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2022 ◽  
Suzanne Craddock Affinati ◽  
Thomas D. Hoisch ◽  
Michael L. Wells ◽  
Samuel Wright

ABSTRACT In this study, we determined the timing of burial and subsequent exhumation of Barrovian metamorphic rocks from the Chloride Cliff area of the Funeral Mountains in southeastern California by constraining the ages of different portions of a pressure-temperature (P-T) path. Using a split-stream laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system, we analyzed 192 domains from 35 grains of monazite within five samples with a spot size of 8 µm to determine U-Pb ages and trace-element abundances from the same samples (same polished sections) that were analyzed to produce the P-T paths. Changes that took place within individual monazite grains reflect localized equilibrium and captured the changes in heavy rare earth element (HREE) abundances in the matrix reservoir that occurred as garnet grew, resorbed, and then regrew, thus constraining ages on different portions of the P-T path. The results show that garnet began growing ca. 168 Ma, began resorbing ca. 160 Ma, began retrograde regrowth ca. 157 Ma, and continued to regrow at least through ca. 143 Ma. The early garnet growth corresponds to a period of pressure increase along the P-T path. The subsequent partial resorption corresponds to the prograde crossing of a garnet-consuming reaction during decompression, and the retrograde garnet regrowth occurred when this same reaction was recrossed in the retrograde sense during further decompression. These results are consistent with previously determined ages, which include a Lu-Hf garnet age of 167.3 ± 0.72 Ma for the early pressure-increase portion of the P-T path, and 40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling ages of 153 and 146 Ma in the lower-grade Indian Pass area 10 km southeast of Chloride Cliff. The 40Ar/39Ar muscovite ages document cooling at the same time as retrograde garnet regrowth was taking place at Chloride Cliff. The oldest monazite age obtained in this study, 176 ± 5 Ma, suggests that southeast-directed thrusting within the Jurassic retroarc was ongoing by this time along the California portion of the western North American plate margin, as a consequence of east-dipping subduction and/or arc collision. The Funeral Mountains were likely located on the east side of the northern Sierra Nevada range in the Jurassic, taking into account dextral strike-slip displacement along the Cretaceous Mojave–Snow Lake fault. The Late Jurassic timing of burial in the Funeral Mountains and its Jurassic location suggest burial was associated with the East Sierran thrust system. The timing of prograde garnet resorption during exhumation (160–157 Ma) corresponds to a change from regional dextral transpression to sinistral transtension along the Jurassic plate margin inferred to have occurred ca. 157 Ma. The recorded exhumation was concurrent with intrusion of the 148 Ma Independence dike swarm in the eastern Sierra Nevada and Mojave regions, which developed within a regime of northeast-southwest extension.

Abstract High-resolution historical climate grids are readily available and frequently used as inputs for a wide range of regional management and risk assessments including water supply, ecological processes, and as baseline for climate change impact studies that compare them to future projected conditions. Because historical gridded climates are produced using various methods, their portrayal of landscape conditions differ, which becomes a source of uncertainty when they are applied to subsequent analyses. Here we tested the range of values from five gridded climate datasets. We compared their values to observations from 1,231 weather stations, first using each dataset’s native scale, and then after each was rescaled to 270-meter resolution. We inputted the downscaled grids to a mechanistic hydrology model and assessed the spatial results of six hydrological variables across California, in 10 ecoregions and 11 large watersheds in the Sierra Nevada. PRISM was most accurate for precipitation, ClimateNA for maximum temperature, and TopoWx for minimum temperature. The single most accurate dataset overall was PRISM due to the best performance for precipitation and low air temperature errors. Hydrological differences ranged up to 70% of the average monthly streamflow with an average of 35% disagreement for all months derived from different historical climate maps. Large differences in minimum air temperature data produced differences in modeled actual evapotranspiration, snowpack, and streamflow. Areas with the highest variability in climate data, including the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains ecoregions, also had the largest spread for Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), recharge and runoff.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106076
D. Hatzenbühler ◽  
L. Caracciolo ◽  
G.J. Weltje ◽  
A. Piraquive ◽  
M. Regelous

2022 ◽  
pp. 505-524
Antonio Gómez-Ortiz ◽  
Marc Oliva ◽  
David Palacios ◽  
Ferran Salvador-Franch

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Barbara E. Wortham ◽  
Isabel P. Montañez ◽  
Kimberly Bowman ◽  
Daphne Kuta ◽  
Nora Soto Contreras ◽  

In the southwestern United States, California (CA) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions given its low (≤250 mm/year) seasonal precipitation and its inherently variable hydroclimate, subject to large magnitude modulation. To reconstruct past climate change in CA, cave calcite deposits (stalagmites) have been utilized as an archive for environmentally sensitive proxies, such as stable isotope compositions (δ18O, δ13C) and trace element concentrations (e.g., Mg, Ba, Sr). Monitoring the cave and associated surface environments, the chemical evolution of cave drip-water, the calcite precipitated from the drip-water, and the response of these systems to seasonal variability in precipitation and temperature is imperative for interpreting stalagmite proxies. Here we present monitored drip-water and physical parameters at Lilburn Cave, Sequoia Kings Canyon National Park (Southern Sierra Nevada), CA, and measured trace element concentrations (Mg, Sr, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn) and stable isotopic compositions (δ18O, δ2H) of drip-water and for calcite (δ18O) precipitated on glass substrates over a two-year period (November 2018 to February 2021) to better understand how chemical variability at this site is influenced by local and regional precipitation and temperature variability. Despite large variability in surface temperatures and precipitation amount and source region (North Pacific vs. subtropical Pacific), Lilburn Cave exhibits a constant cave environment year-round. At two of the three sites within the cave, drip-water δ18O and δ2H are influenced seasonally by evaporative enrichment. At a third collection site in the cave, the drip-water δ18O responds solely to precipitation δ18O variability. The Mg/Ca, Ba/Ca, and Sr/Ca ratios are seasonally responsive to prior calcite precipitation at all sites but minimally to water-rock interaction. Lastly, we examine the potential of trace metals (e.g., Mn2+ and Cu2+as a geochemical proxy of recharge and find that variability in their concentrations has high potential to denote the onset of the rainy season in the study region. The drip-water composition is recorded in the calcite, demonstrating that stalagmites from Lilburn Cave, and potentially more regionally, could record seasonal variability in weather even during periods of substantially reduced rainfall.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1767
Marcos Mecías-Calvo ◽  
Carlos Lago-Fuentes ◽  
Iker Muñoz-Pérez ◽  
Jon Mikel Picabea-Arburu ◽  
Álvaro Velarde-Sotres ◽  

The objective of this research was to analyze the motives for using or not using protections by recreational ski and snowboard athletes, specifically regarding gender and age in the winter resorts of Sierra Nevada and Alto Campoo (Spain). A total of 520 users participated in Sierra Nevada (n = 306 (58,8%)) and Alto Campoo (n = 214 (42.2%)); 257 of them were men (49.4%) and 263 (50.6%) were women; from 6 to 50 years old; classified by 4 stages of development (Childhood (n = 106 (20.4%); Teenagers (n = 110 (21.2%); Young adults (n = 101 (19.4%); Adults (n = 203 (39.0%)). For the data collection an ad hoc questionnaire was used (socio-demographic data, use/no use of protection, motives for the use). The data revealed that 76.5% used protections equipment, with the women being more likely to use protective equipment than men. Regarding age, young adults and adults were the ones using less protection. In relation to the motives of using protective equipment, security was the main motive for using it, while the reason to avoid using it was, most of the time, discomfort. Additionally, the childhood and teenager groups were the ones who reported, as motivation, family obligation, showing the importance of the influence of the parents.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (29) ◽  
pp. 193-231
Carlos Paez-Murillo ◽  
Andrés Manosalva-Correa

El presente artículo analiza la dinámica del conflicto armado entre el Estado colombiano y el Bloque Caribe de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia - Ejército del Pueblo (FARC-EP) en el periodo de la política de Seguridad Democrática (2002-2010). Mediante un análisis comparado de las tres subregiones en donde hacía presencia mayoritariamente esta guerrilla en la Costa Caribe —Montes de María, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Serranía del Perijá—, se observan las acciones de ambas partes con el fin de indagar las razones por las cuales el Estado tuvo un mayor éxito en la subregión montemariana en relación con las otras dos zonas. Se concluye que las características geoestratégicas de Montes de María llevaron a que el Estado tuviera acciones militares e integrales más intensas, las cuales tuvieron como resultado la temprana desarticulación de las estructuras farianas que allí operaban. Por su parte, los frentes que hacían presencia en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta fueron desplazados a la Serranía del Perijá tan solo al finalizar el periodo de estudio, manteniendo la actividad del bloque en esta zona fronteriza.

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