food and agriculture
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
G. Rehman ◽  
I. khattak ◽  
M. Hamayun ◽  
A. Rahman ◽  
M. Haseeb ◽  

Abstract Mining is vital for human sustenance and a crucial sector in the state economy. However, its impacts on the environment and biodiversity cannot be underestimated. Which are potent to the attract government’s attention. Environment and wildlife are subject to the harmful impacts of mining and its related activities. In this study, districts, namely Mardan and Mohmand have been targeted with respect to mining impacts. The assessment was carried out on wildlife adversely affected by the mining sector. The fauna has been keenly observed to bring the calculated risks and threat perception of the regional wildlife. Total 9 species of mammals, 21 species of birds, were recorded in District Mardan. While in District Mohmand 2 species of mammals, 9 species of birds, and 4 species of reptiles were studied. The Study explored that mining primarily responsible for land degradation. Which lead to food and agriculture losses. Several other factors like blasting, pollution, hunting, deforestation, habitat loss was also observed. Deforestation surfaced one of the major causes for extinction of fauna in the said region. preemptive measures are needed to seize the man-made catastrophe.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 395
Christoph Pucher ◽  
Mathias Neumann ◽  
Hubert Hasenauer

Today, European forests face many challenges but also offer opportunities, such as climate change mitigation, provision of renewable resources, energy and other ecosystem services. Large-scale analyses to assess these opportunities are hindered by the lack of a consistent, spatial and accessible forest structure data. This study presents a freely available pan-European forest structure data set. Building on our previous work, we used data from six additional countries and consider now ten key forest stand variables. Harmonized inventory data from 16 European countries were used in combination with remote sensing data and a gap-filling algorithm to produce this consistent and comparable forest structure data set across European forests. We showed how land cover data can be used to scale inventory data to a higher resolution which in turn ensures a consistent data structure across sub-regional, country and European forest assessments. Cross validation and comparison with published country statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) indicate that the chosen methodology is able to produce robust and accurate forest structure data across Europe, even for areas where no inventory data were available.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 865
Guannan Zhu ◽  
Xingsui Cao ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Kai Zhang ◽  
Qingwen Min

The ecological value encapsulated in the term “spiritual ecology” is drawing more and more attention from ethnology, folklore, ecology, and other related disciplines. The custom of respecting and pacifying forest spirits has distinct regional and ethnic characteristics, and many scholars have discovered samples from different studies around the world. Qingyuan County, located in the mountainous region of southwest Zhejiang, is a very typical case of the practice of respecting and pacifying forest spirits. The mushroom-cultivation technology invented by the chthonic people there more than 900 years ago made this the global birthplace of artificial mushroom cultivation. The Qingyuan Forest–Mushroom Co-cultivation System (QFMCS) has been listed as an important agricultural heritage system by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, Beijing, China and a candidate project by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy for Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). Additionally, the QFMCS is currently an important part of the Baishanzu National Park under construction. The authors made an in-depth field study in the mountainous areas of Qingyuan and used theoretical methods of ecology, anthropology, and folklore to reveal the function spiritual ecology plays in ecological conservation, forest protection, identity, and the maintenance of community interests. In the “traditional-modern” transformation of Qingyuan County, the practice of respecting and pacifying the Spirits is still being propagated, resulting in expansion and social cohesion.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 179
Federico Melenchón ◽  
Eduardo de Mercado ◽  
Héctor J. Pula ◽  
Gabriel Cardenete ◽  
Fernando G. Barroso ◽  

The demand of optimal protein for human consumption is growing. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has highlighted aquaculture as one of the most promising alternatives for this protein supply gap due to the high efficiency of fish growth. However, aquaculture has been facing its own sustainability problem, because its high demand for protein has been traditionally satisfied with the use of fishmeal (FM) as the main source. Some of the most promising and sustainable protein substitutes for FM come from insects. The present manuscript provides insight into an experiment carried out on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a 50% replacement of FM with different larvae insect meals: Hermetia illucens (HI), and Tenebrio molitor (TM). TM showed better results for growth, protein utilization and more active digestive function, supported by intestinal histological changes. Liver histology and intermediary metabolism did not show relevant changes between insect meals, while other parameters such as antioxidant enzyme activities and tissue damage indicators showed the potential of insect meals as functional ingredients.

Muhammad Modassar Ali Nawaz Ranjha ◽  
Bakhtawar Shafique ◽  
Waseem Khalid ◽  
Hafiz Rehan Nadeem ◽  
Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 556-578
Terisius Andreas Kasman Rimbayana ◽  
Anita Erari ◽  
Siti Aisyah

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of competence, cooperation, and organizational climate on employee performance mediated by work motivation (a study in the food and agriculture office clump work unit in Merauke Regency). The research uses a quantitative research approach. The sampling technique used purposive sampling method. The research sample as many as 117 employees were selected from Civil Servants (PNS) as structural or implementing officials, not as Field Agricultural Extension Officers (PPL) or civil servants who were not on duty in the unit. The data comes from the answers to the questionnaire according to the employee's perception. The results of the questionnaire were tabulated and analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using the SmartPLS application. The results of the analysis prove that competence has a significant effect on performance, competence has an effect on work motivation, and motivation mediates the influence of competence on employee performance. Cooperation has no effect on performance, but has an effect on motivation and work motivation mediates the effect of cooperation on employee performance. Organizational climate does not affect employee performance but organizational climate affects work motivation and work motivation mediates the relationship between organizational climate and employee performance. Motivation has a significant effect on performance. The results of the study have implications for competence and motivation that need to be improved in order to improve employee performance. Motivation variable affects performance by 48.6% and competence affects performance by 28.2%. Increasing work motivation can be done by increasing cooperation and organizational climate.

Markus Röver ◽  
Anugrah Shaw ◽  
Christian J. Kuster

AbstractAn international web meeting on the topic of operator safety for pesticide operators was held on 20–21 September 2021. The meeting provided an opportunity for experts from regulatory agencies, pesticide industry, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and other organizations to discuss operator safety in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The meeting focused on risk assessment and risk mitigation, the first steps to address operator safety. The key message at the meeting was the need for an operator exposure model that includes common hand-held scenarios used in LMIC and consistent personal protective equipment communication. The experts supported a transparent collaborative process that will enable us to build on the past efforts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 460
Dina Zidan ◽  
Azrina Azlan

Non-centrifugal sugar (NCS) is the scientific term the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) uses to define a solid product, produced by sugarcane juice evaporation, which is unrefined or minimally refined. NCS is referred to in various names globally, the most significant ones are whole cane sugar, panela (Latin America), jaggery (India) and kokuto (Japan). NCS contains minerals, bioactive compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, which have therapeutic potentials from time immemorial. Even though the bioactive property is dependent on the composition, which relies mainly on the agronomic conditions and production process, NCS possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Hence, substituting the consumption of refined sugar with NCS might be helpful in the control of chronic diseases generally connected to oxidative stress and inflammation. Experimental facts from in vitro and in vivo models have proven that NCS plays an essential role in weight management, maintaining insulin sensitivity and preventing neurodegenerative diseases. NCS has also shown hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. This review aims to synopsize the recent literature pertaining to the benefits of NCS in human health. The NCS can be considered a nutraceutical and functional food. However, detailed and regulated studies are important to enhance the beneficial effects in human and animal interventions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012073
Mohammed S. Shamkhi ◽  
Hassan Jameel Al-Badry

Abstract Soil texture affects many physical and chemical properties of soil. Knowledge of soil texture is essential for all water and soil studies. The aim of the research is to draw a map of the spatial distribution of soil texture in the region of eastern Wasit province and know the relationship of texture to the soil’s hydrological groups. Laboratory tests were conducted on 25 soil samples. With a depth of 50-75 cm, were selected from locations that represent the study area. According to the unified classification system, The results showed that the soil texture for the samples locations was 40% sand, 16% for both silt loam and sandy loam, 12% for loamy sand, 8% for both sandy clay loam and sandy loam. A soil texture classification map was produced for the study area. The first soil texture map for the area differs significantly from the World Food and Agriculture Organization soil texture classification map. It adopts signed tests of the site. The statistical analysis showed that the per cent sand’s standard deviation was 22.65%, silt 19.247%, and 6.416% clay. It turns out that 52% of the soil models from hydrologic group A, 24% from hydrologic group B and 24% from hydrologic group C, Arc GIS software was used to produce maps.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Katarzyna Utnik-Banaś ◽  
Tomasz Schwarz ◽  
Elzbieta Jadwiga Szymanska ◽  
Pawel Mieczyslaw Bartlewski ◽  
Łukasz Satoła

The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that can influence pork prices, particularly the effects of various types of fluctuations on the volatility of pork prices in the European Union as a whole market and individual EU countries. The research material consisted of monthly time series of pork prices collected from 2009 to 2020. These data originated from the Integrated System of Agricultural Information coordinated by the Polish Ministry of Agriculture. Information on global pork production volumes is from the Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT) database. Time series of prices were described by the multiplicative model, and seasonal breakdown was performed using the Census X-11 method. The separation of the cyclical component of the trend was performed using the Hodrick–Prescott filter. In 2019, pork production in the European Union totaled 23,954 thousand tonnes, which accounted for 21.8% of global pork production. The largest producers were Germany, Spain, and France, supplying more than half of the pork to the entire European Union market. Pork prices in the EU, averaged over the 2009–2020 period were Euro (EUR) 154.63/100 kg. The highest prices for pork were recorded in Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Greece, whereas the lowest prices in Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, and France. The breakdown of the time series for pork prices confirmed that, in the period from 2009 to 2020, pork prices exhibited considerable fluctuations of both a long-term and medium-term nature as well as short-term seasonal and irregular fluctuations. Prices were higher than average in summer (with a peak in June–August) and lower in winter (January–March). Overall, the proportions of different types of changes in pork prices were as follows: random changes—7.9%, seasonal changes—36.6%, and cyclical changes—55.5%.

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