A major terrifying ailment afflicting the humans throughout the world is brain tumor, which causes a lot of mortality among pediatric and adult solid tumors. Several major barriers to the treatment and diagnosis of the brain tumors are the specific micro-environmental and cell-intrinsic features of neural tissues. Absence of the nutrients and hypoxia trigger the cells’ mortality in the core of the tumors of humans’ brains: however, type of the cells’ mortality, including apoptosis or necrosis, has been not found obviously. Current studies have emphasized the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) since their crucial impacts on carcinogenesis have been discovered. Several investigations suggest the essential contribution of such molecules in the development of brain tumors and the respective roles in apoptosis. Herein, we summarize the apoptosis-related non-coding RNAs in brain tumors.
During spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to multiple unique environmental factors, particularly microgravity and ionizing radiation, that can cause a range of harmful health consequences. Over the past decades, increasing evidence demonstrates that the space environment can induce changes in gene expression and RNA processing. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) represent an emerging area of focus in molecular biology as they modulate chromatin structure and function, the transcription of neighboring genes, and affect RNA splicing, stability, and translation. They have been implicated in cancer development and associated with diverse cardiovascular conditions and associated risk factors. However, their role on astronauts’ health after spaceflight remains poorly understood. In this perspective article, we provide new insights into the potential role of exosomal lncRNA after spaceflight. We analyzed the transcriptional profile of exosomes isolated from peripheral blood plasma of three astronauts who flew on various Shuttle missions between 1998–2001 by RNA-sequencing. Computational analysis of the transcriptome of these exosomes identified 27 differentially expressed lncRNAs with a Log2 fold change, with molecular, cellular, and clinical implications.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most frequent end-point of cardiovascular pathology, leading to higher mortality worldwide. Due to the particularity of the heart tissue, patients who experience ischemic infarction of the heart, still suffered irreversible damage to the heart even if the vascular reflow by treatment, and severe ones can lead to heart failure or even death. In recent years, several studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs), playing a regulatory role in damaged hearts, bring light for patients to alleviate MI. In this review, we summarized the effect of miRNAs on MI with some mechanisms, such as apoptosis, autophagy, proliferation, inflammatory; the regulation of miRNAs on cardiac structural changes after MI, including angiogenesis, myocardial remodeling, fibrosis; the application of miRNAs in stem cell therapy and clinical diagnosis; other non-coding RNAs related to miRNAs in MI during the past 5 years.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third prevalent cancer worldwide, the morbidity and mortality of which have been increasing in recent years. As molecular targeting agents, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) have significantly increased the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Nevertheless, most patients are eventually resistant to anti-EGFR McAbs. With the intensive study of the mechanism of anti-EGFR drug resistance, a variety of biomarkers and pathways have been found to participate in CRC resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. More and more studies have implicated non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) primarily including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are widely involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. They function as essential regulators controlling the expression and function of oncogenes. Increasing data have shown ncRNAs affect the resistance of molecular targeted drugs in CRC including anti-EGFR McAbs. In this paper, we have reviewed the advance in mechanisms of ncRNAs in regulating anti-EGFR McAbs therapy resistance in CRC. It provides insight into exploring ncRNAs as new molecular targets and prognostic markers for CRC.
AbstractClinical oncologists need more reliable and non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to follow-up cancer patients. However, the existing biomarkers are often invasive and costly, emphasizing the need for the development of biomarkers to provide convenient and precise detection. Extracellular vesicles especially exosomes have recently been the focus of translational research to develop non-invasive and reliable biomarkers for several diseases such as cancers, suggesting as a valuable source of tumor markers. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles secreted by various living cells that can be found in all body fluids including serum, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and ascites. Different molecular and genetic contents of their origin such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and glycans in a stable form make exosomes a promising approach for various cancers’ diagnoses, prediction, and follow-up in a minimally invasive manner. Since exosomes are used by cancer cells for intercellular communication, they play a critical role in the disease process, highlighting the importance of their use as clinically relevant biomarkers. However, regardless of the advantages that exosome-based diagnostics have, they suffer from problems regarding their isolation, detection, and characterization of their contents. This study reviews the history and biogenesis of exosomes and discusses non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and their potential as tumor markers in different types of cancer, with a focus on next generation sequencing (NGS) as a detection method. Moreover, the advantages and challenges associated with exosome-based diagnostics are also presented.
RNA-binding proteins are crucial to the function of coding and non-coding RNAs. The disruption of RNA–protein interactions is involved in many different pathological states. Several computational and experimental strategies have been developed to identify protein binders of selected RNA molecules. Amongst these, ‘in cell’ hybridization methods represent the gold standard in the field because they are designed to reveal the proteins bound to specific RNAs in a cellular context. Here, we compare the technical features of different ‘in cell’ hybridization approaches with a focus on their advantages, limitations, and current and potential future applications.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia accounting for an estimated 60–80% of cases. The pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, and no curative treatment is available so far. Increasing evidence has revealed a vital role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), in AD. LncRNAs contribute to the pathogenesis of AD via modulating amyloid production, Tau hyperphosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, synaptic impairment and neuroinflammation. This review describes the biological functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs in AD, indicating that lncRNAs may provide potential therapeutic targets for the diagnosis and treatment of AD.