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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 523-540
Jorge Augusto Dias da Costa Abreu ◽  
Mikael Neumann ◽  
Wagner Paris ◽  
André Martins de Souza ◽  

Essential oils and enzymes are alternatives to feed additives for ruminants that aim to replace the use of ionophores and improve animal performance, but their mechanisms of action are different. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify if there is a synergistic effect in the combined use of enzymes carbohydrates and essential oils on the performance, ingestive behavior and carcass traits of steers fed a high-energy diet. During the finishing period of 78 days, 40 steers were assigned to four treatments: CON- control; ENZ- enzymatic complex; EO- essential oil blend; ENZ+EO - enzymatic complex combined with essential oil blend. Regardless of the feedlot periods, the ENZ+EO treatment caused a reduction in the dry matter intake (12.48%) compared to the control. The ENZ+EO treatment resulted in the lowest mean fecal output and, consequently, the highest dry matter digestibility (DMD) and starch digestibility (SD), compared to the other treatments. Animals that received EO and ENZ+EO in the diet spent more time in feeding. As for the number of times animals visited the feeding trough, the highest values were presented by the animals in the EO, ENZ and ENZ+EO treatments. For the carcass parameters, only the subcutaneous fat thickness on the rib was significantly different between treatments, with the highest values obtained by adding EO and ENZ+EO (8.80 and 8.10 mm respectively). Thus, the combination of carbohydrate enzymes and essential oils proved to be synergistically beneficial in relation to better use of nutrients and productive performance of feedlot steers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 1578-1590
Jassinnee Milano ◽  
Abdul Halim Shamsuddin ◽  
A.S. Silitonga ◽  
A.H. Sebayang ◽  
Munawar Alfansury Siregar ◽  

OCL ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 2
Elina Hishamuddin ◽  
Mei Huey Saw

Incorporation of oils from non-conventional sources into palm olein through the blending process generates a sustainable source of novel oleins with improved physicochemical and functional properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of blending winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) seed oil (WBSO) and palm olein (POo) on the physicochemical properties of the blends. Blends of WBSO (25, 50 and 75% w/w) with POo were prepared and changes in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions, iodine value (IV), cloud point and thermal behaviour were studied. Reductions in palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids with concomitant increases in linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) acids were observed as the amount of WBSO increased in the blends. Blending WBSO and POo at 75:25 increased the unsaturated FA content from 56% in palm olein to 64% in the blend, producing the highest IV of 70.5 g I2/100g. At higher WBSO ratios, triunsaturated and diunsaturated TAG species within the blends increased while disaturated TAG species decreased. The lowest cloud point (8.8 °C) was obtained in the oil blend containing 50% WBSO, while the cloud point further increased with increasing amount of WBSO in the blends. This was possibly attributed to increased trisaturated TAG with very long-chained saturated FA (C20 to C24) inherently present in WBSO within the blends. Thermal behaviour analysis by differential scanning calorimetry of the oil blends showed higher onset temperatures for crystallisation with increasing proportions of WBSO in POo, with melting thermograms correspondingly showing decreasing onset melting temperatures. These findings showed that blending WBSO with POo enhanced the physicochemical characteristics of the final oil blends, resulting in higher unsaturation levels and improved cloudiness resistance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (8) ◽  
pp. 1365-1369
D.T. Adeyemi ◽  
A. Saleh ◽  
F.B. Akande ◽  
O.O. Oniya ◽  
F.A. Ola

The objective of this study was to determine the fuel properties of Sand Apple Ethyl Ester (SAEE) and its blends with Automotive Gas Oil (AGO).using eggshell as catalyst. Sand apple seed oil (SASO) obtained was characterized based on America Society for Testing and Material (ASTM D6751) to determine acid value, saponification, iodine content, density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point. Sand Apple fruits were processed and oil extracted using solvent extraction method. Raw eggshells were calcined at 800oC for 120 min in the muffle furnace. SAEE was blended with AGO at 5 – 25 % mix. Data obtained was analyzed using ANOVA at P < 0.05 significant level. Cloud and pour points obtained for SASO are 4.68 and 3.09℃ . Flash point was 103℃ which fell within ASTM D93 range indicating that SASO is safe for handling and storage. Heating value was 42.61 MJ/kg, slightly lower than that of diesel oil of 44.8 MJ/kg shows that AGO has ability to produce heat of combustion than SASO. Iodine value was 80.71 g I/100g while acid value was determined to be 2.62 mgKOH/g, which was higher than that of ASTM D6751 of 0.5 mgKOH/g. Sulphur contents for AGO and SASO–AGO blends were 0.006, 0.009, 0.014, 0.016 and 0.004%, respectively. Low sulphur values indicates that hazardous sulphur dioxide emission of SAEE has reduced. This study established that all the properties obtained, except acid value, fell within the ASTM specification and could suitably be compared with those of fossil diesel.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2159
Jia Wen Chong ◽  
Lik Yin Ng ◽  
Omar Anas Aboagwa ◽  
Suchithra Thangalazhy-Gopakumar ◽  
Kasturi Muthoosamy ◽  

A major obstacle in utilising pyrolysis bio-oil as biofuel is its relatively low heating value, high viscosity, and non-homogeneity. Solvent addition is a simple yet practical approach in upgrading pyrolysis bio-oil. However, most solvents are often manufactured as specialty chemicals, and thus, this leads to a high production cost of solvents. It is crucial for the designed solvent-oil blend to achieve both fuel functionality and economic targets to be competitive with the conventional diesel fuel. Hence, the objective of this work is to generate feasible solvent candidates by solving this multi-objective optimisation (MOO) problem via a computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) approach. Initially, an optimisation model was developed to identify potential solvents that satisfied the predefined targeted properties. Next, a MOO model was developed via a fuzzy optimisation approach to identify the trade-off between profitability and heating value of the solvent-oil blend. A pricing model was employed to estimate the profitability of the solvent-oil blend. The production of bio-oil in a pyrolysis plant was used to illustrate the applicability of the pricing model. Lastly, phase stability analysis was conducted to ensure the stability and miscibility of the solvent-oil blend. With the developed framework, a promising and cost-effective solvent-oil blend can be generated while displaying optimal biofuel properties.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3386
Samson Oladokun ◽  
Janice MacIsaac ◽  
Bruce Rathgeber ◽  
Deborah Adewole

This study evaluated the effect of an essential oil blend and its delivery routes on broiler chicken growth performance, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and immune and antioxidant status. Eggs were incubated and allotted to 3 groups: non-injected group, in ovo saline group, and in ovo essential oil group. On d 18 of incubation, essential oil in saline or saline alone was injected into the amnion. At hatch, chicks were assigned to post-hatch treatment combinations (1) in ovo essential oil + in-water essential oil (in ovo + in-water EO); (2) in ovo essential oil (in ovo EO); (3) in ovo saline; (4) in-water essential oil; (5) in-feed antibiotics (Bacitracin methylene disalicylate) and (6) a negative control (NC; corn-wheat-soybean diet) in 8 replicate cages (6 birds/cage) and raised for 28 d. The in ovo EO group reduced (p < 0.05) chick length and hatchability, all groups recorded no difference in growth performance at 0–28 d. The in ovo + in-water EO treatment reduced (p < 0.05) blood creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels whilst increasing (p < 0.05) total antioxidant capacity in birds. The in ovo + in-water delivery of EO might represent a potential antibiotic reduction strategy for the poultry industry but more research is needed to address the concern of reduced hatchability.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2908
Iqrash Shafiq ◽  
Murid Hussain ◽  
Sumeer Shafique ◽  
Parveen Akhter ◽  
Ashfaq Ahmed ◽  

The organosulfur compounds present in liquid fuels are hazardous for health, asset, and the environment. The photocatalytic desulfurization technique works at ordinary conditions and removes the requirement of hydrogen, as it is an expensive gas, highly explosive, with a broader flammability range and is declared the most hazardous gas within a petroleum refinery, with respect to flammability. The projected work is based on the synthesis of V2O5 microspheres for photocatalytic oxidation for the straight-run diesel (SRD) and diesel oil blend (DOB). The physicochemical properties of V2O5 microspheres were examined by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis DRS, SEM, and Photoluminescence evaluations. The as-synthesized photocatalyst presented a trivial unit size, a narrow bandgap, appropriate light-capturing capability, and sufficient active sites. The desulfurization study discovered that the anticipated technique is substantial in desulfurizing DOB up to 37% in 180 min using methanol as an interfacing agent. Furthermore, the outcome of employing a range of polar interfacing solvents was examined, and the 2-ethoxyethanol elevated the desulfurization degree up to 51.3%. However, the anticipated technology is constrained for its application in sulfur removal from SRD. Additionally, the mechanism for a photocatalytic reaction was seen in strong agreement with pseudo-first-order kinetics. The investigated photocatalyst exhibited a compromised recyclability and regeneration tendency.

2021 ◽  
Vol 902 ◽  
pp. 121-125
Anna Pamela O. De Jesus ◽  
Mark Paul Selda Rivarez ◽  
Ranzivelle Marianne L. Roxas-Villanueva ◽  
Marvin U. Herrera

Shelf life in ground and tree nuts are often assessed based on aesthetic appearance, nut integrity, color and most importantly, taste and edibleness. Nuts with considerable level of rancidity and free fatty acids due to degradation of oils indicate expiration or decay. We prepared a shellac-lemongrass oil blend coating using food-grade ingredients and assessed its potential to extend shelf life of Pili nut (Canarium ovatum) kernels. A glossy, hard but considerably brittle coating for the pili kernels were prepared with varying numbers of layers. On average, the mass of coating added per dip is 0.10 g, and the thickness of 5-layers of coating is 0.3 mm. The obtained reflectance spectra of the coated pili kernels implied the translucent nature of the coating, but becomes opaque as the number of layers are increased. Peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acid value (FFAV), were also measured at 10 days after application of coating. PV was lowest in the nuts with 5 coating layers, while this treatment did not reduce FFAV. These results indicate the effectiveness of our coatings in preventing peroxide production probably by blocking oxygen penetration and ultraviolet exposure, which are important triggers production of peroxide and other free radicals. Further tests and time-series experiments are planned to assess the dynamics of peroxide levels and the overall potential of our coating technology for Pili nut.

2021 ◽  
pp. 100119
Olayomi Abiodun Falowo ◽  
Oluwakemi Esther Apanisile ◽  
Adesola Oluwadamilola Aladelusi ◽  
Ayooluwa Emmanuel Adeleke ◽  
Mahamudat Abiodum Oke ◽  

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