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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maxwell Kwame Boakye ◽  
Alfred Ofori Agyemang ◽  
Bernard Kofi Turkson ◽  
Edward Debrah Wiafe ◽  
Michael Frimpong Baidoo ◽  
...  

Medicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Author(s):  
Abdelaziz Ghanemi ◽  
Mayumi Yoshioka ◽  
Jonny St-Amand

Regenerative medicine uses the biological and medical knowledge on how the cells and tissue regenerate and evolve in order to develop novel therapies. Health conditions such as ageing, obesity and cancer lead to an impaired regeneration ability. Exercise, diet choices and sleeping pattern have significant impacts on regeneration biology via diverse pathways including reducing the inflammatory and oxidative components. Thus, exercise, diet and sleeping management can be optimized towards therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. It could allow to prevent degeneration, optimize the biological regeneration and also provide adjuvants for regenerative medicine.


ACS Nano ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gi Doo Cha ◽  
Wang Hee Lee ◽  
Sung-Hyuk Sunwoo ◽  
Dayoung Kang ◽  
Taegyu Kang ◽  
...  

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Author(s):  
Artemio García-Escobar ◽  
Silvio Vera-Vera ◽  
Alfonso Jurado-Román ◽  
Santiago Jiménez-Valero ◽  
Guillermo Galeote ◽  
...  

The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a type I integral membrane that exists in two forms: the first is a transmembrane protein; the second is a soluble catalytic ectodomain of ACE2. The catalytic ectodomain of ACE2 undergoes shedding by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17), in which calmodulin mediates the calcium signaling pathway that is involved in ACE2 release, resulting in a soluble catalytic ectodomain of ACE2 that can be measured as soluble ACE2 plasma activity. The shedding of the ACE2 catalytic ectodomain plays a role in cardiac remodeling and endothelial dysfunction and is a predictor of all-cause mortality, including cardiovascular mortality. Moreover, considerable evidence supports that the ACE2 catalytic ectodomain is an essential entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Additionally, endotoxins and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) all enhanced soluble catalytic ectodomain ACE2 shedding from the airway epithelia, suggesting that the shedding of ACE2 may represent a mechanism by which viral entry and infection may be controlled such as some types of betacoronavirus. In this regard, ACE2 plays an important role in inflammation and thrombotic response, and its down-regulation may aggravate COVID-19 via the renin-angiotensin system, including by promoting pathological changes in lung injury. Soluble forms of ACE2 have recently been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, given that vitamin D enhanced the shedding of ACE2, some studies reported that vitamin D treatment is associated with prognosis improvement in COVID-19. This is an updated review on the evidence, clinical, and therapeutic applications of ACE2 for COVID-19.


Author(s):  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Xin-Yi Liu ◽  
Hao Yang ◽  
Jiang-Nan Chen ◽  
Ying Lin ◽  
...  

Bioactive substances (BAS), such as small molecule drugs, proteins, RNA, cells, etc., play a vital role in many therapeutic applications, especially in tissue repair and regeneration. However, the therapeutic effect is still a challenge due to the uncontrollable release and instable physico-chemical properties of bioactive components. To address this, many biodegradable carrier systems of micro-nano structures have been rapidly developed based on different biocompatible polymers including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), the microbial synthesized polyesters, to provide load protection and controlled-release of BAS. We herein highlight the developments of PHA-based carrier systems in recent therapeutic studies, and give an overview of its prospective applications in various disease treatments. Specifically, the biosynthesis and material properties of diverse PHA polymers, designs and fabrication of micro- and nano-structure PHA particles, as well as therapeutic studies based on PHA particles, are summarized to give a comprehensive landscape of PHA-based BAS carriers and applications thereof. Moreover, recent efforts focusing on novel-type BAS nano-carriers, the functionalized self-assembled PHA granules in vivo, was discussed in this review, proposing the underlying innovations of designs and fabrications of PHA-based BAS carriers powered by synthetic biology. This review outlines a promising and applicable BAS carrier platform of novelty based on PHA particles for different medical uses.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 337
Author(s):  
Dario Presutti ◽  
Tarun Agarwal ◽  
Atefeh Zarepour ◽  
Nehar Celikkin ◽  
Sara Hooshmand ◽  
...  

Nanozymes, a type of nanomaterial with enzyme-like properties, are a promising alternative to natural enzymes. In particular, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs, with the general formula MX2, where M represents a transition metal and X is a chalcogen element)-based nanozymes have demonstrated exceptional potential in the healthcare and diagnostic sectors. TMDCs have different enzymatic properties due to their unique nano-architecture, high surface area, and semiconducting properties with tunable band gaps. Furthermore, the compatibility of TMDCs with various chemical or physical modification strategies provide a simple and scalable way to engineer and control their enzymatic activity. Here, we discuss recent advances made with TMDC-based nanozymes for biosensing and therapeutic applications. We also discuss their synthesis strategies, various enzymatic properties, current challenges, and the outlook for future developments in this field.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Pete Heinzelman ◽  
Philip A Romero

Mutants of the Angiotensin Converting-Enzyme 2 (ACE2) carboxypeptidase possessing enhanced hydrolytic activity and specificity hold potential to beneficially modulate the Angiotensin receptor (ATR) therapeutic axis with increased efficacy and reduced potential side effects relative to wild type ACE2. In pursuing this goal, we established a yeast display-based liquid chromatography screen that enabled use of directed evolution to identify ACE2 mutants with improved target peptide substrate, Angiotensin-II (Ang-II), activity and specificity relative to Apelin-13, an off-target peptide substrate. Screening yeast-displayed ACE2 active site residue saturation mutant libraries revealed three substitution-tolerant positions that can be mutated to enhance ACE2's activity profile. Double mutant libraries combining substitutions at these positions, M360, T371 and Y510, yielded candidate improved ACE2 mutants that were recombinantly expressed and purified at 1 mg/L yield and > 90% homogeneity. Relative to wild type, the leading mutant, T371L/Y510Ile, has seven-fold increased kcat toward Ang-II and six-fold decreased kcat/Km for Apelin-13 hydrolysis. In single substrate hydrolysis assays featuring physiologically relevant substrate concentrations T371L/Y510Ile hydrolyzes more Ang-II than wild type with concomitant Ang-II:Apelin-13 specificity improvements reaching 30-fold. Additionally, T371L/Y510Ile hydrolyzed Ang-II at rates greater than wild type, with Apelin-13 hydrolysis reductions of up to 80 percent, in multiplex assays containing a mixture of peptides relevant to the ATR therapeutic axis. Our efforts have delivered ATR axis-acting therapeutic candidates with relevance to established and unexplored ACE2 therapeutic applications and demonstrate the feasibility of developing ACE2 variants for use in biomedical contexts unrelated to the ATR axis such as localized activation of peptide-based prodrugs.


2022 ◽  
pp. 215-229
Author(s):  
Christian Møller-Olsen ◽  
Gurneet K. Dhanoa ◽  
Tamás Fehér ◽  
Antonia P. Sagona

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