This chapter brings together recent developments and ongoing efforts in Conservation Agriculture (CA) education in Africa. It covers areas related to online education and training including CA Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), CA-based education and training capacity, CA curriculum development and CA quality assurance. An overview of emerging opportunities in CA education and training are elaborated in general, as well as through specific efforts of institutions such as the African Conservation Tillage Network. CA-based land use transformation occurring in Africa, and the growth of related supporting activities in public and private sectors, represent an important area of opportunity for education and training. It also offers opportunity for youth to develop their vocational and professional careers in the food and agriculture sector.
There have been very few studies of the socio-economic background and outcomes for students in Africa because of the lack of data. This chapter draws on an institute which has information about their parental background and subsequent careers collected from surveys. In terms of access, the combination of parents not having more than primary education, renting and not owning land identified less than 1% of students whilst the percentage of entrants reporting that their parents had a post-secondary qualification is considerably higher (around 57%) than the norm at the time the parents would have been studying (around 7%). These students were upper middle class. In terms of outcomes, both current students and alumni say that the curriculum only partly fits their employment needs, but 85% of alumni would recommend AIMS to other students. In general, employers are satisfied with AIMS interns, but the percentage of AIMS graduates who are unemployed has risen from 2% in 2011 to 29% in 2016. Finally, rather than contributing to Africa, over one-third of graduates since 2012 are in the West.
Epistemicide is the exclusion or elimination of indigenous knowledge systems at the expense of the imperious, domineering, and colonial knowledge systems. To combat epistemicide in Africa and liberate the minds of the current generation, the authors propose a comprehensive ubuntu based model of education. This model suggests four interrelated strategies of liberation: 1) decolonization, 2) revalorization, 3) revitalization, and 4) construction and creation (DRRC) of knowledge. This chapter examines the contextual and conceptual background of education in Africa through a historical lens, provides a detailed description of the proposed model, and outlines some potential implementation challenges.
This study assessed the digital skills of female university students and the implications for higher education in Africa. A descriptive survey was used to sample 100 female university students from four African countries (Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, and Uganda). The instrument used was the digital competence survey. Two research questions and two hypotheses were postulated and tested. According to the study's findings, most female university students in Nigeria and South Africa have expert and advanced levels of information and digital literacy, communication and collaboration, digital content creation, and safety.On the other hand, Uganda was mainly found at the basic or no levels, whereas Rwanda was mostly found at the intermediate levels. The chi-square analysis reveals a significant difference between the ages of female university students and their DC levels (χ2 =.000; p < 0.05). A significant difference exists between female university students’ program of study and their levels of DC (χ2 = .000; p < 0.05). Students also faced challenges such as a lack of ICT tools, insufficient knowledge and skills, data issues, and poor internet connectivity. The implications of these findings for African higher education institutions suggest that female students, particularly in Rwanda and Uganda, require training to be digitally competent and compete globally with their peers. As a result, we recommend that students from different programs of study with less demand in technology be allowed to take compulsory electives in technology courses while older female students are given adequate support.
The African continent currently experiences 25% of the global burden of disease with only 1.3% of the world’s healthcare workers. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to medical education systems, increasing the strain on already-vulnerable regions. Our study examines the impact of COVID-19 on medical students across 33 countries in the African continent.
A 39-item anonymous electronic survey was developed and distributed to medical students across Africa through social networks to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical education. The survey assessed the domains of: class structure changes and timing, patient interactions, exam administration, learning environment satisfaction, mental health impacts, and volunteer opportunities/engagement.
694 students across 33 countries participated. 80% of respondents had their classes suspended for varied lengths of time during the pandemic, and from these students 59% of them resumed their classes. 83% of students felt they were in a supportive learning environment before the pandemic, which dropped to 32% since the start. The proportion of students taking exams online increased (6–26%, p<0.001) and there was a decrease in the proportion of students seeing patients as a part of their education (72–19%, p<0.001).
COVID-19 is harming medical students in Africa and is likely to worsen the shortage of the future’s healthcare workforce in the region. Pandemic-related impacts have led to a degradation of the learning environment of medical students. Medical schools have shifted online to differing degrees and direct patient-care in training of students has decreased. This study highlights the urgent need for flexible and innovative approaches to medical education in Africa.
It has been 20 years since the Bologna Process has been realized, and the present paper examines efforts made to harmonise higher education in Africa. Similar to other continents, the higher education reform in Africa is inspired by the Bologna Process. This is clearly reflected in the African Union strategy for harmonisation of higher education and different reforms and harmonisation initiatives. The reforms in African higher education are directly and indirectly influenced by the European Union which is also the main financer and technical partner in the development and implementation of higher education harmonisation in Africa. There are different factors that affect the institutionalisation and sustainability of harmonisation initiatives in Africa. Some of the major factors include lack of strong and genuine cooperation among African HEIs, lack of nations’ political commitment to higher reforms, and lack of contextualisation in adopting reforms and strategies. Although the effort to harmonise African higher education is commendable, it is important to look for innovative strategies and reforms which are mainly based on the actual challenges that Africa is facing and the ultimate goal it envisions to achieve. Africa also needs to earnestly ‘conainise’ (continentalise, nationalise and institutionalise) reforms and harmonisation strategies adopted from elsewhere.
Received: 18 October 2020Accepted: 9 September 2021