deformation energy decreases with increasing incorpora-tion of WP. The addition of WP leads to a dough that is resistant to defor-mation, extensible for incorporation rates of 2.5% and 3% and less extensible for 10% and 20%. The results on the composition of the different breads show that the addition of WP contributes to the improvement of the amino acid profiles of the breads, especially for P10 and P20. It corrects, especially, the deficit and imbalance of the bread in essential amino acids. The assess-ments of the organoleptic characteristics show that the majority of the tast-ers find the P2.5 and P3 breads are very close to the commercial breads and sometimes better. These loaves have a nice external appearance, regular shape, crispy golden crust, light texture, good taste and smell. The develop-ment of the breads during vacuum storage is very satisfactory. They keep their crispness and a good crumbliness after 7 days.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 63-67
A. Ch. Gagloev ◽  
A. N. Negreeva ◽  
F. A. Musaev

Relevance. The article provides a justification for the use of sheep selection taking into account the intra-breed type of Prekos ewes in purebred breeding and crossing with producers of semi-fine wool breeds Romney-Marsh and Kuibyshevskaya to improve the biological usefulness of meat in offspring.Methods: scientific and economic experiment in the use of different selection options, taking into account the productive type of sheep of the Precos breed.Results. The article presents the results of a study on the influence of the selection of sheep on the composition of lambmeat, increasing the usefulness and quality of meat and, thus, the efficiency of its production. It was found that the content of water in the meat of crossbred animalswas lower compared to purebred Precos. There is a lower water content in the meat of rams obtained from sheep of the Precos meat-wool type, both in purebred and crossbred animals. In terms of the protein content in meat, there is an advantage in rams with purebred breeding and crossing compared to meat obtained from the wool-meat type of queens. In the hip bran of purebred animals and crossbreeds with the Kuibyshev breed, this superiority was 1.1% (Р > 0.95), and in the lumbar bran of Romney-Marsh crossbreeds, this difference was 1.6% (Р > 0.95). Mutton from the offspring of the sheep of meat-wool type is characterized by a significantly high content of the essential amino acids threanine, lysine, leucine, phenylanin and isoleucine in comparison with meat from the offspring of the wool-meat type of sheep. A significant superiority was also established in the content of interchangeable amino acids — oxyproline, serine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, aspartic and glutamic acid, cystine and analin.

2022 ◽  
pp. 8-11
Диана Сергеевна Свидерская ◽  
Анастасия Александровна Карабекова

Длительное время мы наблюдали снижение численности населения, происходящее во многих странах постсоветского пространства, которое говорит о кризисе в состоянии здоровья человека и населения страны в целом. К сожалению, это является причиной высокой смертности среди населения разного возраста, низкой продолжительности жизни, высокого порога заболеваемости. Все это одна из составляющих качества жизни населения страны, а именно общественного здоровья, которое напрямую характеризует национальную безопасность. Одной из первопричин наблюдаемой проблемы является дефицит пищевого белка, что находит отражение не только в экономической, но и в социальной составляющей нашей страны и всего мира в целом. Результаты проведенных многочисленных исследований сходятся в том, что в сутки человек должен потреблять 1-2 г белка на 1 кг веса тела, в зависимости от деятельности. Значение белка в рационе питания современного человека невозможно переоценить. Ведь развитие и сохранение мышц зависят от количества белка в потребляемых продуктах, так как он является так называемым строительным материалом для формирования клеток, что в свою очередь влияет на обмен веществ в организме. Достаточное содержание белка позволяет сократить процесс восстановления организма после болезней. Большое количество белка в продуктах позволяет повысить эффективность применяемых диет для похудения. Кроме того, белок является одним из основных источников незаменимых аминокислот. Белоксодержащие продукты включаются в рацион человека как носители белка и как продукты функционального назначения, которые придают пище привлекательность и характеризуются высокой пищевой ценностью и органолептическими показателями качества. For a long time, we have seen a decline in the population occurring in many countries of the post-Soviet space, which speaks of a crisis in the state of health of the person and the population of the country as a whole. Unfortunately, this is the cause of high mortality among the population of different ages, low life expectancy, and a high morbidity threshold. All this is one of the components of the quality of life of the population of the country, namely public health, which entails a threat to national security. One of the root causes of the observed problem is food protein deficiency. This is reflected not only in the economic component of our country and the whole world, but also in the social one. The results of numerous studies agree that a person should consume 1-2 g per 1 kg of body weight per day, depending on the activity. The importance of protein in the diet of modern humans cannot be overestimated. After all, the development and preservation of muscles depend on the amount of protein in the products consumed, as it serves as a building material in the process of cell development and metabolism in the body. Sufficient protein content allows you to reduce the process of recovery from diseases. A large amount of protein in foods allows you to increase the effectiveness of the diets used for weight loss. In addition, the protein is one of the main sources of essential amino acids. Protein-containing products are used not only as carriers of protein, but also as functional products that give food attractiveness and are characterized by high nutritional value and organoleptic quality indicators.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 422
Min Su ◽  
Marta Dell’Orto ◽  
Barbara Scaglia ◽  
Giuliana D’Imporzano ◽  
Alessia Bani ◽  

This paper demonstrated the growth ability of twelve algae-microbial consortia (AC) isolated from organic wastes when a pig slurry-derived wastewater (NFP) was used as growth substrate in autotrophic cultivation. Nutrient recovery, biochemical composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles of algae consortia were evaluated and compared. Three algae-microbial consortia, i.e., a Chlorella-dominated consortium (AC_1), a Tetradesmus and Synechocystis co-dominated consortium (AC_10), and a Chlorella and Tetradesmus co-dominated consortium (AC_12) were found to have the best growth rates (µ of 0.55 ± 0.04, 0.52 ± 0.06, and 0.58 ± 0.03 d−1, respectively), which made them good candidates for further applications. The ACs showed high carbohydrates and lipid contents but low contents of both proteins and essential amino acids, probably because of the low N concentration of NFP. AC_1 and AC_12 showed optimal ω6:ω3 ratios of 3.1 and 3.6, which make them interesting from a nutritional point of view.

2022 ◽  
pp. 59-62
Анна Валерьевна Гурьева ◽  
Мария Николаевна Рожкова

Пищевые привычки и потребности в питательных веществах складываются на протяжении всей жизни человека под влиянием различных факторов, однако неоспоримым остается факт биологической потребности организма в незаменимых аминокислотах и как следствие - в доступных, полноценных белках. Поиск новых источников белка и развитие технологий его получения, воспроизводства, переработки, сбережения всегда в центре внимания пищевой промышленности. Потребность растущего населения Земли в доступных пищевых ресурсах, богатых полноценным белком, с каждым годом только возрастает. Выбор оптимальной формулы, способа переработки или сочетания композиции натуральных белков растительного происхождения, способных выступать в качестве возобновляемого источника незаменимых аминокислот, в целях полноценной замены белков животного происхождения, в частности молочных, в соответствии с принципами экономической целесообразности является основной движущей силой исследований и разработок. Актуальность обзора сырьевых источников и формирование критериев выбора растительного сырья с целью применения в моделях конструирования рецептур обоснованы стремительным ростом популярности продукции растительного происхождения. Безмолочные белковые напитки и десерты сформировали существенную потребительскую нишу, стали обязательной частью диеты современных потребителей не только комплементарно или в качестве перекуса, но и в качестве отдельного полноценного приема пищи, что формирует устойчивые привычки здорового пищевого поведения. Nutritional habits and needs for nutrients develop throughout a person's life under the influence of various factors, but the fact of the body's biological need for essential amino acids, and as a result, for accessible, complete proteins, remains undeniable. The search for new sources of protein and the development of technologies for its production, reproduction, processing, saving are always in the center of attention of the food industry. The demand of the growing world population for affordable food resources rich in complete protein only increases every year. The choice of the optimal formula, processing method or combination of a composition of natural proteins of plant origin, capable of acting as a renewable source of essential amino acids, in order to fully replace proteins of animal origin, and, in particular, dairy proteins, in accordance with the principles of economic feasibility, is the main driving force of research and development. The relevance of the review of raw materials and the formation of criteria for the selection of vegetable raw materials for the purpose of application in models for designing formulations is justified by the rapid growth in the popularity of products of vegetable origin. Dairy-free protein drinks and desserts have formed a significant consumer niche, have become an obligatory part of the diet of modern consumers, not only as a complementary or as a snack, but also as a separate full meal, which forms stable healthy eating habits.

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