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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-70
Galina Eremina ◽  
Alexey Smolin ◽  
Irina Martyshina ◽  

Degenerative diseases of the spine can lead to or hasten the onset of additional spinal problems that significantly reduce human mobility. The spine consists of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. The most degraded are intervertebral discs. The vertebral body consists of a shell (cortical bone tissue) and an internal content (cancellous bone tissue). The intervertebral disc is a complex structural element of the spine, consisting of the nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, and cartilaginous plates. To develop numerical models for the vertebral body and intervertebral disc, first, it is necessary to verify and validate the models for the constituent elements of the lumbar spine. This paper, for the first time, presents discrete elements-based numerical models for the constituent parts of the lumbar spine, and their verification and validation. The models are validated using uniaxial compression experiments available in the literature. The model predictions are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the data of those experiments. The loading rate sensitivity analysis revealed that fluid-saturated porous materials are highly sensitive to loading rate: a 1000-fold increase in rate leads to the increase in effective stiffness of 130 % for the intervertebral disc, and a 250-fold increase in rate leads to the increase in effective stiffness of 50 % for the vertebral body. The developed model components can be used to create an L4-L5 segment model, which, in the future, will allow investigating the mechanical behavior of the spine under different types of loading.

Xiaoli Zhou ◽  
Zhiqiang Xu ◽  
Yueqiu Li ◽  
Jia He ◽  
Honghui Zhu

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) oxidatively break down the glycosidic bonds of crystalline polysaccharides, significantly improving the saccharification efficiency of recalcitrant biomass, and have broad application prospects in industry. To meet the needs of industrial applications, enzyme engineering is needed to improve the catalytic performance of LPMOs such as enzyme activity and stability. In this study, we engineered the chitin-active CjLPMO10A from Cellvibrio japonicus through a rational disulfide bonds design. Compared with the wild-type, the variant M1 (N78C/H116C) exhibited a 3-fold increase in half-life at 60°C, a 3.5°C higher T5015, and a 7°C rise in the apparent Tm. Furthermore, the resistance of M1 to chemical denaturation was significantly improved. Most importantly, the introduction of the disulfide bond improved the thermal and chemical stability of the enzyme without causing damage to catalytic activity, and M1 showed 1.5 times the specific activity of the wild-type. Our study shows that the stability and activity of LPMOs could be improved simultaneously by selecting suitable engineering sites reasonably, thereby improving the industrial adaptability of the enzymes, which is of great significance for applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shijie Zhang ◽  
Xiang Tong ◽  
Tianli Zhang ◽  
Dongguang Wang ◽  
Sitong Liu ◽  

BackgroundSarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) is associated with poor prognosis, conferring up to a 10-fold increase in mortality in patients with sarcoidosis, but the actual prevalence of SAPH is unknown.MethodsThe PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for epidemiological studies reporting the prevalence of SAPH up to July 2021. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. Studies were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.ResultsThis meta-analysis included 25 high-quality studies from 12 countries, with a pooled sample of 632,368 patients with sarcoidosis. The prevalence of SAPH by transthoracic echocardiography in Europe, the United States and Asia was 18.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1–26.5%], 13.9% (95% CI: 5.4–22.4%) and 16.2% (95% CI: 7.1–25.4%) separately, and the overall pooled prevalence was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.2–20.5%). By right heart catheterization (RHC), the pooled prevalence of SAPH was 6.4% (95% CI: 3.6–9.1%) in general sarcoidosis population, and subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence of SAPH was 6.7% (95% CI: 2.4–11.0%) in Europe and 8.6% (95% CI: −4.1 to 21.3%) in the United States. Further, the prevalence of pre-capillary PH was 6.5% (95% CI: 2.9–10.2%). For the population with advanced sarcoidosis, the pooled prevalence of SAPH and pre-capillary PH by RHC was as high as 62.3% (95% CI: 46.9–77.6%) and 55.9% (95% CI: 20.1–91.7%), respectively. Finally, the pooled prevalence of SAPH in large databases with documented diagnoses (6.1%, 95% CI: 2.6–9.5%) was similar to that of RHC. Substantial heterogeneity across studies was observed for all analyses (I2 > 80%, P < 0.001).ConclusionsThe sarcoidosis population has a relatively low burden of PH, mainly pre-capillary PH. However, as the disease progresses to advanced sarcoidosis, the prevalence of SAPH increases significantly.

Füsun Can ◽  
Zeynep Ece Kuloğlu ◽  
Rojbin El ◽  
Gülen Esken ◽  
Yeşim Tok ◽  

Objective: There is a need for the immunogenicity of different boosters after widely used inactivated vaccine regimens. We aimed to determine the effects of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac boosters on the humoral and cellular immunity of individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac vaccination. Methods: The study was conducted in three centers (Koc University Hospital, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Hospital, and Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical School Hospital) in Istanbul. Individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac and no history of COVID-19 were included. The baseline blood samples were collected three to five months after two doses of CoronaVac. Follow-up samples were taken one and three months after third doses of CoronaVac or one dose of mRNA BNT162b2 boosters. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected by plaque reduction assay. T cell responses were evaluated by Elispot assay and flow cytometry. Results: We found a 3.38-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers (Geometric Mean Titer [GMT], 78.69) one month after BNT162b2 booster and maintained at the three months (GMT, 80). However, in the CoronaVac group, significantly lower GMTs than BNT162b2 after 1 month and 3 months (21.44 and 28.44, respectively) indicated the weak immunogenicity of the CoronaVac booster (p<0.001). In the ELISpot assay, IL-2 levels after BNT162b2 were higher than baseline and CoronaVac booster (p<0.001) and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher than baseline (P<0.001). The CD8+CD38+CD69+ and CD4+CD38+CD69+ T cells were stimulated significantly at the 3 month of the BNT162b2 boosters. Conclusion: The neutralizing antibody levels after three months of the BNT162b2 booster were higher than the antibody levels after CoronaVac. On the other hand, specific T cells might contribute to immune protection. By considering the waning immunity, we suggest a new booster dose with BNT162b2 for the countries that already have two doses of primary CoronaVac regimens.

Earth ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-92
David C. Wilson ◽  
Ram K. Deo ◽  
Jennifer Corcoran

We used LiDAR metrics and satellite imagery to examine regeneration on forested sites disturbed via harvest or natural means over a 44-year period. We tested the effectiveness of older low-density LiDAR elevation data in producing information related to existing levels of above ground biomass (AGB). To accomplish this, we paired the elevation data with a time series of wetness and greenness indices derived from Landsat satellite imagery to model changes in AGB for sites experiencing different agents of change. Current AGB was determined from high-density LiDAR acquired in northern Minnesota, USA. We then compared high-density LiDAR-based AGB and estimates modeled using Landsat and low-density LiDAR indices for 10,068 sites. Clear differences were found in standing AGB and accumulation rates between sites disturbed by different agents of change. Biomass accumulation following disturbance appears to decrease rapidly following an initial spike as stands 1asZX respond to newly opened growing space. Harvested sites experienced a roughly six-fold increase in the rate of biomass accumulation compared to sites subjected to stand replacing fire or insect and disease, and a 20% increase in productivity when compared to sites subjected to wind mediated canopy loss. Over time, this resulted in clear differences in standing AGB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
David Goettler ◽  
Patricia Niekler ◽  
Johannes G. Liese ◽  
Andrea Streng

Abstract Introduction Detailed and up-to-date data on the epidemiology and healthcare costs of Influenza are fundamental for public health decision-making. We analyzed inpatient data on Influenza-associated hospitalizations (IAH), selected complications and risk factors, and their related direct costs for Germany during ten consecutive years. Methods We conducted a retrospective cost-of-illness study on patients with laboratory-confirmed IAH (ICD-10-GM code J09/J10 as primary diagnosis) by ICD-10-GM-based remote data query using the Hospital Statistics database of the German Federal Statistical Office. Clinical data and associated direct costs of hospital treatment are presented stratified by demographic and clinical variables. Results Between January 2010 to December 2019, 156,097 persons were hospitalized due to laboratory-confirmed Influenza (J09/J10 primary diagnosis). The annual cumulative incidence was low in 2010, 2012 and 2014 (1.3 to 3.1 hospitalizations per 100,000 persons) and high in 2013 and 2015-2019 (12.6 to 60.3). Overall direct per patient hospitalization costs were mean (SD) 3521 EUR (± 8896) and median (IQR) 1805 EUR (1502; 2694), with the highest mean costs in 2010 (mean 8965 EUR ± 26,538) and the lowest costs in 2012 (mean 2588 EUR ± 6153). Mean costs were highest in 60-69 year olds, and in 50-59, 70-79 and 40-49 year olds; they were lowest in 10-19 year olds. Increased costs were associated with conditions such as diabetes (frequency 15.0%; 3.45-fold increase compared to those without diabetes), adiposity (3.3%; 2.09-fold increase) or immune disorders (5.6%; 1.88-fold increase) and with Influenza-associated complications such as Influenza pneumonia (24.3%; 1.95-fold), bacterial pneumonia (6.3%; 3.86-fold), ARDS (1.2%; 10.90-fold increase) or sepsis (2.3%; 8.30-fold). Estimated overall costs reported for the 10-year period were 549.6 Million euros (95% CI 542.7-556.4 million euros). Conclusion We found that the economic burden of IAH in Germany is substantial, even when considering solely laboratory-confirmed IAH reported as primary diagnosis. The highest costs were found in the elderly, patients with certain underlying risk factors and patients who required advanced life support treatment, and median and mean costs showed considerable variations between single years. Furthermore, there was a relevant burden of disease in middle-aged adults, who are not covered by the current vaccination recommendations in Germany.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Pavel P Kuksa ◽  
Yuk Yee Leung ◽  
Prabhakaran Gangadharan ◽  
Zivadin Katanic ◽  
Lauren Kleidermacher ◽  

ABSTRACT Querying massive functional genomic and annotation data collections, linking and summarizing the query results across data sources/data types are important steps in high-throughput genomic and genetic analytical workflows. However, these steps are made difficult by the heterogeneity and breadth of data sources, experimental assays, biological conditions/tissues/cell types and file formats. FILER (FunctIonaL gEnomics Repository) is a framework for querying large-scale genomics knowledge with a large, curated integrated catalog of harmonized functional genomic and annotation data coupled with a scalable genomic search and querying interface. FILER uniquely provides: (i) streamlined access to &gt;50 000 harmonized, annotated genomic datasets across &gt;20 integrated data sources, &gt;1100 tissues/cell types and &gt;20 experimental assays; (ii) a scalable genomic querying interface; and (iii) ability to analyze and annotate user’s experimental data. This rich resource spans &gt;17 billion GRCh37/hg19 and GRCh38/hg38 genomic records. Our benchmark querying 7 × 109 hg19 FILER records shows FILER is highly scalable, with a sub-linear 32-fold increase in querying time when increasing the number of queries 1000-fold from 1000 to 1 000 000 intervals. Together, these features facilitate reproducible research and streamline integrating/querying large-scale genomic data within analyses/workflows. FILER can be deployed on cloud or local servers ( for integration with custom pipelines and is freely available (

2022 ◽  
Naama Zioni ◽  
Akihad Bercovich ◽  
Noa Chapal-Ilani ◽  
Aryeh Solomon ◽  
Ekaterina Petrovich ◽  

Age related cancer is not only due to the random accumulation of mutations, but also how phenotypes are selected by the aging environment. While fatty bone marrow (FBM), is one of the hallmarks of bone marrow ageing, it is unknown whether FBM can modify the evolution of the early stages of leukemia and clonal hematopoiesis (CH). To address this question, we established FBM mice models and transplanted both human and mice preleukemic hematopoietic stem cells (PreL-HSCs) carrying DNMT3A mutations. We demonstrate that castration which models age related andropenia result in FBM. A significant increase in self-renewal was found when DNMT3AMut-preL-HSPCs were exposed to FBM. To better understand the mechanisms of the FBM-preL-HSPCs interaction, we performed single cell RNA-sequencing on HSPCs three days after FBM exposure. A 20-50 fold increase in DNMT3AMut-preL-HSCs was observed under FBM conditions in comparison to other conditions. PreL-HSPCs exposed to FBM exhibited an activated inflammatory signaling (IL-6 and INFγ). Cytokine analysis of BM fluid demonstrated increased IL-6 levels under FBM conditions. Anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced the selective advantage of DNMT3AMut-preL-HSPCs exposed to FBM. Overall, age related paracrine FBM inflammatory signals promote DNMT3A-driven clonal hematopoiesis, which can be inhibited by blocking the IL-6 receptor.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Gaurav M. Thorat ◽  
Van-Chuong Ho ◽  
Junyoung Mun

Owing to its low cost and high safety, metallic zinc has received considerable attention as an anode material for zinc aqueous batteries (ZIBs). However, the Zn metal instability as a result ultrafast of obstinate dendrite formation, free-water-induced parasite reactions, and corrosive electrolytes has detrimental effects on the implementation of ZIBs. We present an alternative stable electrolyte for ZIBs based on a zinc chloride/ethylene glycol deep eutectic solvent (DES). This electrolyte consists of abundant low-cost materials and a utilizable Zn2+ concentration of approximately 1 M. It combines the advantages of the aqueous and DES media to provide safe and reversible Zn plating/stripping with a two-fold increase in the cycling life compared to that of conventional aqueous electrolytes. With these advantages, the Zn symmetric cell operates at 0.2 mA cm−2 for 300 h. Due to its high efficiency and compositional versatility, this electrolyte enables the investigation of a non-aqueous electrolyte family for ZIBs that fulfill grid-scale electrical energy storage requirements.

Kun Fu ◽  
Ming Lei ◽  
Li-Sha Wu ◽  
Jing-Cheng Shi ◽  
Si-Yu Yang ◽  

Abstract Background The colposcopy-conization inconsistency is common in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3). No adequate method has been reported to identify the final pathology of conization. In this study, we explored the ability of PAX1 and ZNF582 methylation to predict the pathological outcome of conization in advance. Methods This was a multicenter study and included 277 histologically confirmed CIN3 women who underwent cold knife conization (CKC) from January 2019 to December 2020. The methylation levels of PAX1 (PAX1m) and ZNF582 (ZNF582 m) were determined by quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) and expressed in ΔCp. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate predictive accuracy. Results The final pathological results in 48 (17.33%) patients were inflammation or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 190 (68.59%) were high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 39 (14.08%) were squamous cervical cancer (SCC). PAX1 m and ZNF582 m increased as lesions progressed from inflammation/LSIL, HSIL to SCC. PAX1 and ZNF582 methylation yielded better prediction performance compared to common screening strategies, whether individually or combined. ΔCpZNF582 ≥19.18). A 6.53-fold increase in SCC risk was observed in patients with elevated ZNF582 methylation (ΔCpZNF582 &lt; 7.09). Conclusion DNA Methylation would be an alternative screening method to triage and predict the final outcome of conization of the CIN3 cases.

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