epicuticular wax
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2022 ◽  
Vol 372 ◽  
pp. 131320
Paco Romero ◽  
María Teresa Lafuente

Trees ◽  
2021 ◽  
Paul Grünhofer ◽  
Lena Herzig ◽  
Lukas Schreiber

Abstract Key message We identified two poplar clones of the same species as highly comparable, yet clones of two further species of the same genus to be distinctly different regarding multiple morphological and ecophysiological traits. Abstract Leaf morphology, wax composition, and residual (cuticular) transpiration of four poplar clones (two clones of the hybrid species P. × canescens, P. trichocarpa, and P. euphratica) were monitored from the beginning to end of the growing season 2020. A pronounced epicuticular wax coverage was found only with P. euphratica. As the most prominent substance classes of cuticular wax primary alcohols, alkanes and esters were identified with P. × canescens and P. trichocarpa, whereas esters and alkanes were completely lacking in P. euphratica. Wax amounts were slightly decreasing during the season and significantly lower wax amounts were found for newly formed leaves in summer compared to leaves of the same age formed in spring. Residual (cuticular) transpiration was about five to tenfold lower for P. × canescens compared with the two other poplar species. Interestingly, with three of the four investigated species, newly formed leaves in summer had lower wax coverages and lower rates of residual (cuticular) transpiration compared to leaves of exactly the same age formed in spring. Our findings were especially surprising with P. euphratica, representing the only one of the four investigated poplar species naturally growing in very dry and hot climates in Central Asia. Instead of developing very low rates of residual (cuticular) transpiration, it seems to be of major advantage for P. euphratica to develop a pronounced epicuticular wax bloom efficiently reflecting light.

2021 ◽  
Sindy Palma-Salgado ◽  
Kang-Mo Ku ◽  
John A. Juvik ◽  
Thanh H. Nguyen ◽  
Hao Feng

Abstract The recurrence of food-borne illness outbreaks caused by consumption of fresh produce highlights the importance of developing a good understanding of the bacteria-leaf-surfaces interactions. In this study, we proposed and developed a new method to fabricate artificial phylloplanes that mimic the topographical and epicuticular characteristics of fresh produce, to be used as a platform for the development of food safety interventions for fresh produce. Romaine lettuce and spinach were selected to create phylloplane replicas using a double-cast procedure. The surface hydrophobicity of the artificial phylloplanes made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was modified by adding a non-ionic surfactant with different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values to match the hydrophobicity of produce leaves. Key epicuticular wax compounds identified from the natural spinach and lettuce leaves were coated on the leaf replica to mimic the chemical composition of natural leaf surfaces. These surrogate surfaces were used to study the attachment Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua. In addition, these surfaces are reusable, and have surface hydrophobicity, surface roughness values and epicuticular wax compositions similar to fresh produce. The artificial phylloplanes of fresh produce can be used as a platform for studying the interactions between human pathogens with produce surfaces and for developing new sanitation strategies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (19) ◽  
pp. 10242
Paco Romero ◽  
María Teresa Lafuente

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a major regulator of fruit response to water stress, and may influence cuticle properties and wax layer composition during fruit ripening. This study investigates the effects of ABA on epicuticular wax metabolism regulation in a citrus fruit cultivar with low ABA levels, called Pinalate (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), and how this relationship is influenced by water stress after detachment. Harvested ABA-treated fruit were exposed to water stress by storing them at low (30–35%) relative humidity. The total epicuticular wax load rose after fruit detachment, which ABA application decreased earlier and more markedly during fruit-dehydrating storage. ABA treatment changed the abundance of the separated wax fractions and the contents of most individual components, which reveals dependence on the exposure to postharvest water stress and different trends depending on storage duration. A correlation analysis supported these responses, which mostly fitted the expression patterns of the key genes involved in wax biosynthesis and transport. A cluster analysis indicated that storage duration is an important factor for the exogenous ABA influence and the postharvest environment on epicuticular wax composition, cuticle properties and fruit physiology. Dynamic ABA-mediated reconfiguration of wax metabolism is influenced by fruit exposure to water stress conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-45
Samaneh Mosaferi ◽  
Maryam Keshavarzi

Aeluropus from Poaceae comprises 5 species in the world and 3 species in Iran. This halophytic perennial is distributed in salty and dry soils of Asia, Europe, and Africa. In addition to being used as fodder, it can stabilize the soil by its rhizome or stolon. These features make Aeluropus a valuable plant. In this study, lemma and palea of 10 populations of Aeluropus were studied micromorphologically by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine diagnostic features among species studied. Eight characters as micro-prickle, macro-hair, long cell outline, cork and silica cells, papilla, salt gland, and epicuticular wax were studied. The occurrence of salt glands and silica cells in populations/taxa studied showed the ability of Aeluropus to tolerate harsh habitats. Our result showed the taxonomic value of floret micromorphological features to separate Aeluropus species.

2021 ◽  
Cristiane Pimentel Victório ◽  
Mayara Silva dos Santos ◽  
Aimêe Cordeiro Dias ◽  
João Pedro Silvério Pena Bento ◽  
Marcelo da Costa Souza ◽  

Abstract Leaves of Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. were collected from the following mangroves along Brazil’s southeastern Atlantic coast: Coroa Grande (CG), Pedra de Guaratiba (PG) and Marambaia (M). This work aimed to evaluate the presence of minerals by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES); the chemical composition of epicuticular waxes by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the leaf morphoanatomical features. Results revealed variation in metal contents among mangroves in the following ranges: Al (0.307–0.73), Cd (0.004–0.016) and Pb (0.095–0.325) mg/mL by ICP-OES. Leaf epicuticular wax contained more than 50% of triterpenes, in particular the pentacyclic triterpenes lupeol (41.61–55.63%) and β-amyrin (8.81–16.35%), as well as n-alkanes, such as hentriacontane and tetratetracontane. In particular, we observed differences in the micromorphology of the epicuticular wax in the leaves of plants from each of the three evaluated sites, especially around stomatal entrances. Histochemical reaction indicated the presence of zinc in fiber cell walls and druse crystals of leaves.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mingjie Chen ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  
Xiangrui Kong ◽  
Zhenghua Du ◽  
Huiwen Zhou ◽  

The cuticle plays a major role in restricting nonstomatal water transpiration in plants. There is therefore a long-standing interest to understand the structure and function of the plant cuticle. Although many efforts have been devoted, it remains controversial to what degree the various cuticular parameters contribute to the water transpiration barrier. In this study, eight tea germplasms were grown under normal conditions; cuticle thickness, wax coverage, and compositions were analyzed from the epicuticular waxes and the intracuticular waxes of both leaf surfaces. The cuticular transpiration rates were measured from the individual leaf surface as well as the intracuticular wax layer. Epicuticular wax resistances were also calculated from both leaf surfaces. The correlation analysis between the cuticular transpiration rates (or resistances) and various cuticle parameters was conducted. We found that the abaxial cuticular transpiration rates accounted for 64–78% of total cuticular transpiration and were the dominant factor in the variations for the total cuticular transpiration. On the adaxial surface, the major cuticular transpiration barrier was located on the intracuticular waxes; however, on the abaxial surface, the major cuticular transpiration barrier was located on the epicuticular waxes. Cuticle thickness was not a factor affecting cuticular transpiration. However, the abaxial epicuticular wax coverage was found to be significantly and positively correlated with the abaxial epicuticular resistance. Correlation analysis suggested that the very-long-chain aliphatic compounds and glycol esters play major roles in the cuticular transpiration barrier in tea trees grown under normal conditions. Our results provided novel insights about the complex structure–functional relationships in the tea cuticle.

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