Forward Looking
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 4115
Ke Tan ◽  
Xingyu Lu ◽  
Jianchao Yang ◽  
Weimin Su ◽  
Hong Gu

Super-resolution technology is considered as an efficient approach to promote the image quality of forward-looking imaging radar. However, super-resolution technology is inherently an ill-conditioned issue, whose solution is quite susceptible to noise. Bayesian method can efficiently alleviate this issue through utilizing prior knowledge of the imaging process, in which the scene prior information plays a pretty significant role in ensuring the imaging accuracy. In this paper, we proposed a novel Bayesian super-resolution method on the basis of Markov random field (MRF) model. Compared with the traditional super-resolution method which is focused on one-dimensional (1-D) echo processing, the MRF model adopted in this study strives to exploit the two-dimensional (2-D) prior information of the scene. By using the MRF model, the 2-D spatial structural characteristics of the imaging scene can be well described and utilized by the nth-order neighborhood system. Then, the imaging objective function can be constructed through the maximum a posterior (MAP) framework. Finally, an accelerated iterative threshold/shrinkage method is utilized to cope with the objective function. Validation experiments using both synthetic echo and measured data are designed, and results demonstrate that the new MAP-MRF method exceeds other benchmarking approaches in terms of artifacts suppression and contour recovery.

2021 ◽  
pp. 0013189X2110513
Steven Drake ◽  
Joshua Cowen

From 2005 to 2015, the number of Black teachers in Michigan dropped by 48%, substantially exceeding declines in the corresponding K–12 Black student population. These teacher losses are an acute phenomenon within a broader national context of deurbanization of K–12 student populations away from those districts with the largest and most established faculties of color. Districts receiving large numbers of incoming Black students hired few Black teachers over the period, leading to marked declines in Black student exposure to Black educators, and Black employment gains since 2016 have generally been in areas where Black teachers were already employed. We discuss the historical conditions under which Michigan’s Black faculties were established and multiple forward-looking challenges to building and sustaining Black faculties in geographically diffuse populations.

FEDS Notes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (2998) ◽  
François de Soyres ◽  
Erik Frohm ◽  
Emily Highkin ◽  
Carter Mix ◽  

Economic textbooks outline a simple relationship between movements in a country’s exchange rate and its export volumes. When the exporter’s currency depreciates, export volumes are expected to increase due to competitiveness gains in foreign markets.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Mohamad Rifai ◽  
Sylvia Veronica Siregar

Purpose This study aims to examine the effect of the audit committee characteristics on forward-looking disclosure. Design/methodology/approach The characteristics of audit committee that examined are audit committee expertise, audit committee meeting frequency and audit committee size. To measure the extent of forward-looking disclosure, this study did content analysis using a checklist of 22 forward-looking items. The samples of this research are 285 non-financial firms listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the year 2015. Ordinary least square regression is used for hypotheses testing. Findings The results of this study show that the audit committee accounting expertise, audit committee financial expertise, the frequency of audit committee meetings and the size of the audit committee have a significant positive effect on the forward-looking disclosure. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study examining the audit committee characteristics on forward-looking disclosure in the context of Indonesia, one of the emerging markets.

2021 ◽  
Pawel Bilinski ◽  
Mark T. Bradshaw

In contrast to the disappearing dividends view prevalent in the literature, we document extensive dividend payments by firms and significant variability within firms and across 16 countries during 2000-2013. We predict that within-firm variability in dividends increases investor demand for forward-looking dividend information, and analysts respond by producing informative dividend forecasts. We find that analyst dividend forecasts are available for most dividend-paying firms and are more prevalent for firms with higher variability of dividends. Analyst dividend forecasts are more accurate than alternative proxies based on extrapolations of past dividends. Finally, dividend forecasts (i) are incrementally useful to investors beyond information in other fundamentals such as earnings and cash flow forecasts, (ii) help investors interpret earnings quality, and (iii) are associated with investors' portfolio allocation decisions.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Xiaojing Cai ◽  
Yingnan Cong ◽  
Ryuta Sakemoto

Liguo Zhu ◽  
Xin Xu ◽  
Baoli Zhu ◽  
Xiling Guo ◽  
Ke Xu ◽  

The long-term characteristics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among COVID-19 patients remain largely unclear. Tracking the longevity of these antibodies can provide a forward-looking reference for monitoring COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 127-143
Onwuka Ifeanyi Onuka ◽  
Ozegbe Roseline Oroboghae

The aim of the study was to abstract from the vulnerability theory to predict the likelihood of more people in Nigeria falling into the poverty trap as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study used a parametric technique to obtain estimates of the mean and variance of one-period ahead log-consumption. In doing this, the study hypothesized that estimating household consumption function is important in making inferences about the future and in assessing the vulnerability of household to shocks. The simulation analysis shows that of the 82 percent of the households that are vulnerable to poverty, only about 13 percent are in transitory poverty while the rest are in structural poverty. The implication of this finding is that poverty situation in Nigeria is widespread, entrenched and inter-generational. The current coronavirus pandemic has merely worsened the poverty situation and is not the fundamental cause of poverty in Nigeria. The study recommended among others, that anti-poverty intervention measures of the government, going forward, must be forward-looking and aim largely to increase the productive capacity of the populace instead of merely aiming to alleviate their current state of poverty.

2021 ◽  
Noor Hashim ◽  
Weijia Li ◽  
John O'Hanlon

After the financial crisis of the late 2000s, concern about delayed credit-loss recognition under the incurred-loss method prompted the FASB and the IASB to develop expected-loss methods. We review the development of these methods, including through comment-letter analysis. Initially, the FASB recommended immediate full recognition of expected losses, including at day one, and the IASB recommended spreading the recognition of initially-expected losses across time. After unsuccessful attempts to converge based on proposals that partly reflected initial recommendations of each board, the boards eventually adopted different methods. We report that U.S. respondents largely opposed the FASB's final method, which required day-one recognition of all expected losses, and that non-U.S. respondents largely supported the IASB's final method, which required day-one recognition of 12-month expected losses. Day-one loss was controversial and impeded convergence. Our comment-letter analysis suggests that a day-one-loss-free more forward-looking incurred-loss method might provide a route to a more converged solution.

Econometrics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 34
S. Yanki Kalfa ◽  
Jaime Marquez

(Hendry 1980, p. 403) The three golden rules of econometrics are “test, test, and test”. The current paper applies that approach to model the forecasts of the Federal Open Market Committee over 1992–2019 and to forecast those forecasts themselves. Monetary policy is forward-looking, and as part of the FOMC’s effort toward transparency, the FOMC publishes its (forward-looking) economic projections. The overall views on the economy of the FOMC participants–as characterized by the median of their projections for inflation, unemployment, and the Fed’s policy rate–are themselves predictable by information publicly available at the time of the FOMC’s meeting. Their projections also communicate systematic behavior on the part of the FOMC’s participants.

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