pain relief
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Helmut Trimmel ◽  
Alexander Egger ◽  
Reinhard Doppler ◽  
Mathias Pimiskern ◽  
Wolfgang G. Voelckel

Abstract Background Pain relief in the prehospital setting is often insufficient, as the administration of potent intravenous analgesic drugs is mostly reserved to physicians. In Australia, inhaled methoxyflurane has been in routine use by paramedics for decades, but experience in Central European countries is lacking. Thus, we aimed to assess whether user friendliness and effectiveness of inhaled methoxyflurane as sole analgesic match the specific capabilities of local ground and air-based EMS systems in Austria. Methods Observational study in adult trauma patients (e.g. dislocations, fracture or low back pain following minor trauma) with moderate to severe pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] ≥4). Included patients received a Penthrop® inhaler containing 3 mL of methoxyflurane (maximum use 30 min). When pain relief was considered insufficient (NRS reduction < 3 after 10 min), intravenous analgesics were administered by an emergency physician. The primary endpoint was effectiveness of methoxyflurane as sole analgesic for transport of patients. Secondary endpoints were user friendliness (EMS personell), time to pain relief, vital parameters, side effects, and satisfaction of patients. Results Median numeric pain rating was 8.0 (7.0–8.0) in 109 patients. Sufficient analgesia (reduction of NRS ≥3) was achieved by inhaled methoxyflurane alone in 67 patients (61%). The analgesic effect was progressively better with increasing age. Side effects were frequent (n = 58, 53%) but mild. User satisfaction was scored as very good when pain relief was sufficient, but fair in patients without benefit. Technical problems were observed in 16 cases (14.7%), mainly related to filling of the inhaler. In every fifth use, the fruity smell of methoxyflurane was experienced as unpleasant. No negative effects on vital signs were observed. Conclusion In prehospital use, inhaled methoxyflurane as sole analgesic is effective for transport of trauma patients (62%) with moderate to severe pain. Older patients benefit especially from inhaled methoxyflurane. Side effects are mild and vital parameters unaffected. Thus, inhaled methoxyflurane could be a valuable device for non-physician EMS personnel rescue services also in the central Europe region.

2022 ◽  
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Magdalena Napiórkowska-Orkisz ◽  
Aleksandra Gutysz-Wojnicka ◽  
Mariola Tanajewska ◽  
Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the severity of pain experienced by a newborn during a heel puncture for screening using the Newborn Pain Scale (NIPS), measure the heart rate and compare the effectiveness of non-pharmacological methods of pain control. Design: Randomized clinical trial. No experimental factors. The test was performed during routine screening. Surroundings: Provincial Specialist Hospital in Olsztyn. Patients/Participants: Pain was assessed in 90 full-term newborns. The newborns were rooming in with their mothers in the hospital. Interventions: Newborns were divided into three groups. Three different methods of pain relief were used: breastfeeding, 20% glucose administered orally and non-nutritional sucking. Main Outcome Measures: The primary pain outcome was measured using the NIPS and the secondary pain outcome measures (heart rate, oxygen saturation) were measured using a pulse oximeter. Results: During capillary blood sampling from the heel, most newborns, n = 56 (62.2%), experienced no pain or mild discomfort, severe pain occurred in n = 23 (25.6%) and moderate pain occurred in n = 11 (12.2%). No significant statistical differences were found between the degree of pain intensity and the intervention used to minimize the pain p = 0.24. Statistically significant relationships were demonstrated between heart rate variability and the degree of pain intensity (p = 0. 01). There were no statistically significant differences between the newborn’s pain intensity and the mother’s opinion on the effectiveness of breastfeeding in minimizing pain. Conclusions: This study did not answer the question of which pain management method used during the heel prick was statistically more effective in reducing pain. However, the results indicate that each of the non-pharmacological interventions (breastfeeding, oral glucose dosing and non-nutritive sucking) applied during heel puncture resulted in effective pain management in most of the newborns enrolled in the study. The relationship between heart rate variability and the severity of pain was confirmed. Mothers of newborns in the breastfeeding group were satisfied with the pain relief methods used in the child and the opportunity to console their newborn during painful procedures in a technologically invasive environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Poupak Rahimzadeh ◽  
Seyed Hamid Reza Faiz ◽  
Kaveh Latifi-Naibin ◽  
Mahzad Alimian

AbstractNowadays, there are various methods to manage pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to compare the effectof preemptive versus postoperative use of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (USG-TAP) block on pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, the patients who were candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into the two groups (n = 38 per group). In the preemptive group (PG) after the induction of anesthesia and in the postoperative group (POG) after the end of surgery and before the extubation, bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block was performed on patients using 20 cc of ropivacaine 0.25%. Both groups received patient controlled IV analgesia (PCIA) containing Acetaminophen (20 mg/ml) plus ketorolac (0.6 mg/ml) as a standard postoperative analgesia and meperidine 20 mg q 4 h PRN for rescue analgesia. Using the numerical rating scales (NSR), the patients’ pain intensity was assessed at time of arrival to the PACU and in 2th, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th h. Primary outcome of interest is NSR at rest and coughing in the PACU and in 2th, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th h. Secondary outcomes of interests were the time to first post-surgical rescue analgesic and level of patients’ pain control satisfaction in the first 24 h. The USG-TAP block significantly decreased pain score in the POG compared to the PG, and also the pain was relieved at rest especially in 8 and 12 h (p value ≤ 0.05) after the surgery. Pain score after coughing during recovery at 2, 8 and 12 h after the operation were significantly decreased. (p value ≤ 0.05) The patient satisfaction scores in the POG were significantly higher in all times. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), indicating that patients in the POG had significantly lower incidences of the PONV compared tothe PG. The time to first analgesic request was significantly shorterin the POG, which was statistically significant (p value = 0.089). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of consumption of analgesics. The postoperative TAP block could offer better postoperative analgesia than preepmtive TAP block.

2022 ◽  
pp. 036354652110538
Kang-Il Kim ◽  
Myung-Seo Kim ◽  
Jun-Ho Kim

Background: Intra-articular injection of adipose-derived stem cells, which are divided into adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) and adipose-derived stromal vascular fractions (ADSVFs), has been reported to be a viable treatment modality for knee osteoarthritis (OA); however, its efficacy remains limited. Purpose: This study aimed to provide comprehensive information about the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injections of autologous ASCs and ADSVFs without adjuvant treatment in patients with knee OA. Study Design: Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: A systematic search of the MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injections of autologous ASCs or ADSVFs without adjuvant treatments compared with placebo or hyaluronic acid in patients with knee OA. Clinically, the 100-mm visual analog scale for pain relief and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for functional improvement were implemented. Radiologically, cartilage status was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Procedure-related knee pain, swelling, and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated for safety. Additionally, we performed subgroup analyses comparing ASCs versus ADSVFs. Methodological quality was assessed using the modified Coleman Methodology Score (mCMS). Results: A total of 5 RCTs were included in this study. Based on the meta-analysis, ASCs or ADSVFs showed significantly better pain relief at 6 months ( Z = 7.62; P < .0001) and 12 months ( Z = 7.21; P < .0001) and functional improvement at 6 months ( Z = 4.13; P < .0001) and 12 months ( Z = 3.79; P = .0002), without a difference in procedure-related knee pain or swelling compared with controls. Although a meta-analysis with regard to cartilage improvements was not performed owing to heterogeneous MRI assessment, 3 studies reported significantly improved cartilage status after the injection. No serious AEs associated with ASCs or ADSVFs were reported. Subgroup analyses showed similar efficacy between ASC and ADSVF treatments. The median mCMS was 70 (range, 55-75). Conclusion: For patients with knee OA, intra-articular injection of autologous ASCs or ADSVFs without adjuvant treatment showed remarkable clinical efficacy and safety at short-term follow-up. Some degree of efficacy has been shown for cartilage regeneration in knee OA, although the evidence remains limited. Further RCTs that directly compare ASCs and ADSVFs are needed.

BMC Surgery ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Juan Li ◽  
Min Zhou ◽  
Yuhai Wang ◽  
Sze Chai Kwok ◽  
Jia Yin

Abstract Background Microvascular decompression (MVD) is the first choice in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) that could not be sufficiently controlled by pharmacological treatment. However, neurovascular conflict (NVC) could not be identified during MVD in all patients. To describe the efficacy and safety of treatment with aneurysm clips in these situations. Methods A total of 205 patients underwent MVD for classic TGN at our center from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019. In patients without identifiable NVC upon dissection of the entire trigeminal nerve root, neurapraxia was performed using a Yasargil temporary titanium aneurysm clip (force: 90 g) for 40 s (or a total of 60 s if the process must be suspended temporarily due to bradycardia or hypertension). Results A total of 26 patients (median age: 64 years; 15 women) underwent neurapraxia. Five out of the 26 patients received prior MVD but relapsed. Immediate complete pain relief was achieved in all 26 cases. Within a median follow-up of 3 years (range: 1.0–6.0), recurrence was noted in 3 cases (11.5%). Postoperative complications included hemifacial numbness, herpes labialis, masseter weakness; most were transient and dissipated within 3–6 months. Conclusions Neurapraxia using aneurysm clip is safe and effective in patients with classic TGN but no identifiable NVC during MVD. Whether this method could be developed into a standardizable method needs further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Daniel M. Cushman ◽  
Jordan Knox ◽  
Jacqueline K. Kobayashi ◽  
Marisol Zarate ◽  
John C. Wheelwright ◽  

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 87
Agnieszka Jodzis ◽  
Maciej Walędziak ◽  
Krzysztof Czajkowski ◽  
Anna Różańska-Walędziak

Background: Global access to social media has supposedly changed women’s awareness about the pharmacological and alternative methods of pain relief during vaginal delivery. The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in women’s preference and opinion about different forms of labor analgesia over the past decade. Materials and methods: The study was designed as an anonymous survey with questions about women’s knowledge and preference of different forms of pain relief in labor. The survey was conducted in 2010 and 2020, with data collected from 1175 women in 2010 and 1033 in 2020. Results: There were no differences between 2010 and 2020 in the proportion of women who wanted to receive analgesia in labor, at, respectively 67.9% of women in 2010 and 73.9% in 2020. About 50% of women chose epidural analgesia as the only efficacious method of pain relief in labor both in 2010 and 2020. There were no differences between the two time-points in the distribution of chosen methods of pain relief. In total, 92.3% of women in 2010 and 94.9% in 2020 thought that they should have the possibility of independent choice of analgesia method before the delivery (p < 0.04). Conclusions: A high proportion of Polish women choose EDA over other pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods of pain relief in labor, and this preference has not changed over the last decade. Increasing women’s knowledge about different methods of intrapartum pain relief may lead to wider use of nonpharmacological methods of pain relief.

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