problem solving strategy
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2022 ◽  
Annina Hirschi ◽  
Alja Mazzini ◽  
Stefanie Riemer

AbstractDogs are renowned for ‘looking back’ at humans when confronted with a problem, but it has been questioned whether this implies help-seeking or giving up. We tested 56 pet dogs from two breed groups (herding dogs and terriers) in a modified unsolvable task paradigm. One reward type (food or toy) was enclosed in a box, while the respective other reward was accessible. With both reward types, human-directed gazing in relation to the box was significantly positively correlated with interaction with the box, as long as an alternative was available. This suggests that both behaviours served to attain the unavailable reward and reflected individual motivation for the inaccessible vs the accessible reward. Furthermore, we varied whether the owner or the experimenter was responsible for handling the rewards. In the owner-responsible group, dogs rarely gazed at the experimenter. In the experimenter-responsible group, dogs preferentially directed box-related gazing (prior to or after looking at or interacting with the box) at the owner. Still, they gazed at the experimenter significantly longer than the owner-responsible group. Conversely, toy-related gazing was directed significantly more at the experimenter. Thus, dogs adjust their gazing behaviour according to the people’s responsibility and their current goal (help-seeking vs play). Gaze duration did not differ between herding dogs and terriers. We conclude that dogs use gazing at humans’ faces as a social problem-solving strategy, but not all gazing can be classified as such. Dogs’ human-directed gazing is influenced by the social relationships with the persons, situational associations, and context (unsolvable problem vs play).

2022 ◽  
pp. 016555152110624
Celso A S Santos ◽  
Alessandro M Baldi ◽  
Fábio R de Assis Neto ◽  
Monalessa P Barcellos

Crowdsourcing arose as a problem-solving strategy that uses a large number of workers to achieve tasks and solve specific problems. Although there are many studies that explore crowdsourcing platforms and systems, little attention has been paid to define what a crowd-powered project is. To address this issue, this article introduces a general-purpose conceptual model that represents the essential elements involved in this kind of project and how they relate to each other. We consider that the workflow in crowdsourcing projects is context-oriented and should represent the planning and coordination by the crowdsourcer in the project, instead of only facilitating decomposing a complex task into subtask sets. Since structural models are limited to cannot properly represent the execution flow, we also introduce the use of behavioural conceptual models, specifically Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity diagrams, to represent the user, tasks, assets, control activities and products involved in a specific project.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 153
M Nur Al Awwalul Waliq ◽  
Sukmawati Sukmawati ◽  
Randy Saputra Mahmud

<p>This study describes students' ability to solve HOTS problems according to their self-confidence level in a grade 8 class at a junior high school in Pallangga. The type of research used is descriptive qualitative research. The research procedure includes the preparation, implementation, and analysis stages of research results. The subjects in the study were 3 grade 8 students at SMP Negeri 5 in the district of Pallangga. The subjects were selected by giving a questionnaire to all grade 8 students to select students who had high self-confidence, moderate self-confidence, and low self-confidence. The research refers to the four stages of the ability to solve mathematical problems based on Polya's steps, namely: understanding the problem, planning problem-solving strategies, carrying out calculations, and evaluating the results of problem-solving. The research instrument was a self-confidence questionnaire, an ability test to solve HOTS math problems based on Polya's steps, and interview guidelines. The results showed that there were differences in the ability to solve mathematical HOTS questions based on Polya's steps by the three selected subjects. The results showed that subjects with high self-confidence and moderate self-confidence were able to meet the indicators of understanding the problem, while subjects with low self-confidence were unable to meet the indicators of understanding the problem. At the stage of planning a problem-solving strategy, subjects with high self-confidence and moderate self-confidence were able to meet the indicators, while subjects with low self-confidence were unable to meet the indicators. At the stage of carrying out calculations, subjects with high self-confidence were able to meet the indicators, while subjects with moderate self-confidence and low self-confidence were unable to meet the indicators. And at the stage of re-examining the results of problem-solving, subjects with high self-confidence were able to meet the indicators, while subjects with moderate self-confidence and low self-confidence were unable to meet the indicator.</p><p><strong>BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRACT: </strong>Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kemampuan menyelesaikan masalah matematika soal HOTS ditinjau dari kepercayaan diri pada siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 5 Pallangga. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Prosedur penelitian meliputi persiapan, pelaksanaan dan tahap analisis hasil penelitian. Subjek dalam penelitian adalah 3 orang siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 5 Pallangga. Subjek dipilih dengan memberikan angket kepada seluruh siswa kelas VIII untuk memilih siswa yang memiliki kepercayaan diri tinggi, kepercayaan diri sedang, dan kepercayaan diri rendah. Penelitian mengacu pada empat tahap kemampuan menyelesaikan masalah matematika berdasarkan langkah Polya yaitu: memahami masalah, merencanakan strategi pemecahan masalah, melaksanakan perhitungan, dan memeriksa kembali hasil penyelesaian masalah. Instrumen penelitian adalah angket kepercayaan diri, tes kemampuan menyelesaikan masalah matematika soal HOTS berdasarkan langkah Polya, dan pedoman wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kemampuan menyelesaikan masalah matematika soal HOTS berdasarkan langkah Polya oleh ketiga subjek yang dipilih. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa subjek dengan kepercayaan diri tinggi dan kepercayaan diri sedang mampu memenuhi indikator memahami masalah, sementara subjek dengan kepercayaan diri rendah tidak mampu memenuhi indikator memahami masalah. Pada tahap  merencanakan strategi pemecahan masalah, subjek dengan kepercayaan diri tinggi dan kepercayaan diri sedang mampu memenuhi indikator, sementara subjek dengan kepercayaan diri rendah tidak mampu memenuhi indikator. Pada tahap melaksanakan perhitugan, subjek dengan kepercayaan diri tinggi mampu memenuhi indikator, sementara subjek dengan kepercayaan diri sedang dan kepercayaan diri rendah tidak mampu memenuhi indikator. Dan pada tahap memeriksa kembali hasil penyelesaian masalah, subjek dengan kepercayaan diri tinggi mampu memenuhi indikator, sementara subjek dengan kepercayaan diri sedang dan kepercayaan diri rendah tidak mampu memenuhi indikator.</p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 153
Tagreed M. Al Ali ◽  
Omar T. Bataineh

This study aimed to reveal the effect of a group counseling program based on a problem-solving strategy in reducing psychological stress among adolescent girls from divorced families. The study sample consisted of (30) students from children of divorced families, in the age group (13-16) years, enrolled in one of the public schools in Zarqa in the second semester 2018/2019. To achieve the objectives of the study, a quasi-experimental design was adopted, in which the sample was divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 15), that was exposed to the counseling program, and a control group (n = 15) for whom the program was not presented. Both groups underwent a total of two sessions per week, in which the session duration ranged between (45-60) minutes. The results of the current study indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the average performance of the members of the experimental and control groups on the psychological stress test in its psychological, cognitive, and physiological dimensions in favor of the experimental group. This indicates the program’s efficiency in reducing psychological stresses. The study recommended developing more group counseling programs to address psychological, personal, social, and behavioral issues among adolescent girls and boys from divorced families.   Received: 5 July 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 03 (05) ◽  
pp. 155-169
Saif Jassim Mohammed ALI

In recent decades, it has been observed that environmental problems have ‎aggravated negative impacts globally, and this confirms that the negative impact is ‎not limited to those concerned with the tasks of environmental education and their ‎specialists, but also includes all people, regardless of their standard of living, their ‎living conditions, and their educational and cultural level. This shows a lack of interest ‎in the repercussions of environmental problems, and efforts to address them‏.‏ In confirmation of the foregoing, the current research in environmental education and ‎contemporary challenges focused on some strategies appropriate to the Iraqi ‎environment, through four chapters; The first chapter dealt with the problem of the ‎research, its importance, goal and scientific terminology, and the second chapter ‎dealt with environmental education, its characteristics and features and the ‎contemporary challenges facing environmental education, and the third chapter was ‎limited to presenting the procedural framework (research methodology), while the ‎fourth chapter presented some educational strategies, which may contribute to ‎Strengthening environmental education, and at the same time compatible with the ‎Iraqi environment, such as: direct experience strategy, action research strategy and ‎practical studies, strategy for studying environmental issues, role-playing strategy, ‎problem-solving strategy, cartooning strategy, and participation strategy in ‎environmental activities, in addition to reviewing The most prominent results, ‎recommendations and suggestions. Keywords: Environment, Environmental Education, Challenges, Strategy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 481-489
Guntoro Edy Prayogi ◽  
Sripatmi Sripatmi ◽  
Muhammad Turmuzi ◽  
Hapipi Hapipi

This study aims to describe the mistakes made by the VIIA grade students of SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in solving story questions about the set material in terms of learning achievement. With the research subject, namely 6 students of class VIIA which has been selected based on learning achievement. This research is a descriptive qualitative type with research instruments in the form of written test sheets and interview guidelines. The data analysis technique was carried out by the students completed the questions using the Polya analysis or not, if using the Polya analysis, the stages were correct or not, if using the Polya analysis with the correct steps, the students' answers would be analyzed using the Polya analysis. The results of the study were at the stage of understanding the problem, the subject made mistakes 16.66% with a small category, at the stage of choosing the right problem-solving strategy made an error  20% with a small category, at the stage of solving the problem subject made a mistake 51.66% with the high category and at the stage of re-checking subjects made mistakes 64,58% with the very high category.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Maren Sand Helland ◽  
Tonje Holt ◽  
Kristin Gustavson ◽  
Linda Larsen ◽  
Espen Røysamb

Olha I. Dienichieva ◽  
Maryna I. Komogorova ◽  
Svitlana F. Lukianchuk ◽  
Liudmyla I. Teletska ◽  
Inna M. Yankovska

The main task of a higher education institution is to prepare a student for professional duties in a rapidly changing world. To effectively perform this task, it is necessary to give students not only knowledge but also to develop the necessary skills and abilities, in particular to develop critical thinking. The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology for the development of critical thinking of students, as well as to investigate its effectiveness. The study used the method of synthesis, which developed a method of developing critical thinking of students. To diagnose the effectiveness of the proposed method used the test "Critical Thinking" L. Starkey adapted by O. Lutsenko. In the study the peculiarities of the development of such critical thinking skills as reflective thinking, self-analysis, awareness of one’s own achievements and shortcomings, choice of problem-solving strategy, use of cognitive models of learning (Socratic dialogue, Paul & Elder taxonomy) are revealed. It was found that the development of critical thinking was achieved through a comprehensive combination of self-assessment and reflection, performing exercises to develop the ability to clearly articulate the problem, find, analyse and interpret relevant information, draw the right conclusions and explanations.The results of this study can be useful to researchers and university professors who are looking for effective methods of developing critical thinking in students.

2021 ◽  
Nhi Huỳnh Nguyễn

A study of challenges with native-like pronunciation encountered by third-year English majors at HUFI based on theory, previous study results, and the situation of English learning of students specializing in English at HUFI. Pronunciation is an important part of the speech process. Pronunciation should be worked on right from the start of language instruction. Pronunciation aids in the understanding of most information transmitted when communicating with students in English when learning and practicing language skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Practice is the most important factor in achieving proficiency and fluency. The production and reception of sounds used in speech are referred to as pronunciation. This study is a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative methods. According to a 2021 survey of 50 university students, students understand the importance of English communication skills in general and English pronunciation in particular. However, this does not reflect the reality of student learning. Furthermore, empirical research shows that audiovisual tools, the use of a problem-solving strategy for improving pronunciation, and the method for improving pronunciation in a voice control system are the most effective and widely used methods for improving pronunciation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 300-336
Julio Roca de Larios ◽  
Francisco Javier García Hernández ◽  
Yvette Coyle

Abstract Research into collaborative writing (CW) has drawn on the notion of “languaging”, operationalized as language-related episodes (LREs), to account for the way learners pool their ideational and linguistic resources, give and receive immediate feedback on language and, as a result, deepen their awareness of meaning-form mappings. LREs in CW have been examined from different perspectives, including the degree of noticing shown by learners, the extent of their involvement in the interaction, the knowledge sources drawn upon, or the cognitive processes deployed to solve their linguistic problems. Yet, in spite of the alleged “added value” that strategic behaviour brings to learners’ reflection on language, available research on CW has not yet looked at LREs from the perspective of formulation strategies, i.e., the conscious mental actions engaged in by writers to address the problems involved in the transformation of ideas into written language. In an attempt to address this gap, and to extend available, but sill limited, CW research with children, the interactions of 30 young EFL pairs while writing two narrative picture-story texts were analysed by means of a reconceptualization of LREs as problem-solving strategy clusters, i.e., chains of strategies activated and applied to the writer’s linguistic knowledge in the course of the activity. The outcome of these analyses is a theoretically-motivated and pedagogically useful, child-based taxonomy of collaborative formulation strategies, which can help raise awareness of the mechanisms involved in solving language-related problems in early EFL writing, thereby promoting more tailored writing instruction and learners’ self-regulation. The taxonomy is also presented as a point of departure for future research.

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