in vitro motility
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 573-584
Fábio da Costa Málaga ◽  
Helloa Alaide Siqueira ◽  
Lucio Pereira Rauber ◽  
Mariana Groke Marques ◽  

In pig farming, measurements of production parameters play a fundamental role in the success of the activity. Minimal differences in fertility between breeders can lead to less reproductive efficiency and, less productivity. However, assessing the fertility of each male and the early identification of subfertile males is a difficult task to be performed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in vitro and in vivo parameters in the identification of subfertile males of the Landrace breed, aiming to collaborate with genetic improvement programs, routine optimization in the Genetic Diffusion Units (GDUs) and the results of performance. In experiment 1, an approach to identify males with subfertility was evaluated based on retrospective data. For this, the results (averages of birth rates, number of total births and average percentages of female and male piglets per litter) were evaluated for a total of 996 matings and 847 parturitions. The inseminations came from ejaculates of 32 males, who had at least 19 females inseminated with homospermic doses in the concentration of 2.5 x 109 total sperm from the same male. As for the birth rate (BR), an average of 85.47% ± 6.05 was observed with a group of median males, seven males that stood out and one individual (M32) with a performance of 58.06% ± 9.0. For the total number of piglets born (PB) the average was 13.41 ± 0.56, with three males with better performance and one (M32) with very poor performance (8.62 ± 0.59). In experiment 2, it was verified whether evaluations of inseminating doses (ID) of semen in vitro (motility and sperm morphology) after 96 hours of storage had correlations with fertility in vivo, which can be used to identify subfertile males. The evaluations were performed on 30 ejaculates regarding the means of BR and PB, considering only those who had at least 7 females inseminated. There were no correlations between the motility assessments and semen morphological changes and the reproductive parameters evaluated. The results obtained in vivo, referring to BR and PB, demonstrated that it was possible to identify differences between males, the individual (M32) had the worst results for the percentages of BR and PB. It is concluded that there are males of high and low fertility and that only the in vitro analyzes carried out in this study are not enough to categorize them, however, the evaluation of retrospective data was efficient for this purpose.

2021 ◽  
Kenji F Shoji ◽  
Elsa Bayet ◽  
Dahiana Le Devedec ◽  
Aude Mallavialle ◽  
Severine Marionneau-lambot ◽  

Discovery of therapeutic targets against metastasis is of primary importance since being the main cause of cancer-related death. Deregulation of calcium homeostasis has been involved in numerous cellular metastatic behaviors, although the molecular determinants supporting these processes remain often unclear. Here, we showed that the expression of the plasma membrane TRPV2 calcium channel is a prominent feature in melanoma progression and dissemination. In fact, TRPV2 activity was sufficient to confer an invasive phenotype to non-invasive melanoma cells. Conversely, the invasive and migratory potential of highly metastatic melanoma cells was abolished upon TRPV2 silencing. Mechanistically, TRPV2 supports melanoma cells aggressiveness by being a new regulator of the calpain-dependent maturation of focal adhesion, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Finally, TRPV2 overexpression is a marker of advanced malignancy and bad prognosis in human melanoma tumor samples. Altogether, TRPV2-induced Ca2+ signaling orchestrates in vitro motility and invasiveness of melanoma cells, as well as in vivo metastatic melanoma tumors dissemination.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11361
Tobias Strauß ◽  
Saskia Schattner ◽  
Stefan Hoth ◽  
Wilhelm J. Walter

The formation and maintenance of the mitotic spindle during cell division requires several microtubule-interacting motor proteins. Members of the kinesin-5 family play an essential role in the bipolar organization of the spindle. These highly conserved, homotetrameric proteins cross-link anti-parallel microtubules and slide them apart to elongate the spindle during the equal separation of chromosomes. Whereas vertebrate kinesin-5 proteins are well studied, knowledge about the biochemical properties and the function of plant kinesin-5 proteins is still limited. Here, we characterized the properties of AtKRP125b, one of four kinesin-5 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. In in vitro motility assays, AtKRP125b displayed the archetypal characteristics of a kinesin-5 protein, a low velocity of about 20 nm·s−1 , and a plus end-directed, processive movement. Moreover, AtKRP125b was able to cross-link microtubules and to slide them apart, as required for developing and maintaining the mitotic spindle. In line with such a function, GFP-AtKRP125b fusion proteins were predominantly detected in the nucleus when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf protoplasts or Nicotiana benthamiana epidermis cells and analyzed by confocal microscopy. However, we also detected GFP signals in the cytoplasm, suggesting additional functions. By generating and analyzing AtKRP125b promoter-reporter lines, we showed that the AtKRP125b promoter was active in the vascular tissue of roots, lateral roots, cotyledons, and true leaves. Remarkably, we could not detect promoter activity in meristematic tissues. Taken together, our biochemical data support a role of AtKRP125b in mitosis, but it may also have additional functions outside the nucleus and during interphase.

2021 ◽  
Vol 129 (Suppl_1) ◽  
Saiti S Halder ◽  
Lorenzo R Sewanan ◽  
Michael J Rynkiewicz ◽  
Jeffrey R Moore ◽  
William J Lehman ◽  

Missense mutations in alpha-tropomyosin (TPM1) can lead to development of hypertrophic (HCM) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). HCM mutation E62Q and DCM mutation E54K have previously been studied extensively in experimental systems ranging from in vitro biochemical assays to animal models, although some conflicting results have been found. We undertook a detailed multi-scale assessment of these mutants that included atomistic simulations, regulated in vitro motility (IVM) assays, and finally physiologically relevant human engineered heart tissues. In IVM assays, E62Q previously has shown increased Calcium sensitivity. New molecular dynamics data shows mutation-induced changes to tropomyosin dynamics and interactions with actin and troponin. Human engineered heart tissues (EHT) were generated by seeding iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes engineered using CRISPR/CAS9 to express either E62Q or E54K cardiomyopathy mutations. After two weeks in culture, E62Q EHTs showed a drastically hypercontractile twitch force and significantly increased stiffness while displaying little difference in twitch kinetics compared to wild-type isogenic control EHTs. On the other hand, E54K EHTs displayed hypocontractile isometric twitch force with faster kinetics, impaired length-dependent activation and lowered stiffness. Given these contractile abnormalities, we hypothesized that small molecule myosin modulators to appropriately activate or inhibit myosin activity would restore E54K or E62Q EHTs to normal behavior. Accordingly, E62Q EHTs were treated with 0.5μM mavacamten (to remedy hypercontractility) and E54K EHTs with 0.5 μM danicamtiv (to remedy hypocontractility) for 4 days, followed by a 1 day washout period. Upon contractility testing, it was observed that the drugs were able to reverse contractile phenotypes observed in mutant EHTs and restore contractile properties to levels resembling those of the untreated wild type group. The computational, IVM and EHT studies provide clear evidence in support of the hyper- vs. hypo-contractility paradigm as a common axis that distinguishes HCM and DCM TPM1 mutations. Myosin modulators that directly compensate for underlying myofilament aberrations show promising efficacy in human in vitro systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 153 (9) ◽  
Lorenzo R. Sewanan ◽  
Jinkyu Park ◽  
Michael J. Rynkiewicz ◽  
Alice W. Racca ◽  
Nikolaos Papoutsidakis ◽  

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disorder caused primarily by mutations to thick and thinfilament proteins. Although thin filament mutations are less prevalent than their oft-studied thick filament counterparts, they are frequently associated with severe patient phenotypes and can offer important insight into fundamental disease mechanisms. We have performed a detailed study of tropomyosin (TPM1) E192K, a variant of uncertain significance associated with HCM. Molecular dynamics revealed that E192K results in a more flexible TPM1 molecule, which could affect its ability to regulate crossbridges. In vitro motility assays of regulated actin filaments containing TPM1 E192K showed an overall loss of Ca2+ sensitivity. To understand these effects, we used multiscale computational models that suggested a subtle phenotype in which E192K leads to an inability to completely inhibit actin–myosin crossbridge activity at low Ca2+. To assess the physiological impact of the mutation, we generated patient-derived engineered heart tissues expressing E192K. These tissues showed disease features similar to those of the patients, including cellular hypertrophy, hypercontractility, and diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that excess residual crossbridge activity could be triggering cellular hypertrophy, even if the overall Ca2+ sensitivity was reduced by E192K. To test this hypothesis, the cardiac myosin–specific inhibitor mavacamten was applied to patient-derived engineered heart tissues for 4 d followed by 24 h of washout. Chronic mavacamten treatment abolished contractile differences between control and TPM1 E192K engineered heart tissues and reversed hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that the TPM1 E192K mutation triggers cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by permitting excess residual crossbridge activity. These studies also provide direct evidence that myosin inhibition by mavacamten can counteract the hypertrophic effects of mutant tropomyosin.

2021 ◽  
pp. mbc.E21-02-0082
Samantha K. Barrick ◽  
Lina Greenberg ◽  
Michael J. Greenberg

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a significant cause of pediatric heart failure. Mutations in proteins that regulate cardiac muscle contraction can cause DCM; however, the mechanisms by which molecular-level mutations contribute to cellular dysfunction are not well-understood. Better understanding of these mechanisms might enable the development of targeted therapeutics that benefit patient subpopulations with mutations that cause common biophysical defects. We examined the molecular- and cellular-level impacts of a troponin T variant associated with pediatric-onset DCM, R134G. The R134G variant decreased calcium sensitivity in an in vitro motility assay. Using stopped-flow and steady-state fluorescence measurements, we determined the molecular mechanism of the altered calcium sensitivity: R134G decouples calcium binding by troponin from the closed-to-open transition of the thin filament and decreases the cooperativity of myosin binding to regulated thin filaments. Consistent with the prediction that these effects would cause reduced force per sarcomere, cardiomyocytes carrying the R134G mutation are hypocontractile. They also show hallmarks of DCM that lie downstream of the initial insult, including disorganized sarcomeres and cellular hypertrophy. These results reinforce the importance of multiscale studies to fully understand mechanisms underlying human disease and highlight the value of mechanism-based precision medicine approaches for DCM.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (24) ◽  
pp. e2025030118
Alison Schroer Vander Roest ◽  
Chao Liu ◽  
Makenna M. Morck ◽  
Kristina Bezold Kooiker ◽  
Gwanghyun Jung ◽  

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited form of heart disease, associated with over 1,000 mutations, many in β-cardiac myosin (MYH7). Molecular studies of myosin with different HCM mutations have revealed a diversity of effects on ATPase and load-sensitive rate of detachment from actin. It has been difficult to predict how such diverse molecular effects combine to influence forces at the cellular level and further influence cellular phenotypes. This study focused on the P710R mutation that dramatically decreased in vitro motility velocity and actin-activated ATPase, in contrast to other MYH7 mutations. Optical trap measurements of single myosin molecules revealed that this mutation reduced the step size of the myosin motor and the load sensitivity of the actin detachment rate. Conversely, this mutation destabilized the super relaxed state in longer, two-headed myosin constructs, freeing more heads to generate force. Micropatterned human induced pluripotent derived stem cell (hiPSC)–cardiomyocytes CRISPR-edited with the P710R mutation produced significantly increased force (measured by traction force microscopy) compared with isogenic control cells. The P710R mutation also caused cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cytoskeletal remodeling as measured by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Cellular hypertrophy was prevented in the P710R cells by inhibition of ERK or Akt. Finally, we used a computational model that integrated the measured molecular changes to predict the measured traction forces. These results confirm a key role for regulation of the super relaxed state in driving hypercontractility in HCM with the P710R mutation and demonstrate the value of a multiscale approach in revealing key mechanisms of disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (7) ◽  
pp. 3466
Svetlana V. Klinova ◽  
Boris A. Katsnelson ◽  
Ilzira A. Minigalieva ◽  
Oksana P. Gerzen ◽  
Alexander A. Balakin ◽  

Subchronic intoxication was induced in outbred male rats by repeated intraperitoneal injections with lead oxide (PbO) and/or cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles (NPs) 3 times a week during 6 weeks for the purpose of examining its effects on the contractile characteristics of isolated right ventricle trabeculae and papillary muscles in isometric and afterload contractions. Isolated and combined intoxication with these NPs was observed to reduce the mechanical work produced by both types of myocardial preparation. Using the in vitro motility assay, we showed that the sliding velocity of regulated thin filaments drops under both isolated and combined intoxication with CdO–NP and PbO–NP. These results correlate with a shift in the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms towards slowly cycling β–MHC. The type of CdO–NP + PbO–NP combined cardiotoxicity depends on the effect of the toxic impact, the extent of this effect, the ratio of toxicant doses, and the degree of stretching of cardiomyocytes and muscle type studied. Some indices of combined Pb–NP and CdO–NP cardiotoxicity and general toxicity (genotoxicity included) became fully or partly normalized if intoxication developed against background administration of a bioprotective complex.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Nathaly Andrea Montenegro Benavides ◽  
Alejandro Alvarez B. ◽  
Mario L. Arrieta-Ortiz ◽  
Luis Miguel Rodriguez-R ◽  
David Botero ◽  

Abstract Background The type VI protein secretion system (T6SS) is important in diverse cellular processes in Gram-negative bacteria, including interactions with other bacteria and with eukaryotic hosts. In this study we analyze the evolution of the T6SS in the genus Xanthomonas and evaluate its importance of the T6SS for virulence and in vitro motility in Xanthomonas phaseoli pv. manihotis (Xpm), the causal agent of bacterial blight in cassava (Manihot esculenta). We delineate the organization of the T6SS gene clusters in Xanthomonas and then characterize proteins of this secretion system in Xpm strain CIO151. Results We describe the presence of three different clusters in the genus Xanthomonas that vary in their organization and degree of synteny between species. Using a gene knockout strategy, we also found that vgrG and hcp are required for maximal aggressiveness of Xpm on cassava plants while clpV is important for both motility and maximal aggressiveness. Conclusion We characterized the T6SS in 15 different strains in Xanthomonas and our phylogenetic analyses suggest that the T6SS might have been acquired by a very ancient event of horizontal gene transfer and maintained through evolution, hinting at their importance for the adaptation of Xanthomonas to their hosts. Finally, we demonstrated that the T6SS of Xpm is functional, and significantly contributes to virulence and motility. This is the first experimental study that demonstrates the role of the T6SS in the Xpm-cassava interaction and the T6SS organization in the genus Xanthomonas.

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