molecular subtypes
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Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 416
Martin Köbel ◽  
Eun Young Kang

The phenotypically informed histotype classification remains the mainstay of ovarian carcinoma subclassification. Histotypes of ovarian epithelial neoplasms have evolved with each edition of the WHO Classification of Female Genital Tumours. The current fifth edition (2020) lists five principal histotypes: high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC), mucinous carcinoma (MC), endometrioid carcinoma (EC) and clear cell carcinoma (CCC). Since histotypes arise from different cells of origin, cell lineage-specific diagnostic immunohistochemical markers and histotype-specific oncogenic alterations can confirm the morphological diagnosis. A four-marker immunohistochemical panel (WT1/p53/napsin A/PR) can distinguish the five principal histotypes with high accuracy, and additional immunohistochemical markers can be used depending on the diagnostic considerations. Histotypes are further stratified into molecular subtypes and assessed with predictive biomarker tests. HGSCs have recently been subclassified based on mechanisms of chromosomal instability, mRNA expression profiles or individual candidate biomarkers. ECs are composed of the same molecular subtypes (POLE-mutated/mismatch repair-deficient/no specific molecular profile/p53-abnormal) with the same prognostic stratification as their endometrial counterparts. Although methylation analyses and gene expression and sequencing showed at least two clusters, the molecular subtypes of CCCs remain largely elusive to date. Mutational and immunohistochemical data on LGSC have suggested five molecular subtypes with prognostic differences. While our understanding of the molecular composition of ovarian carcinomas has significantly advanced and continues to evolve, the need for treatment options suitable for these alterations is becoming more obvious. Further preclinical studies using histotype-defined and molecular subtype-characterized model systems are needed to expand the therapeutic spectrum for women diagnosed with ovarian carcinomas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lei Zhao ◽  
Fengfeng Lv ◽  
Ye Zheng ◽  
Liqiu Yan ◽  
Xufen Cao

Objective: Advancing age is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis (AS). Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains indistinct. Herein, this study conducted a comprehensive analysis of the biological implications of aging-related genes in AS.Methods: Gene expression profiles of AS and non-AS samples were curated from the GEO project. Differential expression analysis was adopted for screening AS-specific aging-related genes. LASSO regression analysis was presented for constructing a diagnostic model, and the discriminatory capacity was evaluated with ROC curves. Through consensus clustering analysis, aging-based molecular subtypes were conducted. Immune levels were estimated based on the expression of HLAs, immune checkpoints, and immune cell infiltrations. Key genes were then identified via WGCNA. The effects of CEBPB knockdown on macrophage polarization were examined with western blotting and ELISA. Furthermore, macrophages were exposed to 100 mg/L ox-LDL for 48 h to induce macrophage foam cells. After silencing CEBPB, markers of cholesterol uptake, esterification and hydrolysis, and efflux were detected with western blotting.Results: This study identified 28 AS-specific aging-related genes. The aging-related gene signature was developed, which could accurately diagnose AS in both the GSE20129 (AUC = 0.898) and GSE43292 (AUC = 0.685) datasets. Based on the expression profiling of AS-specific aging-related genes, two molecular subtypes were clustered, and with diverse immune infiltration features. The molecular subtype–relevant genes were obtained with WGCNA, which were markedly associated with immune activation. Silencing CEBPB triggered anti-inflammatory M2-like polarization and suppressed foam cell formation.Conclusion: Our findings suggest the critical implications of aging-related genes in diagnosing AS and modulating immune infiltrations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Jianjun Li ◽  
Hongbo Zhu ◽  
Qiao Yang ◽  
Hua Xiao ◽  
Haibiao Wu ◽  

Background. Esophagus cancer (ESCA) is the sixth most frequent cancer in males, with 5-year overall survival of 15%–25%. RNA modifications function critically in cancer progression, and m6A regulators are associated with ESCA prognosis. This study further revealed correlations between m6A and ESCA development. Methods. Univariate Cox regression analysis and consensus clustering were applied to determine molecular subtypes. Functional pathways and gene ontology terms were enriched by gene set enrichment analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis on differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was conducted for hub gene screening. Public drug databases were employed to study the interactions between hub genes and small molecules. Results. Three molecular subtypes related to ESCA prognosis were determined. Based on multiple analyses among molecular subtypes, 146 DEGs were screened, and a PPT network of 15 hub genes was visualized. Finally, 8 potential small-molecule drugs (BMS-754807, gefitinib, neratinib, zuclopenthixol, puromycin, sulfasalazine, and imatinib) were identified for treating ESCA. Conclusions. This study applied a new approach to analyzing the relation between m6A and ESCA prognosis, providing a reference for exploring potential targets and drugs for ESCA treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Claudia Cava ◽  
Alexandros Armaos ◽  
Benjamin Lang ◽  
Gian G. Tartaglia ◽  
Isabella Castiglioni

AbstractBreast cancer is a heterogeneous disease classified into four main subtypes with different clinical outcomes, such as patient survival, prognosis, and relapse. Current genetic tests for the differential diagnosis of BC subtypes showed a poor reproducibility. Therefore, an early and correct diagnosis of molecular subtypes is one of the challenges in the clinic. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes, long non-coding RNAs and RNA binding proteins for each BC subtype from a public dataset applying bioinformatics algorithms. In addition, we investigated their interactions and we proposed interacting biomarkers as potential signature specific for each BC subtype. We found a network of only 2 RBPs (RBM20 and PCDH20) and 2 genes (HOXB3 and RASSF7) for luminal A, a network of 21 RBPs and 53 genes for luminal B, a HER2-specific network of 14 RBPs and 30 genes, and a network of 54 RBPs and 302 genes for basal BC. We validated the signature considering their expression levels on an independent dataset evaluating their ability to classify the different molecular subtypes with a machine learning approach. Overall, we achieved good performances of classification with an accuracy >0.80. In addition, we found some interesting novel prognostic biomarkers such as RASSF7 for luminal A, DCTPP1 for luminal B, DHRS11, KLC3, NAGS, and TMEM98 for HER2, and ABHD14A and ADSSL1 for basal. The findings could provide preliminary evidence to identify putative new prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for individual breast cancer subtypes.

Fengjiao Chen ◽  
Hui Jing ◽  
Haitao Shang ◽  
Haoyan Tan ◽  
Haobo Yang ◽  

IntroductionTo explore the diagnostic value of combining superb microvascular imaging (SMI), shear-wave elastography (SWE), and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to distinguish different molecular subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).Material and methodsA total of 239 surgically confirmed IDC masses in 201 patients underwent conventional ultrasound, SMI, and SWE examination, the information such as echo pattern, posterior features, margins, SMI pixels, and hardness of the masses was recorded. According to the St. Gallen standard, breast masses were classified as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 overexpression, and triple-negative subtype. We further explored the differences between different molecular subtypes of IDC.ResultsLuminal A subtype had the following characteristics: low histologic grade, posterior acoustic shadowing (p= 0.019), spiculated margins (p<0.001) , and relatively soft. Luminal B subtype was characterized by low histological grade (p <0.0001), posterior acoustic shadowing or indifference, and indistinct margins. HER2 overexpression breast cancers were characterized by high histological grade, enhanced posterior acoustics or indifference, calcifications (p= 0.005), spiculated or indistinct margins, vascularity (p=0.005), and relative stiffness. Triple-negative breast cancers had the characteristics of high histological grade, posterior echogenic enhancement, lack of calcifications, circumscribed or microlobulated margins, low blood flow signals, and stiff tissue (p=0.013).ConclusionsOur study demonstrated the significant differences and trends among the IDC four subtypes by the combined application of SMI, SWE, and BI-RADS lexicon, which are of great significance for early diagnosis, selection of treatment methods, and evaluation of prognosis of IDC.

Daniele Palatresi ◽  
Filippo Fedeli ◽  
Ginevra Danti ◽  
Elisa Pasqualini ◽  
Francesca Castiglione ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Vanessa F. Bonazzi ◽  
Olga Kondrashova ◽  
Deborah Smith ◽  
Katia Nones ◽  
Asmerom T. Sengal ◽  

Abstract Background Endometrial cancer (EC) is a major gynecological cancer with increasing incidence. It comprises four molecular subtypes with differing etiology, prognoses, and responses to chemotherapy. In the future, clinical trials testing new single agents or combination therapies will be targeted to the molecular subtype most likely to respond. As pre-clinical models that faithfully represent the molecular subtypes of EC are urgently needed, we sought to develop and characterize a panel of novel EC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Methods Here, we report whole exome or whole genome sequencing of 11 PDX models and their matched primary tumor. Analysis of multiple PDX lineages and passages was performed to study tumor heterogeneity across lineages and/or passages. Based on recent reports of frequent defects in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway in EC, we assessed mutational signatures and HR deficiency scores and correlated these with in vivo responses to the PARP inhibitor (PARPi) talazoparib in six PDXs representing the copy number high/p53-mutant and mismatch-repair deficient molecular subtypes of EC. Results PDX models were successfully generated from grade 2/3 tumors, including three uterine carcinosarcomas. The models showed similar histomorphology to the primary tumors and represented all four molecular subtypes of EC, including five mismatch-repair deficient models. The different PDX lineages showed a wide range of inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity. However, for most PDX models, one arm recapitulated the molecular landscape of the primary tumor without major genomic drift. An in vivo response to talazoparib was detected in four copy number high models. Two models (carcinosarcomas) showed a response consistent with stable disease and two models (one copy number high serous EC and another carcinosarcoma) showed significant tumor growth inhibition, albeit one consistent with progressive disease; however, all lacked the HR deficiency genomic signature. Conclusions EC PDX models represent the four molecular subtypes of disease and can capture intra-tumor heterogeneity of the original primary tumor. PDXs of the copy number high molecular subtype showed sensitivity to PARPi; however, deeper and more durable responses will likely require combination of PARPi with other agents.

2022 ◽  
Shahan Mamoor

Patients diagnosed with basal-like breast cancer face a more aggressive disease course and more dismal prognosis than patients diagnosed with luminal A and luminal B breast cancer molecular subtypes (1-4). We mined published microarray data (5, 6) to understand in an unbiased fashion the most distinguishing transcriptional features of tumors from patients with basal or basal-like subtype breast cancer. We observed transcriptome-wide differential expression of SRY-box 11, SOX11, when comparing tumors of patients with basal-like breast cancer with that of other PAM50 molecular subtypes. SOX11 mRNA was present at significantly higher quantities in the tumors of patients with basal-like breast cancer. Analysis of patient survival data revealed that SOX11 primary tumor expression was correlated with overall survival, with higher SOX11 associated with inferior outcomes - in basal-like patients but not in luminal A, luminal B, HER2+, or normal-like patients. Elevated SOX11 expression appears to distinguish basal-like human breast cancer from the other molecular subtypes.

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