caffeic acid
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 888
Żaneta Arciszewska ◽  
Sofia Gama ◽  
Monika Kalinowska ◽  
Grzegorz Świderski ◽  
Renata Świsłocka ◽  

Caffeic acid (CFA) is one of the various natural antioxidants and chemoprotective agents occurring in the human diet. In addition, its metal complexes play fundamental roles in biological systems. Nevertheless, research on the properties of CFA with lanthanide metals is very scarce, and little to no chemical or biological information is known about these particular systems. Most of their properties, including their biological activity and environmental impact, strictly depend on their structure, stability, and solution behaviour. In this work, a multi-analytical-technique approach was used to study these relationships for the Eu(III)/CFA complex. The synthesized metal complex was studied by FT-IR, FT-Raman, elemental, and thermal (TGA) analysis. In order to examine the chemical speciation of the Eu(III)/CFA system in an aqueous solution, several independent potentiometric and spectrophotometric UV-Vis titrations were performed at different M:L (metal:ligand) and pH ratios. The general molecular formula of the synthesized metal complex in the solid state was [Eu(CFA)3(H2O)3]∙2H2O (M:L ratio 1:3), while in aqueous solution the 1:1 species were observed at the optimum pH of 6 ≤ pH ≤ 10, ([Eu(CFA)] and [Eu(CFA)(OH)]−). These results were confirmed by 1H-NMR experiments and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To evaluate the interaction of Eu(III)/CFA and CFA alone with cell membranes, electrophoretic mobility assays were used. Various antioxidant tests have shown that Eu(III)/CFA exhibits lower antioxidant activity than the free CFA ligand. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of Eu(III)/CFA and CFA against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans were investigated by evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Eu(III)/CFA shows higher antibacterial activity against bacteria compared to CFA, which can be explained by the highly probable increased lipophilicity of the Eu(III) complex.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 389-401
Jiaqi Yuan ◽  
Yunting Wang ◽  
Shengquan Mi ◽  
Jiayu Zhang ◽  
Yaxuan Sun

Purpose: To determine the metabolism of caffeic acid in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically administered caffeic acid in saline suspension, and biological samples collected. After sample pretreatment by solid phase extraction, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry system (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was established to rapidly screen and characterize caffeic acid metabolites in rats. Waters HSS T3 UPLC chromatographic column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) was applied for the gradient elution with aqueous solution of formic acid (A)-acetonitrile (B). Mass spectral data for the biological samples in electrospray positive and negative ion modes were collected and analyzed by SCIEX OS 1.3 workstation. Results: Based on their precise molecular weights and multistage mass spectrometry cleavage information, caffeic acid and 21 metabolites in vivo were identified. The results demonstrate that the biotransformation of caffeic acid in vivo was mainly achieved via hydrogenation, hydroxylation, methylation, sulfonation, glucuronidation, acetylation, and composite reactions. Conclusion: The metabolites and metabolic pathways of caffeic acid in rats have been rapidly elucidated, and its potential pharmacodynamics forms have been clarified. This provides a valuable and meaningful reference for the study of caffeic acid metabolites, biological activities, and its medicinal material basis in vivo.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Ying Wang ◽  
Gurpreet Kaur ◽  
Manish Kumar ◽  
Ajay Singh Kushwah ◽  
Atul Kabra ◽  

Diet and lifestyle play a crucial role in the progress of some cardiovascular disorders (CVDs). Rising interest in natural products and their pharmacological investigations witnessed therapeutic potential against CVDs. Caffeic acid (CA) is an organic composite hydroxycinnamic acid derivative classified among phenolics. It is a secondary metabolite biosynthesized in all plant species in the form of ester conjugates. The reported pharmacological activities of CA are neuroprotective, cardioprotective, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. This work is aimed to examine the outcome of CA in atherogenic diet- (Ath-) induced rat model on lipid profile changes and endothelium function. The method involves a study duration of 35 days utilizing (n = 6) male Wistar rats (180–200 g) that were fed either normal chow or Ath. Study groups are given (i) normal chow diet, (ii) Ath, (iii) Ath + CA (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.), (iv) normal chow diet + CA (50 mg/kg, p.o.), and (v) Ath + Atorvastatin (ATORVA) (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Blood samples were collected at the end of the study to measure serum lipid profile, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and tissue oxidative stress level. Hemodynamic parameters and aorta staining were performed. CA treatment ameliorated lipid profile and significantly reduced the oxidative stress level. Aorta staining examination revealed a marked reduction of the atherosclerotic lesions. These findings suggested that CA is an effective treatment approach for preventing atherosclerotic lesion progression attributed to protection against oxidative stress and various enzymatic activities in the Ath model.

2022 ◽  

Abstract A number of methods have been applied to measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC), including FRAP, which is based on reducing the amount of iron ions in a complex compound. Researchers often use measurement of absorbance 10 min after mixing a sample with the FRAP reaction solution to calculate TAC. The FRAP solution has been shown to alter absorbance over time by ca 0.0010–0.0020 per hour, under storage conditions. This article intends to show that some substances do not fully or sufficiently react within the common analysis period. It is evident from the results that some substances react more quickly and others very slowly. Absorbance in relation to various phenols was measured. Compared to the levels of absorbance at 10 min, mean absorbance at 48 h was higher by 5,395% for vanillin, 426% for caffeic acid, 170% for sinapinic acid, 67% for gallic acid, 19% for syringic acid, and only by 4% for Trolox. Results for vanillin and caffeic acid indicate potential auto-catalysis.

2022 ◽  
Lisard Iglesias-Carres ◽  
Emily Krueger ◽  
Jacob Herring ◽  
Jeffery Tessem ◽  
Andrew Neilson

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a pro-atherosclerotic product of dietary choline metabolism generated by a microbiome-host axis. The first step in this pathway is enzymatic metabolism of choline to trimethylamine (TMA) by the gut microbiota. This reaction could be targeted to reduce atherosclerosis risk. We aimed to evaluate potential inhibitory effects of select dietary phenolics and their relevant gut microbial metabolites on TMA production via a human ex vivo-in vitro fermentation model. Various phenolics inhibited choline use and TMA production. The most bioactive compounds tested (caffeic acid, catechin and epicatechin) reduced TMA-d9 formation (compared to control) by 57.5 ± 1.3% to 72.5 ± 0.4% at 8 h and preserved remaining choline-d9 concentrations by 194.1 ± 6.4% to 256.1 ± 6.3% compared to control conditions at 8 h. These inhibitory effects were achieved without altering cell respiration or cell growth. However, inhibitory effects decreased at late fermentation times, which suggest that these compounds delay choline metabolism rather than completely inhibiting TMA formation. Overall, caffeic acid, catechin and epicatechin were the most effective non-cytotoxic inhibitors of choline use and TMA production. Thus, these compounds are proposed as lead bioactives to test in vivo.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Le Chen ◽  
Jinxin Li ◽  
Yunyun Zhu ◽  
Lujuan Guo ◽  
Rongsheng Ji ◽  

Artemisia argyi is widely distributed in Asia, and it often becomes the dominant population in the field because of its strong ecological niche competitiveness. Allelochemicals secreted by plants are generally considered an important reason for their dominance in ecological competition. In this study, the allelochemicals in A. argyi were screened by a series of experiments and their mechanisms were explored via transcriptomics. First, the inhibitory effects of A. argyi on Echinochloa crusgalli, Setaria viridis, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus retroflexus were evaluated. Then, we carried out a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical composition of the aqueous extract of A. argyi to screen for potential allelochemicals that can inhibit weed growth. Four potential allelochemicals were quantified: neochlorogenic acid (5-CQA), chlorogenic acid (3-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), and caffeic acid (CA). Coincidentally, their allelopathic effects on weeds seemed to be identical to their content, in the order CA>4−CQA>5−CQA>3-CQA. These findings suggested that CA might be the main allelopathic compound in the aqueous extract of A. argyi. Subsequently, the allelopathic effect and molecular mechanism of CA on S. viridis leaves were investigated. The physiological results showed that CA significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, led to malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, and disrupted enzyme activities (POD, SOD, CAT) in S. viridis leaves. Moreover, transcriptome results revealed that CA inhibited S. viridis growth by downregulating multiple genes involved in gibberellin (GA) and phytoalexin biosynthesis and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. In addition, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones were verified by Quantitative Real-Time PCR (RT-qPCR). Taken together, this study may be the first to identify allelochemicals and explore their molecular mechanism about A. argyi. Importantly, the ecological advantages of A. argyi could be applied to ecological regulation and the development of botanical herbicides.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 274
Kang-Shuo Chang ◽  
Ke-Hung Tsui ◽  
Shu-Yuan Hsu ◽  
Hsin-Ching Sung ◽  
Yu-Hsiang Lin ◽  

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a honeybee propolis-derived bioactive ingredient, has not been extensively elucidated regarding its effect on prostate cancer and associated mechanisms. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 gene (MALT1) modulates NF-κB signal transduction in lymphoma and non-lymphoma cells. We investigated the functions and regulatory mechanisms of CAPE in relation to MALT1 in prostate carcinoma cells. In p53- and androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate carcinoma cells, CAPE downregulated AR and MALT1 expression but enhanced that of p53, thus decreasing androgen-induced activation of MALT1 and prostate-specific antigen expressions. p53 downregulated the expression of MALT in prostate carcinoma cells through the putative consensus and nonconsensus p53 response elements. CAPE downregulated MALT1 expression and thus inhibited NF-κB activity in p53- and AR-negative prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells, eventually reducing cell proliferation, invasion, and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. CAPE induced the ERK/JNK/p38/AMPKα1/2 signaling pathways; however, pretreatment with the corresponding inhibitors of MAPK or AMPK1/2 did not inhibit the CAPE effect on MALT1 blocking in PC-3 cells. Our findings verify that CAPE is an effective antitumor agent for human androgen-dependent and -independent prostate carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo through the inhibition of MALT1 expression via the AR/p53/NF-κB signaling pathways.

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