religious beliefs
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2022 ◽  
Shogo Ikari ◽  
Kosuke Sato ◽  
Emily Burdett ◽  
Hiroshi Ishiguro ◽  
Jonathan Jong ◽  

Researchers have speculated that religious traditions influence an individual's moral attitude and care toward robots. They propose that differences in moral care could be explained by values motivated by religion, anthropocentrism and animism. Here, we empirically examined how moral care for robots is influenced by religious belief and attendance with US and Japanese samples, cultures that are Abrahamic and Shinto-Buddhist traditions respectively (N = 3781). Moral care was higher in Japan and participants with higher religious beliefs had less moral care for robots only in the US. Further, participants who scored low on anthropocentrism and high on animism were more likely to attribute moral care for robots. Anthropocentrism in the US and Animism in Japan had a larger effect compared to the other country. The finding demonstrates how religion could influence moral attitudes for robots, and might suggest the realm of moral consideration could be shaped by cultural traditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 56
Huilin Bai ◽  
Hui-Ling Wendy Pan

In the context of globalization, critical thinking is still regarded as the core content of higher education. The difference between Eastern and Western cultures has a key impact on understanding critical thinking. When the current literature studies the influence of culture on critical thinking, it mainly considers from the macro level, mainly including ethnic history, traditional customs, religious beliefs, art, ethics, and so on. However, from a specific and micro cultural perspective, how critical thinking is influenced by a culture still lacks effective research. This paper studies the influence of Confucian paternalistic leadership on the development of critical thinking in the East from a specific cultural perspective. The study discovers that Asians are easier to understand how things change and they are more tolerant to conflict, which means that they see things as interrelated and interdependent. They are more likely to use intuitive and experience-based reasoning if there is a conflict between intuitive and logical reasoning. Benevolence and hierarchy in paternalistic leadership promote the formation of cooperative critical thinking in improving the operation of organizations so that the characteristics of oriental critical thinking can be analyzed more comprehensively.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Parveen P. Gupta ◽  
Kevin C.K. Lam ◽  
Heibatollah Sami ◽  
Haiyan Zhou

PurposeIn this paper, the authors examine how religious and political factors affect a firm's corporate governance diversity policies.Design/methodology/approachThe authors develop five basic empirical models. Model 1 examines how religious beliefs and political affiliation determine whether a firm will establish diversity incentive in its senior executives' performance assessment. Model 2 investigates how the diversity goal, religious beliefs and political affiliation separately affect the level of actual diversity achieved. Model 3 examines how the diversity goal and environmental factors interact to affect the level of actual diversity achieved. Model 4 and Model 5 examine whether the diversity incentive in senior executives' compensation plan and the environmental factors (religious belief and political affiliation) help to reduce the compensation differentials between male and female executives.FindingsThe authors find that firms located in more liberal counties with more Mainline Protestants and less Republican voters in the United States are more likely to include workforce diversity as a criterion in evaluating their senior executives. The authors also provide evidence that firms with diversity goals have more female directors, more female senior executives and more minority directors. However, they find no evidence that the compensation differentials between male and female executives are smaller in these firms. Finally, they find that external environment affects the effectiveness of the implementation of the diversity goals.Originality/valueIn line withthis branch of research, the authors expand the literate on the link between corporate culture and corporate decision-making by investigating the non-financial performance measures. Besides the corporate decision-making in investment, financial reporting and social responsibilities as documented in prior studies, the authors argue that the religious beliefs and political affiliations could also affect the development and implementation of corporate non-financial performance goals in executive incentive contracts.

2022 ◽  
Marjaana Lindeman ◽  
LeRon Shults

The claim that religions are by-products of evolutionary adaptations has been at the center of the cognitive science of religion since its inception nearly three decades ago. It has been argued that religious beliefs are manifestations of evolved hyperactive agent detection and other mentalizing biases, whose development required pan-human mentalizing abilities. Much of the current research on the cognitive underpinnings of religiosity seems to rest on the assumption that not only mentalizing biases but also mentalizing abilities give rise to god beliefs in the minds of contemporary individuals. However, this presupposes that the higher capacity an individual has for mentalizing the more likely he or she is to make mentalizing mistakes. We illustrate the conceptual confusion that results from this way of framing the discussion and point to empirical evidence that challenges this notion.

2022 ◽  
Ben Kasstan

AbstractMeasles outbreaks have emerged among religious minorities in the global north, which cross regional and national boundaries and raise implications for measles elimination targets. Yet, studies are ambiguous about the reasons that underlie non-vaccination in religious populations, and whether and how religious “beliefs” influence vaccine decision-making among populations with suboptimal vaccination coverage. In 2018-19, Israel experienced the largest measles outbreaks in a quarter century – the burden of which disproportionately affected Orthodox Jewish neighbourhoods in Jerusalem. The objective of this study was to explore how Orthodox Jewish households in Jerusalem responded to the measles outbreaks in their neighbourhoods and how they viewed childhood vaccination (MMRV) during a public health emergency.Research methods primarily consisted of 25 in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 23 household heads, and 2 public health professionals involved in planning and implementation of vaccination services. Thematic analysis generated five key themes, i) where the issue of sub-optimal vaccination uptake was perceived to be located; ii) how responsive people and services were to the measles outbreaks; iii) the sources of information used in vaccine decisions by religious parents; vi) whether vaccination was deemed a religious issue; and v) how vaccination influenced social relations within religious neighbourhoods.Results demonstrate parental investment in protecting child health, with decisions around vaccination reflecting vaccine efficacy and safety, and the risk of measles transmission. Household heads across all Orthodox Jewish backgrounds were not apathetic towards measles transmission. No religious “beliefs” were identified for non-vaccination among the household heads in this cohort. Rather than relegating suboptimal vaccination uptake among religious minorities and populations as an issue of religious “beliefs,” quality social science research should examine – and clearly convey – how religion influences vaccine decision-making. Such clarity can help to avoid stigmatizing religious minorities and populations, and to plan for appropriate vaccination programmes and promotion campaigns.

2022 ◽  
pp. 216769682110646
Seanna Leath ◽  
Meredith O. Hope ◽  
Gordon J. M. Palmer ◽  
Theda Rose

To date, few scholars have explored religious and spiritual socialization among emerging adult Black women. In this study, we analyzed semi-structured interview data from 50 Black undergraduate women to explore associations between childhood religious socialization messages and current religious beliefs in emerging adulthood. Consensual qualitative methods revealed two broad domains and six themes. The first domain, “religious alignment,” included: (1) internalizing religion and (2) educating others on religious beliefs. The second domain, “religious departure,” included: (3) modifying religious expectations to fit developing beliefs, (4) employing religion as a pathway to self-acceptance, (5) picking and choosing battles within their religious community, and (6) choosing an alternate religious or faith system. Findings highlighted how the women started to take ownership of their religious experiences, as well as how they used religious practices, such as prayer, to cope with gendered racism. Authors discuss the implications of emerging adulthood on Black women’s religious identities.

2022 ◽  
pp. 65-94
Ryan H. Sharp

A relatively recent emphasis on increased authenticity in the workplace has opened conversations that have previously been considered out-of-bounds within organizational dialogue. With this emphasis has come an invitation for employees to bring their “whole self” to work. An individual's religious beliefs and spiritual inclinations are often at the heart of their so-called true self. Thus, as organizations have encouraged greater authenticity, discussions regarding religiosity and spirituality have followed. While there are some inherent dangers in incorporating religiosity and spirituality into the workplace, the primary purpose of this chapter is to show three natural ways in which these important parts of an individual's identity can be—or already are being—situated into existing and accepted areas of research. Thus, this theoretical piece provides a brief examination of the literature in the fields of positive organizational behavior, meaningful work, and employee engagement and will, in the process, analyze areas of crossover between these and religiosity and spirituality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 84-95
Paweł Rydzewski ◽  

Religion is an important factor associated with sustainable development. Based on the data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) – Religion IV, we analysed religiosity in 20 European countries, taking into account declarations of religiosity, frequency of religious practices, religious beliefs, and attitudes towards members of other religious groups and non-believers. We have also examined how declarations of religiosity have changed since 1991 and compared the results with the ones from the European Social Survey.

2022 ◽  
pp. 615-626
Francesco Amatruda

The aim of this chapter is to define the characters of the online neo-Celtic Italian society, especially their religious beliefs, through the observation of their activities on blogs and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Social media became, in fact, the main diffusion channel for these religions, replacing forums and other kinds of online communities as virtual places where people are allowed to interact with others who share their own spirituality. Within neo-paganism, some groups belonging to this religion started, during the last decade, identifying themselves with a more specific name, that is neo-Celtic instead of neo-pagan, that clearly defines the group as a part of pre-Christian cultural heritage. In this chapter, the author will attempt to define the characteristics of these neo-pagan groups focussing on their self-constructed identity and their relationship with the larger society.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 49-54
Sunghwan Cho

Jehovah’s Witnesses refuse blood transfusions according to religious beliefs, and for this reason, most hospitals and doctors have refused their treatment. There are more than 100,000 religious people in Korea, but there are few bloodless centers that can receive their treatment. So, the number of Jehovah’s Witnesses patients visiting bloodless centers in Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital has been increasing every year. Despite this situation, no legal or medical countermeasure has yet been proposed against them. Therefore, I would like to take a bioethical approach based on “principles of biomedical ethics” and introduce “patient blood management” which is currently spreading in advanced medical countries.

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