AbstractHigh-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) is increasingly used for prognostication in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, uncertainty exists whether hs-TnT shows comparable prognostic performance in patients with heart failure and different classes of left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF). The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of hs-TnT for the prediction of 30-day mortality depending on the presence of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), HF with mid-range LV-EF (HFmrEF) and HF with reduced LV-EF (HFrEF) in patients with acutely decompensated HF. Patients admitted to our institution due to AHF were retrospectively included. Clinical information was gathered from electronic and paper-based patient charts. Patients with myocardial infarction were excluded. A total of 847 patients were enrolled into the present study. A significant association was found between HF groups and hs-TnT (regression coefficient -0.018 for HFpEF vs. HFmrEF/HFrEF; p = 0.02). The area under the curve (AUC) of hs-TnT for the prediction of 30-mortality was significantly lower in patients with HFpEF (AUC 0.61) than those with HFmrEF (AUC 0.80; p = 0.01) and HFrEF (AUC 0.73; p = 0.04). Hs-TnT was not independently associated with 30-day outcome in the HFpEF group (OR 1.48 [95%-CI 0.89–2.46]; p = 0.13) in contrast to the HFmrEF group (OR 4.53 [95%-CI 1.85–11.1]; p < 0.001) and HFrEF group (OR 2.58 [95%-CI 1.57–4.23]; p < 0.001). Prognostic accuracy of hs-TnT in patients hospitalized for AHF regarding 30-day mortality is significantly lower in patients with HFpEF compared to those with HFmrEF and HFrEF.
Purpose: This study aims to reveal the relationship between RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulators and tumor immune microenvironment (TME) in breast cancer, and to establish a risk model for predicting the occurrence and development of tumors.Patients and methods: In the present study, we respectively downloaded the transcriptome dataset of breast cancer from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to analyze the mutation characteristics of m6A regulators and their expression profile in different clinicopathological groups. Then we used the weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and cox regression to construct a risk prediction model based on m6A-associated hub genes. In addition, Immune infiltration analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to evaluate the immune cell context and the enriched gene sets among the subgroups.Results: Compared with adjacent normal tissue, differentially expressed 24 m6A regulators were identified in breast cancer. According to the expression features of m6A regulators above, we established two subgroups of breast cancer, which were also surprisingly distinguished by the feature of the immune microenvironment. The Model based on modification patterns of m6A regulators could predict the patient’s T stage and evaluate their prognosis. Besides, the low m6aRiskscore group presents an immune-activated phenotype as well as a lower tumor mutation load, and its 5-years survival rate was 90.5%, while that of the high m6ariskscore group was only 74.1%. Finally, the cohort confirmed that age (p < 0.001) and m6aRiskscore (p < 0.001) are both risk factors for breast cancer in the multivariate regression.Conclusion: The m6A regulators play an important role in the regulation of breast tumor immune microenvironment and is helpful to provide guidance for clinical immunotherapy.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis. However, AFP is not useful in establishing a prognosis for patients with a tumor in the early stages. hPG80 (circulating progastrin) is a tumor promoting peptide present in the blood of patients with various cancers, including HCC. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of plasma hPG80 in patients with HCC, alone or in combination with AFP. A total of 168 HCC patients were tested prospectively for hPG80 and analyzed retrospectively. The prognostic impact of hPG80 and AFP levels on patient survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. hPG80 was detected in 84% of HCC patients. There was no correlation between hPG80 and AFP levels in the training and validation cohorts. Both cohorts showed higher sensitivity of hPG80 compared to AFP, especially at early stages. Patients with high hPG80 (hPG80+) levels (optimal cutoff value 4.5 pM) had significantly lower median overall survival (OS) compared to patients with low hPG80 (hPG80−) levels (12.4 months versus not reached respectively, p < 0.0001). Further stratification by combining hPG80 and AFP levels (cutoff 100 ng/mL) improved prognosis in particular for those patients with low AFP level (hPG80−/AFP+ and hPG80−/AFP−, 13.4 months versus not reached respectively, p < 0.0001 and hPG80+/AFP+ and hPG80+/AFP−, 5.7 versus 26 months respectively, p < 0.0001). This was corroborated when analyses were performed using the BCLC staging especially at early stages. Our findings show that hPG80 could serve as a new prognostic biomarker in HCC. Used in combination with AFP, it improves the stratification of the patients in good and poor prognosis, especially for those patients with negative AFP and early-stage HCC.
BackgroundPatients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and lung disease may pose a diagnostic dilemma between idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and PH associated with lung disease (PH-CLD). The prognostic impact of common CT parenchymal features is unknown.Methods660 IPAH and PH-CLD patients assessed between 2001–19 were included. Reports for all CT scans one year prior to diagnosis were analysed for common lung parenchymal patterns. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed.ResultsAt univariate analysis of the whole cohort, centrilobular ground glass (CGG) changes (Hazard Ratio, HR 0.29) and ground glass opacification (GGO, HR 0.53) predicted improved survival while honeycombing (HR 2.79), emphysema (HR 2.09) and fibrosis (HR 2.38) predicted worse survival (p all <0.001). Fibrosis was an independent predictor after adjusting for baseline demographics, PH severity and DLco (HR 1.37, p<0.05). Patients with a clinical diagnosis of IPAH who had an absence of reported parenchymal lung disease (IPAH-noLD) demonstrated superior survival to patients diagnosed with either IPAH who had coexistent CT lung disease or PH-CLD (2-year survival of 85%, 60% and 46% respectively, p<0.05). CGG changes were present in 23.3% of IPAH-noLD and 5.8% of PH-CLD patients. There was no significant difference in survival between IPAH-noLD patients with or without CGG changes. PH-CLD patients with fibrosis had worse survival than those with emphysema.InterpretationRoutine clinical reports of CT lung parenchymal disease identify groups of patients IPAH and CLD-PH with significantly different prognoses. Isolated CGG changes are not uncommon in IPAH but are not associated with worse survival.
Although the 17p deletion [del(17p)] is rare in cases of treatment-naive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), its frequency is higher in refractory/relapsed CLL – particularly in patients undergoing chemo(immuno)therapy. TP53 disruption (deletion and/or mutation) is the strongest prognostic factor for refractoriness to chemotherapy; the use of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and BCL2 inhibitors is then indicated. Rare cases of CLL can also harbor translocation or gain of the MYC oncogene. “Double-hit CLL” (with del(17p) and MYC gain) is associated with a very poor prognosis. The prognostic impact of TP53 disruption with MYC aberrations in patients receiving targeted therapies must now be evaluated.
HER2+ breast cancer (BC) is an aggressive subtype representing a genetically and biologically heterogeneous group of tumors resulting in variable prognosis and treatment response to HER2-targeted therapies according to estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The relationship with androgen receptors (AR), a member of the steroid hormone’s family, is unwell known in BC. The present study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of AR expression in HER2+ BC subtypes. A total of 695 BCs were selected and reviewed, AR, ER, PR and HER2 expression in tumor cells were examined by immunohistochemical method, and the SISH method was used in case of HER2 with equivocal immunohistochemical score (2+). A high prevalence of AR expression (91.5%) in BC HER+ was observed, with minimal differences between luminal and non-luminal tumor. According to steroid receptor expression, tumors were classified in four subgroups, including BC luminal and non-luminal HER2+ expressing or not AR. The luminal BC HER2 + AR+ was associated with lower histological grade, lower tumor size, higher PR expression and lower HER2 intensity of expression (2+). Also, the non-luminal tumors AR+ showed lower tumor size and lower prognostic stage but frequently higher grade and higher HER2 intensity of expression (3+). These findings should suggest a different progression of luminal and non-luminal tumors, both expressing AR, and allow us to speculate that the molecular mechanisms of AR, involved in the biology of BC HER2 + AR+, differ in relation to ER and PR expression. Moreover, AR expression may be a useful predictor of prognosis for overall survival (OS) in HER2+ BC subtypes. Our findings suggest that AR expression evaluation in clinical practice could be utilized in clinical oncology to establish different aggressiveness in BC HER2+ subtypes.
Introduction: Chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) have been identified as important factors in determining the biological features and prognostic value of multiple myeloma (MM). MYC gene-related abnormalities (MYC GAs) are one of the CAs, but its unfavorable impact has not been fully investigated in daily clinical practice. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the prognostic impact of MYC GAs on 81 patients through fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in our institute. Results: MYC GAs were associated with poor overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 3.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–7.73; p = 0.017), progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.58–5.53; p < 0.001), and time to next treatment (TNT) (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.13–3.93; p = 0.018) in the median follow-up of 34.7 months. Furthermore, MYC GAs with an additional chromosome 8 (MYC-Ch8(+)) were associated with shorter PFS (HR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.38–7.2; p = 0.0064), whereas MYC GAs without an additional chromosome 8 (MYC-Ch8(−)) were associated with shorter PFS (HR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.51–8.68; p = 0.004) and shorter TNT (HR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.41–9.81; p = 0.0078). Conclusion: These findings could help identify high-risk patients with MM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the significance of MYC GAs for the MM prognostic effect.
Aims: Non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is characterized by left ventricular (LV) chamber enlargement and systolic dysfunction in the absence of coronary artery disease. Left ventricular reverse remodelling (LVRR) is the ability of a dilated ventricle to restore its normal size, shape and function. We sought to determine the frequency, clinical predictors and prognostic implications of LVRR, in a cohort of heart failure (HF) patients with NIDCM. Methods: We conducted a multicentre observational, retrospective cohort study of patients with NIDCM, with prospective serial echocardiography evaluations. LVRR was defined as an increase of ≥15% in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or as a LVEF increase ≥ 10% plus reduction of LV end-systolic diameter index ≥ 20%. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify the baseline clinical predictors of LVRR and evaluate the prognostic impact of LVRR. Results: LVRR was achieved in 42.5% of 527 patients with NIDCM during the first year of follow-up (median LVEF 49%, median change +22%), Alcoholic aetiology, HF duration, baseline LVEF and the absence of LBBB (plus NT-proBNP levels when in the model), were the strongest predictors of LVRR. During a median follow-up of 47 months, 134 patients died (25.4%) and 7 patients (1.3%) received a heart transplant. Patients with LVRR presented better outcomes, regardless of other clinical conditions. Conclusions: In patients with NIDCM, LVRR was frequent and was associated with improved prognosis. Major clinical predictors of LVRR were alcoholic cardiomyopathy, absence of LBBB, shorter HF duration, and lower baseline LVEF and NT-proBNP levels. Our study advocates for clinical phenotyping of non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy and intense gold-standard treatment optimization of patients according to current guidelines and recommendations in specialized HF units.