Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is one of the causative genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder. SOD1 aggregation contributes to ALS pathogenesis. A fraction of the protein is localized in the nucleus (nSOD1), where it seems to be involved in the regulation of genes participating in the oxidative stress response and DNA repair. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from sporadic ALS (sALS) patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 12) to perform RNA-sequencing experiments and differential expression analysis. Patients were stratified into groups with “high” and “low” levels of nSOD1. We obtained different gene expression patterns for high- and low-nSOD1 patients. Differentially expressed genes in high nSOD1 form a cluster similar to controls compared to the low-nSOD1 group. The pathways activated in high-nSOD1 patients are related to the upregulation of HSP70 molecular chaperones. We demonstrated that, in this condition, the DNA damage is reduced, even under oxidative stress conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of the nuclear localization of SOD1 as a protective mechanism in sALS patients.
During the last decade, paternal effects on embryo development have been found to have greater importance than previously believed. In domestic cattle, embryo mortality is an issue of concern, causing huge economical losses for the dairy cattle industry. In attempts to reveal the paternal influence on embryo death, recent approaches have used transcriptome profiling of the embryo to find genes and pathways affected by different phenotypes in the bull. For practical and economic reasons, most such studies have used in vitro produced embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in the global transcriptome of in vivo produced embryos, derived from sires with either high or low field fertility measured as the non-return rate (NRR) on day 56 after first AI of the inseminated cows. Superovulated heifers (n = 14) in the age span of 12–15 months were artificially inseminated with semen from either high fertility (n = 6) or low fertility (n = 6) bulls. On day seven after insemination, embryos were retrieved through uterine flushing. Embryos with first grade quality and IETS stage 5 (early blastocyst), 6 (blastocyst) or 7 (expanded blastocyst) were selected for further processing. In total, RNA extracted from 24 embryos was sequenced using Illumina sequencing, followed by differential expression analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. We found 62 genes differentially expressed between the two groups (adj.p-value<0.05), of which several genes and their linked pathways could explain the different developmental capacity. Transcripts highly expressed in the embryos from low fertility bulls were related to sterol metabolism and terpenoid backbone synthesis, while transcripts highly expressed in the high fertility embryos were linked to anti-apoptosis and the regulation of cytokine signaling. The leukocyte transendothelial migration and insulin signaling pathways were associated with enrichments in both groups. We also found some highly expressed transcripts in both groups which can be considered as new candidates in the regulation of embryo development. The present study is an important step in defining the paternal influence in embryonic development. Our results suggest that the sire’s genetic contribution affects several important processes linked to pre-and peri implantation regulation in the developing embryo.
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to all hallmarks of cancer, miRNA dysregulation in metastasis remains poorly understood. The aim of this work was to reliably identify miRNAs associated with metastatic progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) using novel and previously published next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets generated from 268 samples of primary (pCRC) and metastatic CRC (mCRC; liver, lung and peritoneal metastases) and tumor adjacent tissues. Differential expression analysis was performed using a meticulous bioinformatics pipeline, including only bona fide miRNAs, and utilizing miRNA-tailored quality control and processing. Five miRNAs were identified as up-regulated at multiple metastatic sites Mir-210_3p, Mir-191_5p, Mir-8-P1b_3p [mir-141–3p], Mir-1307_5p and Mir-155_5p. Several have previously been implicated in metastasis through involvement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and hypoxia, while other identified miRNAs represent novel findings. The use of a publicly available pipeline facilitates reproducibility and allows new datasets to be added as they become available. The set of miRNAs identified here provides a reliable starting-point for further research into the role of miRNAs in metastatic progression.
There is increasing evidence that changes in the variability or overall distribution of gene expression are important both in normal biology and in diseases, particularly cancer. Genes whose expression differs in variability or distribution without a difference in mean are ignored by traditional differential expression-based analyses. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model that provides tests for both differential variability and differential distribution for bulk RNA-seq data, we report here an investigation into differential variability and distribution in cancer. Analysis of eight paired tumour–normal datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas confirms that differential variability and distribution analyses are able to identify cancer-related genes. We further demonstrate that differential variability identifies cancer-related genes that are missed by differential expression analysis, and that differential expression and differential variability identify functionally distinct sets of potentially cancer-related genes. These results suggest that differential variability analysis may provide insights into genetic aspects of cancer that would not be revealed by differential expression, and that differential distribution analysis may allow for more comprehensive identification of cancer-related genes than analyses based on changes in mean or variability alone.
Objective: Advancing age is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis (AS). Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains indistinct. Herein, this study conducted a comprehensive analysis of the biological implications of aging-related genes in AS.Methods: Gene expression profiles of AS and non-AS samples were curated from the GEO project. Differential expression analysis was adopted for screening AS-specific aging-related genes. LASSO regression analysis was presented for constructing a diagnostic model, and the discriminatory capacity was evaluated with ROC curves. Through consensus clustering analysis, aging-based molecular subtypes were conducted. Immune levels were estimated based on the expression of HLAs, immune checkpoints, and immune cell infiltrations. Key genes were then identified via WGCNA. The effects of CEBPB knockdown on macrophage polarization were examined with western blotting and ELISA. Furthermore, macrophages were exposed to 100 mg/L ox-LDL for 48 h to induce macrophage foam cells. After silencing CEBPB, markers of cholesterol uptake, esterification and hydrolysis, and efflux were detected with western blotting.Results: This study identified 28 AS-specific aging-related genes. The aging-related gene signature was developed, which could accurately diagnose AS in both the GSE20129 (AUC = 0.898) and GSE43292 (AUC = 0.685) datasets. Based on the expression profiling of AS-specific aging-related genes, two molecular subtypes were clustered, and with diverse immune infiltration features. The molecular subtype–relevant genes were obtained with WGCNA, which were markedly associated with immune activation. Silencing CEBPB triggered anti-inflammatory M2-like polarization and suppressed foam cell formation.Conclusion: Our findings suggest the critical implications of aging-related genes in diagnosing AS and modulating immune infiltrations.
The clumping bamboo Bambusa oldhamii Munro, known as “green bamboo”, is famous for its edible bamboo shoots and fast-growing timber. The green and yellow striped-culm B. oldhamii variety, named B. oldhamii f. revoluta W.T. Lin & J. Y. Lin, is an attractive system for researching the culm color variation of B. oldhamii.
Millions of clean reads were generated and assembled into 604,900 transcripts, and 383,278 unigenes were acquired with RNA-seq technology. The quantification of ABA, IAA, JA, GA1, GA3, GA4, and GA7 was performed using HPLC–MS/MS platforms.
Differential expression analysis showed that 449 unigenes were differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 190 DEGs were downregulated and 259 DEGs were upregulated in B. oldhamii f. revoluta. Phytohormone contents, especially GA1 and GA7, were higher in B. oldhamii. Approximately 21 transcription factors (TFs) were differentially expressed between the two groups: the bZIP, MYB, and NF-YA transcription factor families had the most DEGs, indicating that those TFs play important roles in B. oldhamii culm color variation. RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the selected genes; moreover, phytohormone contents, especially those of ABA, GA1 and GA7, were differentially accumulated between the groups. Our study provides a basal gene expression and phytohormone analysis of B. oldhamii culm color variation, which could provide a solid fundamental theory for investigating bamboo culm color variation.
BackgroundWe seek to provide a comprehensive overview of transcriptomics responses of immune-related features of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata (Bg) following exposure to Schistosoma mansoni (Sm), a trematode causing human schistosomiasis. Responses of schistosome-susceptible (M line, or SUS) and -resistant (BS-90, or RES) Bg strains were characterized following exposure to Sm for 0.5, 2, 8 or 40 days post-exposure (dpe).MethodsRNA-Seq and differential expression analysis were undertaken on 56 snails from 14 groups. We considered 7 response categories: 1) constitutive resistance factors; 2) constitutive susceptibility factors; 3) generalized stress responses; 4) induced resistance factors; 5) resistance factors suppressed in SUS snails; 6) suppressed/manipulated factors in SUS snails; and 7) tolerance responses in SUS snails. We also undertook a gene co-expression network analysis. Results from prior studies identifying schistosome resistance/susceptibility factors were examined relative to our findings.ResultsA total of 792 million paired-end reads representing 91.2% of the estimated 31,985 genes in the Bg genome were detected and results for the 7 categories compiled and highlighted. For both RES and SUS snails, a single most supported network of genes with highly correlated expression was found.Conclusions1) Several constitutive differences in gene expression between SUS and RES snails were noted, the majority over-represented in RES; 2) There was little indication of a generalized stress response shared by SUS and RES snails at 0.5 or 2 dpe; 3) RES snails mounted a strong, multi-faceted response by 0.5 dpe that carried over to 2 dpe; 4) The most notable SUS responses were at 40 dpe, in snails shedding cercariae, when numerous features were either strongly down-regulated indicative of physiological distress or parasite manipulation, or up-regulated, suggestive of tolerance or survival-promoting effects; 5) Of 55 genes previously identified in genome wide mapping studies, 29 (52.7%) were responsive to Sm, as were many familiar resistance-associated genes (41.0%) identified by other means; 6) Both network analysis and remarkably specific patterns of expression of lectins and G protein-coupled receptors in categories 4, 6 and 7 were indicative of orchestrated responses of different suites of genes in SUS or RES snails following exposure to Sm.
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) interact with amine compounds called “trace amines” which are present in tissues at low concentrations. Recently, TAARs expression in neoplastic tumors was reported. In this study, TAARs expression was analyzed in public RNAseq datasets in nevi and melanoma samples and compared to the expression of dopamine receptors (DRDs) that are known to be involved in melanoma pathogenesis. It was found that all DRDs and TAARs are expressed in nevi at comparable levels. Differential expression analysis demonstrated the drastic decrease of TAAR1, TAAR2, TAAR5, TAAR6, and TAAR8 expression in melanomas compared to benign nevi with only TAAR6, TAAR8, and TAAR9 remaining detectable in malignant tumors. No association of TAARs expression levels and melanoma clinicopathological characteristics was observed. TAARs co-expressed genes in melanoma and nevi were selected by correlation values for comparative pathway enrichment analysis between malignant and benign neoplasia. It was found that coexpression of TAARs with genes inquired in neurotransmitter signaling is lost in melanoma, and tumor-specific association of TAAR6 expression with the mTOR pathway and inflammatory signaling is observed. It is not excluded that TAARs may have certain functions in melanoma pathogenesis, the significance of which to tumor progression is yet to be understood.
AbstractChanges in a few key transcriptional regulators can lead to different biological states. Extracting the key gene regulators governing a biological state allows us to gain mechanistic insights. Most current tools perform pathway/GO enrichment analysis to identify key genes and regulators but tend to overlook the gene/protein regulatory interactions. Here we present RegEnrich, an open-source Bioconductor R package, which combines differential expression analysis, data-driven gene regulatory network inference, enrichment analysis, and gene regulator ranking to identify key regulators using gene/protein expression profiling data. By benchmarking using multiple gene expression datasets of gene silencing studies, we found that RegEnrich using the GSEA method to rank the regulators performed the best. Further, RegEnrich was applied to 21 publicly available datasets on in vitro interferon-stimulation of different cell types. Collectively, RegEnrich can accurately identify key gene regulators from the cells under different biological states, which can be valuable in mechanistically studying cell differentiation, cell response to drug stimulation, disease development, and ultimately drug development.
Advanced gastric cancer is one of the most thrombogenic neoplasms. However, genetic mechanisms underlying this complication remain obscure, and the molecular and histological heterogeneity of this neoplasm hinder the identification of thrombotic biomarkers. Therefore, our main objective was to identify genes related to thrombosis regardless of Lauren subtypes. Furthermore, in a secondary exploratory study, we seek to discover thrombosis-associated genes that were specific to each TCGA molecular subtype. We designed a nested case-control study using the cohort of the AGAMENON national advanced gastric cancer registry. Ninety-seven patients were selected—48 with and 49 without venous thromboembolism (using propensity score matching to adjust for confounding factors)—and a differential gene expression array stratified by Lauren histopathological subtypes was carried out in primary tumor samples. For the secondary objective, the aforementioned differential expression analysis was conducted for each TCGA group. Fifteen genes were determined to be associated with thrombosis with the same expression trend in both the intestinal and diffuse subtypes. In thrombotic subjects, CRELD1, KCNH8, CRYGN, MAGEB16, SAA1, ARL11, CCDC169, TRMT61A, RIPPLY3 and PLA2G6 were underexpressed (adjusted-p < 0.05), while PRKD3, MIR5683, SDCBP, EPS8 and CDC45 were overexpressed (adjusted-p < 0.05), and correlated, by logistic regression, with lower or higher thrombotic risk, respectively, in the overall cohort. In each TCGA molecular subtype, we identified a series of genes differentially expressed in thrombosis that appear to be subtype-specific. We have identified several genes associated with venous thromboembolism in advanced gastric cancer that are common to Lauren intestinal and diffuse subtypes. Should these genetic factors be validated in the future, they could be complemented with existing clinical models to bolster the ability to predict thrombotic risk in individuals with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.