foam cell formation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (2) ◽  
Sanuja Fernando ◽  
Thalia Salagaras ◽  
Nisha Schwarz ◽  
Lauren Sandeman ◽  
Joanne T. M. Tan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lei Zhao ◽  
Fengfeng Lv ◽  
Ye Zheng ◽  
Liqiu Yan ◽  
Xufen Cao

Objective: Advancing age is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis (AS). Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains indistinct. Herein, this study conducted a comprehensive analysis of the biological implications of aging-related genes in AS.Methods: Gene expression profiles of AS and non-AS samples were curated from the GEO project. Differential expression analysis was adopted for screening AS-specific aging-related genes. LASSO regression analysis was presented for constructing a diagnostic model, and the discriminatory capacity was evaluated with ROC curves. Through consensus clustering analysis, aging-based molecular subtypes were conducted. Immune levels were estimated based on the expression of HLAs, immune checkpoints, and immune cell infiltrations. Key genes were then identified via WGCNA. The effects of CEBPB knockdown on macrophage polarization were examined with western blotting and ELISA. Furthermore, macrophages were exposed to 100 mg/L ox-LDL for 48 h to induce macrophage foam cells. After silencing CEBPB, markers of cholesterol uptake, esterification and hydrolysis, and efflux were detected with western blotting.Results: This study identified 28 AS-specific aging-related genes. The aging-related gene signature was developed, which could accurately diagnose AS in both the GSE20129 (AUC = 0.898) and GSE43292 (AUC = 0.685) datasets. Based on the expression profiling of AS-specific aging-related genes, two molecular subtypes were clustered, and with diverse immune infiltration features. The molecular subtype–relevant genes were obtained with WGCNA, which were markedly associated with immune activation. Silencing CEBPB triggered anti-inflammatory M2-like polarization and suppressed foam cell formation.Conclusion: Our findings suggest the critical implications of aging-related genes in diagnosing AS and modulating immune infiltrations.

2022 ◽  
Wenli Yang ◽  
William G Robichaux ◽  
Fang C Mei ◽  
Wel Lin ◽  
Li Li ◽  

Protein SUMOylation plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis when cells are under stress. However, precisely how SUMOylation is regulated, and a molecular mechanism linking cellular stress to SUMOylation remains elusive. Herein, we report that cAMP, a major stress-response second messenger, acts through Epac1 as a regulator of cellular SUMOylation. The Epac1-associated proteome is highly enriched with components of the SUMOylation pathway. Activation of Epac1 by intracellular cAMP triggers phase separation and the formation of nuclear condensates containing Epac1 and general components of the SUMOylation machinery to promote cellular SUMOylation. Furthermore, genetic knockout of Epac1 obliterates oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced cellular SUMOylation in macrophages, leading to suppression of foam cell formation. These results provide a direct nexus connecting two major cellular stress responses to define a molecular mechanism in which cAMP regulates the dynamics of cellular condensates to modulate protein SUMOylation.

Sanjiv Singh ◽  
Senti Changkija ◽  
Rajat Mudgal ◽  
V. Ravichandiran

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 334
Ji-Eun Kim ◽  
Jin-Sun Kim ◽  
Min-Jee Jo ◽  
Eunjung Cho ◽  
Shin-Young Ahn ◽  

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic indicators that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Visceral obesity and factors derived from altered adipose tissue, adipokines, play critical roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. Although the adipokines leptin and adiponectin improve insulin sensitivity, others contribute to the development of glucose intolerance, including visfatin, fetuin-A, resistin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Leptin and adiponectin increase fatty acid oxidation, prevent foam cell formation, and improve lipid metabolism, while visfatin, fetuin-A, PAI-1, and resistin have pro-atherogenic properties. In this review, we briefly summarize the role of various adipokines in the development of metabolic syndrome, focusing on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 562
Xiang Ji ◽  
Dan Liu ◽  
Feng Wu ◽  
Yu Cen ◽  
Lan Ma

Atherosclerosis and related complications are the most common causes of death in modern societies. Macrophage-derived foam cells play critical roles in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Effective, rapid, and instrument-independent detection in the early stage of chronic atherosclerosis progression could provide an opportunity for early intervention and treatment. Therefore, as a starting point, in this study, we aimed to isolate and prepare foam cell-specific polypeptides using a phage display platform. The six target polypeptides, which were acquired in this study, were evaluated by ELISA and showed strong specificity with foam cells. Streptavidin coupled quantum dots (QDs) were used as fluorescence developing agents, and images of biotin-modified polypeptides specifically binding with foam cells were clearly observed. The polypeptides obtained in this study could lay the foundation for developing a rapid detection kit for early atherosclerosis lesions and could provide new materials for research on the mechanisms of foam cell formation and the development of blocking drugs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Yali Zhang ◽  
Yu Fu ◽  
Linying Jia ◽  
Chenyang Zhang ◽  
Wenbin Cao ◽  

Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, most of which are caused by atherosclerosis. Discerning processes that participate in macrophage-to-foam cell formation are critical for understanding the basic mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. To explore the molecular mechanisms of foam cell formation, differentially expressed proteins were identified. Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and obtained macrophages were transformed into foam cells by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling combined with mass spectrometry was performed to find associations between foam cell transformation and proteome profiles. Results Totally, 5146 quantifiable proteins were identified, among which 1515 and 182 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in macrophage/monocyte and foam cell/macrophage, respectively. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that downregulated DEPs of macrophages/monocytes were mostly located in the nucleus, whereas upregulated DEPs of foam cells/macrophages were mostly extracellular or located in the plasma membrane. Functional analysis of DEPs demonstrated that cholesterol metabolism-related proteins were upregulated in foam cells, whereas immune response-related proteins were downregulated in foam cells. The protein interaction network showed that the DEPs with the highest interaction scores between macrophages and foam cells were mainly concentrated in lysosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. Conclusions Proteomics analysis suggested that cholesterol metabolism was upregulated, while the immune response was suppressed in foam cells. KEGG enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that DEPs located in the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes might be key drivers of foam cell formation. These data provide a basis for identifying the potential proteins associated with the molecular mechanism underlying macrophage transformation to foam cells.

2021 ◽  
Omar El Bounkari ◽  
Chunfang Zan ◽  
Jonas Wagner ◽  
Elina Bugar ◽  
Priscila Bourilhon ◽  

Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. It is a lipid-triggered chronic inflammatory condition of the arterial vascular wall that is driven by various inflammatory pathways including atherogenic cytokines and chemokines. D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT), also known as macrophage migration inhibitory factor-2 (MIF-2), belongs to the MIF protein family, which is best known for its pathogenic role in a variety of inflammatory and immune conditions including CVDs. While MIF is well known as a promoter of atherogenic processes, MIF-2 has not been studied in atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic Mif-2-/-Apoe-/- mice and studied the role of MIF-2 in various atherogenic assays in vitro. We found that global Mif-2 deficiency as well as its pharmacological blockade by 4-CPPC protected against atherosclerotic lesion formation and vascular inflammation in models of early and advanced atherogenesis. On cellular level, MIF-2 promoted monocyte migration in 2D and 3D and monocyte arrest on aortic endothelial monolayers, promoted B-cell chemotaxis in vitro and B-cell homing in vivo, and increased macrophage foam cell formation. Dose curves and direct comparison in a 3D migration set-up suggest that MIF-2 may be a more potent chemokine than MIF for monocytes and B cells. We identify CXCR4 as a novel receptor for MIF-2. The evidence relies on a CXCR4 inhibitor, CXCR4 internalization experiments, MIF-2/CXCR4 binding studies by yeast-CXCR4 transformants, and fluorescence spectroscopic titrations with a soluble CXCR4 surrogate. Of note, Mif-2-/- Apoe-/- mice exhibited decreased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, lower body weights, smaller livers, and profoundly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation compared to Apoe-/- mice. Mechanistic experiments in Huh-7 hepatocytes suggest that MIF-2 regulates the expression and activation of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1 and -2 (SREBP-1, SREBP-2) to induce lipogenic downstream genes such as FASN and LDLR, while it attenuated the activation of the SREBP inhibiting AMPK pathway. Studies using receptor Inhibitors showed that SREBP activation and hepatic lipoprotein uptake by MIF-2 is mediated by both CXCR4 and CD74. Lastly and in line with a combined role of MIF-2 in vascular inflammation and hepatic lipid accumulation, MIF-2 was found to be profoundly upregulated in unstable human carotid plaques, underscoring a critical role for MIF-2 in advanced stages of atherosclerosis. Together, these data identify MIF-2 as a novel atherogenic chemokine and CXCR4 ligand that not only promotes lesion formation and vascular inflammation but also strongly affects hepatic lipogenesis in an SREBP-mediated manner, possibly linking atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis.

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