scholarly journals Influence of meteorological parameters on wheat yield under different sowing conditions

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 161-172

Field experiments were conducted on the research farm of IARI, New Delhi during Rabi 2016-17 and 2017-18. Three varieties of wheat (PBW-723, HD-2967 and HD-3086) were sown on three different dates for generating different weather condition during various phenological stages of crop. Results showed that during early crop growth stages soil moisture had higher value and soil temperature had lower value and with progress of crop growth stage, the moisture in the upper layer decreased and soil temperature increased significantly as compared to the bottom layers. During tillering and jointing stage, air temperature within canopy was more and relative humidity was less while during flowering and grain filling stage, air temperature within canopy was less and relative humidity was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop. Radiation use efficiency and relative leaf water content had significantly higher value while leaf water potential had lower value in timely sown crop followed by late and very late sown crop. Yield had higher value in HD-3086 followed by HD-2967 and PBW-723 in all weather conditions. Canopy air temperature difference had positive value in very late sown crop particularly during flowering and grain-filling stages. This reflects in the yield. Yield was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 42-45

The field experiments were conducted in rabi seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16 at research farm, Ludhiana, Punjab. Wheat variety (WH 1105) was sown in two row directions viz, east-west (E-W) and north-south (N-S) with three row spacing as S1 (15 cm), S2 (22.5 cm) and S3 (30 cm), and two mulching levels viz., Mo (No mulch) and M1 (mulch at the rate of 5t ha-1). PAR interception, canopy temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded periodically during the crop season in all the treatments. The results revealed that the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was 4- 5 per cent higher in E-W than N-S row direction which contributed 1.67 q ha-1 higher grain yield. Better utilization of solar radiation was observed in 15.0 cm row spacing and the canopy temperature was 0.5°C higher in unmulched crop as compared to mulched crop during both years. Straw mulching @ 5t ha-1 improved soil moisture and regulated soil temperature. Mean soil temperature was higher (1.0 ºC) under mulched crop as compared to unmulched crop. The soil moisture was 4-5 per cent higher under mulched crop as compared to unmulched crop which ultimately resulted in higher soil temperature during early growth stages. Significantly higher grain yield was recorded in mulched crop as compared to unmulched.

2014 ◽  
Vol 2014 ◽  
pp. 1-8 ◽  
Syeda Refat Sultana ◽  
Amjed Ali ◽  
Ashfaq Ahmad ◽  
Muhammad Mubeen ◽  
M. Zia-Ul-Haq ◽  

For estimation of grain yield in wheat, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is considered as a potential screening tool. Field experiments were conducted to scrutinize the response of NDVI to yield behavior of different wheat cultivars and nitrogen fertilization at agronomic research area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) during the two years 2008-09 and 2009-10. For recording the value of NDVI, Green seeker (Handheld-505) was used. Split plot design was used as experimental model in, keeping four nitrogen rates (N1= 0 kg ha−1,N2= 55 kg ha−1,N3=110 kg ha−1, andN4= 220 kg ha−1) in main plots and ten wheat cultivars (Bakkhar-2001, Chakwal-50, Chakwal-97, Faisalabad-2008, GA-2002, Inqlab-91, Lasani-2008, Miraj-2008, Sahar-2006, and Shafaq-2006) in subplots with four replications. Impact of nitrogen and difference between cultivars were forecasted through NDVI. The results suggested that nitrogen treatment N4(220 kg ha−1) and cultivar Faisalabad-2008 gave maximum NDVI value (0.85) at grain filling stage among all treatments. The correlation among NDVI at booting, grain filling, and maturity stages with grain yield was positive (R2 = 0.90;R2 = 0.90;R2 = 0.95), respectively. So, booting, grain filling, and maturity can be good depictive stages during mid and later growth stages of wheat crop under agroclimatic conditions of Faisalabad and under similar other wheat growing environments in the country.

2017 ◽  
Vol 35 (0) ◽  
R.A. VIDAL ◽  

ABSTRACT Grass weeds are common in summer crops and strongly decreases the grain yield of the common bean crop. The time of herbicide application influences the variability of environmental conditions and affects the product performance. The objectives of this work were to identify the time of fluazifop-p-butyl (fluazifop) application which gives best grass weed control in the common bean crop and to elucidate the environmental variables most important for the efficacy of this herbicide. Field experiments were conducted involving five application times (2 a.m., 6 a.m., 11 a.m., 4 p.m. and 9 p.m.) and five doses of fluazifop (80, 110, 140, 170 and 200 g ha-1), with additional no-herbicide control. At the time of the herbicide application it was determined the air temperature, relative humidity, the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the leaf angle, whereas the weed control and the dry mass of the weed Urochloa plantaginea was assessed at 20 days after treatment (DAT). Efficacy on grass control with fluazifop was dependent on the herbicide dose and on the time of day that the product was applied. Spray at early morning hours (6 a.m.) showed better efficacy on weed control in relation to periods during warmer conditions of the day (11 a.m. and 4 p.m.). Nocturnal fluazifop application had better weed control when compared to herbicide sprayed in the afternoon. The air temperature, relative humidity and PAR were correlated to weed leaf angle, which correlated the most with fluazifop performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 4125
Weiping Kong ◽  
Wenjiang Huang ◽  
Lingling Ma ◽  
Lingli Tang ◽  
Chuanrong Li ◽  

Monitoring vertical profile of leaf water content (LWC) within wheat canopies after head emergence is vital significant for increasing crop yield. However, the estimation of vertical distribution of LWC from remote sensing data is still challenging due to the effects of wheat spikes and the efficacy of sensor measurement from the nadir direction. Using two-year field experiments with different growth stages after head emergence, N rates, wheat cultivars, we investigated the vertical distribution of LWC within canopies, the changes of canopy reflectance after spikes removal, the relationship between spectral indices and LWC in the upper-, middle- and bottom-layer. The interrelationship among vertical LWC were constructed, and four ratio of reflectance difference (RRD) type of indices were proposed based on the published WI and NDWSI indices to determine vertical distribution of LWC. The results indicated a bell shape distribution of LWC in wheat plants with the highest value appeared at the middle layer, and significant linear correlations between middle-LWC vs. upper-LWC and middle-LWC vs. bottom-LWC (r ≥ 0.92) were identified. The effects of wheat spikes on spectral reflectance mainly occurred in near infrared to shortwave infrared regions, which then decreased the accuracy of LWC estimation. Spectral indices at the middle layer outperformed the other two layers in LWC assessment and were less susceptible to wheat spikes effects, in particular, the newly proposed narrow-band WI-4 and NDWSI-4 indices exhibited great potential in tracking the changes of middle-LWC (R2 = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). By taking into account the effects of wheat spikes and the interrelationship of vertical LWC within canopies, an indirect induction strategy was developed for modeling the upper-LWC and bottom-LWC. It was found that the indirect induction models based on the WI-4 and NDWSI-4 indices were more effective than the models obtained from conventional direct estimation method, with R2 of 0.78 and 0.81 for the upper-LWC estimation, and 0.75 and 0.74 for the bottom-LWC estimation, respectively.

1997 ◽  
Vol 87 (12) ◽  
pp. 1226-1232 ◽  
D. Shtienberg

The effects of Rhizopus head rot, caused by Rhizopus oryzae, on the yield of confectionery sunflower and its quality were studied in field experiments conducted from 1994 to 1996. The extent of yield loss was related to the crop growth stage at inoculation. When heads were inoculated at the budding stage, loss was not apparent, because inoculated heads were not infected. When inoculated at the anthesis stage, loss was relatively high (42.5 to 99.1%), and both the number of achenes per head and the individual achene weight were reduced. When heads were inoculated at the seed development stage, yield was not reduced significantly (although the entire receptacle was rotted). Effects of Rhizopus head rot on measures of yield quality were examined as well. Inoculation with R. oryzae did not affect the size of the achenes at any crop growth stage. In contrast, the incidence of discolored achenes (an external sign of nutmeats with a bitter off-flavor) was affected by the disease at all crop growth stages. A survey in eight commercial fields from 1992 to 1996 found that, by the end of the season, incidence of disease ranged from 2.3 to 17.4%. However, since disease intensified late, resultant yield losses were minor and did not exceed 3.1%. Loss figures were estimated by means of a model that was developed and validated in the field experiments. The disease did affect the incidence of discolored achenes. Thus, the conclusion drawn is that the effects of Rhizopus head rot in confectionery sunflower on crop yield is of minimal concern, at least when disease intensifies late, as was the case in the studied fields, but management of the disease should be considered in some situations. The objectives would be to prevent a reduction in yield quality, not yield quantity.

1996 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 218-218
Terry A. DeVries ◽  
Robert J. Wright

Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis formulations and conventional insecticides were evaluated for efficacy against larval ECB in whorl stage field corn. All plots were planted without soil insecticide on 16 May. The experimental design was a RCB with 4 replicates. Each plot consisted of a single row, 40 ft long with a 30-inch row spacing. Plots were artificially infested with black-head stage ECB egg masses. The egg masses were deposited on wax paper discs, precounted in the laboratory and placed in the whorl of the infested plants on 30 Jun and 9 Jul. Crop growth stage was 37 and 57 inches extended leaf height, respectively. The same 5 plants in each treatment replicate were infested with 10 egg masses per infestation date. All granular insecticides were applied on 13 Jul. Environmental conditions were: air temperature, 81°F; wind direction and speed, west (250°) at 7 mph; relative humidity, 53%; and crop growth stage, 63 inches extended leaf height. A 10-inch Almaco smooth belt cone rear mounted on a Hahn Hi-Boy was used to apply preweighed amounts of the granular insecticides over the top of the plant whorls (G). Liquid insecticides were applied on 15 Jul. Environmental conditions were: air temperature, 74°F; wind direction and speed, east (80°) at 5 mph; relative humidity, 76%; and crop growth stage, 67 inches extended leaf height. A CO2 pressurized backpack sprayer at 30 psi was used to apply a band application over the top of the whorl (total spray volume = 1050 ml/plot) of premeasured amounts of the liquid insecticides (L). All infested plants were evaluated for ECB larval feeding damage on 14-15 Aug. The stalks of the infested plants were split lengthwise and the accumulated length and number of cavities in the 5 plants per treatment replicate were used to evaluate ECB larval damage. The percent infestation at evaluation was determined by the plants with a minimum of 1 cavity per treatment replicate. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for RCB with mean separation using DMRT.

2020 ◽  
Matthias Cuntz ◽  
Lucas A Cernusak ◽  

<p>Several important isotopic biomarkers derive at least part of their signal from the stable isotope composition of leaf water (e.g., leaf wax δ<sup>2</sup>H, cellulose δ<sup>2</sup>H and δ<sup>18</sup>O, lignin δ<sup>18</sup>O). In order to interpret these isotopic proxies, it is therefore helpful to know which environmental variable most strongly controls a given leaf water stable isotope signal. We collated observations of the stable isotope compositions of leaf water, xylem water, and atmospheric vapour, along with air temperature and relative humidity, to test whether the dominant driver of leaf water <sup>2</sup>H concentration could differ from that of <sup>18</sup>O concentration. Our dataset comprises 690 observations from 35 sites with broad geographical coverage. We limited our analysis to daytime observations, when the photosynthetic processes that incorporate the leaf water isotopic signal primarily take place. The Craig-Gordon equation was generally a good predictor for daytime bulk leaf water stable isotope composition for both δ<sup>2</sup>H (R<sup>2</sup>=0.86, p<0.001) and δ<sup>18</sup>O (R<sup>2</sup>=0.63, p<0.001). It showed about 10% admixture of source water was caused by unenriched water pools such as leaf veins or the Péclet effect. Solving the Craig-Gordon equation requires knowledge of relative humidity, air temperature, and the stable isotope compositions of source water and atmospheric vapour. However, it is not possible to invert the Craig-Gordon equation to solve for one of these parameters unless the others are known. Here we show that the two isotopic signals of δ<sup>2</sup>H and δ<sup>18</sup>O are predominantly driven by different environmental variables: leaf water δ<sup>2</sup>H correlated most strongly with the δ<sup>2</sup>H of source water (R<sup>2</sup>=0.68, p<0.001) and atmospheric vapour (R<sup>2</sup>=0.63, p<0.001), whereas leaf water δ<sup>18</sup>O correlated most strongly with air relative humidity (R<sup>2</sup>=0.46, p<0.001). We conclude that these two isotopic signals of leaf water are not simply mirror images of the same environmental information, but carry distinct signals of different climate factors, with crucial implications for the interpretation of downstream isotopic biomarkers.</p>

Plant Disease ◽  
2007 ◽  
Vol 91 (11) ◽  
pp. 1436-1444 ◽  
D. L. Smith ◽  
J. E. Hollowell ◽  
T. G. Isleib ◽  
B. B. Shew

In North Carolina, losses due to Sclerotinia blight of peanut, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, are an estimated 1 to 4 million dollars annually. In general, peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is very susceptible to Sclerotinia blight, but some partially resistant virginia-type cultivars are available. Up to three fungicide applications per season are necessary to maintain a healthy crop in years highly favorable for disease development. Improved prediction of epidemic initiation and identification of periods when fungicides are not required would increase fungicide efficiency and reduce production costs on resistant and susceptible cultivars. A Sclerotinia blight disease model was developed using regression strategies in an effort to describe the relationships between modeled environmental variables and disease increase. Changes in incremental disease incidence (% of newly infected plants of the total plant population per plot) for the 2002–2005 growing seasons were statistically transformed and described using 5-day moving averages of modeled site-specific weather variables (localized, mathematical estimations of weather data derived at a remote location) obtained from SkyBit (ZedX, Inc.). Variables in the regression to describe the Sclerotinia blight disease index included: mean relative humidity (linear and quadratic), mean soil temperature (quadratic), maximum air temperature (linear and quadratic), maximum relative humidity (linear and quadratic), minimum air temperature (linear and quadratic), minimum relative humidity (linear and quadratic), and minimum soil temperature (linear and quadratic). The model explained approximately 50% of the variability in Sclerotinia blight index over 4 years of field research in eight environments. The relationships between weather variables and Sclerotinia blight index were independent of host partial resistance. Linear regression models were used to describe progress of Sclerotinia blight on cultivars and breeding lines with varying levels of partial resistance. Resistance affected the rate of disease progress, but not disease onset. The results of this study will be used to develop site- and cultivar-specific spray advisories for Sclerotinia blight.

Ana P. B. Trautmann ◽  
José A. G. da Silva ◽  
Manuel O. Binelo ◽  
Antonio C. Valdiero ◽  
Luana Henrichsen ◽  

ABSTRACT Fuzzy logic can simulate wheat productivity by assisting crop predictability. The objective of the study is the use of fuzzy logic to simulate wheat yield in the conditions of nitrogen use, together with the effects of air temperature and rainfall, in the main cereal succession systems in Southern Brazil. The study was conducted in the years 2014, 2015 and 2016, in Augusto Pestana, RS, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four repetitions in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme for N-fertilizer doses (0, 30, 60, 120 kg ha-1) and nutrient supply forms [100% in phenological stage V3 (third expanded leaf); (70%/30%) in the phenological stage V3/V6 (third and sixth expanded leaf) and; fractionated (70%/30%) at the phenological stage V3/E (third expanded leaf and beginning of grain filling)], respectively, in the soybean/wheat and corn/wheat systems. The pertinence functions and the linguistic values established for the input and output variables are adequate for the use of fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic simulates wheat grain yield efficiently in the conditions of nitrogen use with air temperature and rainfall in crop systems.

1990 ◽  
Vol 62 (3) ◽  
pp. 227-236 ◽  
Jari Peltonen ◽  
Tuomo Karvonen ◽  
Erkki Kivi

Interrelationships between climatic factors and spring wheat yield and quality were examined with 21 years field experiments. The formation of gluten was less at dry conditions (total precipitation under 50 mm) and total precipitation exceeded 130—140 mm. The optimum daily temperature for gluten production was some 15—17°C during grain filling. The gluten content decreased if daily minimum and maximum temperatures exceeded 11—12°C and 21—22°C, respectively. The effect of temperature and rainfall were not, however, significant in early maturing varieties. The climatic factors and grain yield did not correlate. Grain yield and protein yield had strong positive relationship, which was perhaps a consequence of supply and utilization of nitrogen. It is concluded that climatic factors affecting yield to quality ration in wheat may be excessive rains before heading and high temperature during grain filling. Interaction between weather and nitrogen are discussed to optimize correct timing of nitrogen fertilization for amount and quality of economic wheat yield.

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