Conservation Tillage
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Author(s):  
Cong He ◽  
Jia-Rui Niu ◽  
Cheng-Tang Xu ◽  
Shou-Wei Han ◽  
Wei Bai ◽  
...  

Northeast China(NEC) is the main grain-producing area in China, but soil degradation is severe due to the long-term use of conventional tillage(CT). It is necessary to restore soil fertility, maintain crop yield, and enhance sustainability using conservation tillage in NEC. However, the integrated effects of conservation tillage on crop yield and SOC under different conditions in NEC are still unclear. Using 70 peer-reviewed papers, we assessed the crop yield and SOC sequestration effect, and their relationship under no-till(NT), ridge tillage(RT), and subsoiling tillage(ST) in NEC. The results indicated that in areas with a mean annual temperature (MAT) < 3℃, yield under NT was significantly lower than CT by 3.7% whereas RT and ST were higher than CT by 0.8% and 13.1% (P<0.05). RT generally had a similar effect on yield as NT, but RT did not have a negative impact on yield in colder regions, indicating that this may be a more suitable conservation tillage practice in these areas. ST may be used in rotation with other tillage measures to maintain crop yield if necessary. NT could increase SOC concentration by 24.1%, 43.9%, and 17.4% under high MAT (>6℃), low mean annual precipitation (MAP) (<500mm), and continuous cropping, respectively. The mean SOC sequestration rate under NT, RT, and ST was 0.953, 0.099, and 0.101 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Overall, the implementation of different conservation tillage measures in NEC can enhance crop yield as well as carbon sequestration, indicating its potential to be popularized in NEC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 212 ◽  
pp. 105068
Author(s):  
Ian Torotwa ◽  
Qishuo Ding ◽  
Nelson Richard Makange ◽  
Lei Liang ◽  
Ruiyin He

2021 ◽  
Vol 254 ◽  
pp. 106962
Author(s):  
Yawen Huang ◽  
Bo Tao ◽  
Zhu Xiaochen ◽  
Yanjun Yang ◽  
Liang Liang ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 (No. 5) ◽  
pp. 45-52
Author(s):  
Gerhard Moitzi ◽  
Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner ◽  
Hans-Peter Kaul ◽  
Helmut Wagentristl

Sustainable crop production requires an efficient usage of fossil energy. This six-year study on a silt loam soil (chernozem) analysed the energy efficiency of four tillage systems (mouldboard plough 25–30 cm, deep conservation tillage 35 cm, shallow conservation tillage 8–10 cm, no-tillage). Fuel consumption, total energy input (made up of both direct and indirect input), grain of maize yield, energy output, net-energy output, energy intensity and energy use efficiency were considered. The input rates of fertiliser, herbicides and seeds were set constant; measured values of fuel consumption were used for all tillage operations. Total fuel consumption for maize (Zea mays L.) production was 81.6, 81.5, 69.5 and 53.2 L/ha for the four tillage systems. Between 60% and 64% of the total energy input (17.0–17.4 GJ/ha) was indirect energy (seeds, fertiliser, herbicides, machinery). The share of fertiliser energy of the total energy input was 36% on average across all tillage treatments. Grain drying was the second highest energy consumer with about 22%. Grain yield and energy output were mainly determined by the year. The tillage effect on yield and energy efficiency was smaller than the growing year effect. Over all six years, maize produced in the no-tillage system reached the highest energy efficiency.  


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 825
Author(s):  
Igor Dekemati ◽  
Barbara Simon ◽  
Igor Bogunovic ◽  
Szergej Vinogradov ◽  
Maimela Maxwell Modiba ◽  
...  

The aim of this study was to determine the environmental suitability of conservation tillage systems. A 3-year experiment was conducted in Croatia, to study the effects of different tillage treatments on soil properties, with the following: deep (DC), shallow tine cultivation (SC) and ploughing (P). Soil penetration resistance (SPR) was significantly greater in P compared to DC in all three years. In 2016, it was found at 30–40 and 40–50 cm; in 2017 at 10–20 cm; in 2018 at 0–10 and 10–20 cm. However, SC was significantly greater at 20–30, 30–40 and 40–50 cm compared to P and DC in 2017. The greater surface coverage in DC and SC (>30%) as compared to P (<1%) provided significantly higher soil moisture content (SMC) in maize (2016) and soybean (2018). In 2017, SMC in SC was significantly lower than in P and DC. Regarding all the 3 years, the agronomic structure in DC and SC had significantly greater crumb ratio compared to P, whereas P had significantly higher dust ratio than DC and SC. Throughout the 15 measurements, DC provided the most favorable soil habitat (11 occasions out of 15). In 2017, the earthworm abundance was significantly higher in DC compared to SC. In all the three years, DC resulted the highest yield, however the difference was not significant. Higher surface coverage and SMC positively impacted the ratio of agronomic structure (decreased dust and increased crumb ratio) and earthworm abundance. It can be concluded that DC and SC provided greater soil coverage which positively affected SPR, SMC, agronomic structure and earthworm abundance as compared to P.


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