semiarid region
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Wendy K. Matsunaga ◽  
Vicente de P. R. da Silva ◽  
Victória P. Amorim ◽  
Eliton S. G. Sales ◽  
Sílvia M. Dantas ◽  

ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine crop evapotranspiration through the soil water balance, the crop coefficient and water use efficiency of the onion (Allium cepa L.) in a system with four irrigation regimes, cultivated in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Two field experiments were carried out during the rainy and dry periods of the region in 2018, using the treatments of 100% (T1), 75% (T2), 50% (T3) and 25% (T4) of the reference evapotranspiration for daily water replacement and five replicates for each treatment. It was verified that crop evapotranspiration varies according to the water availability in the soil; however, the highest water use efficiency occurred for the T3 treatment. The T1 treatment obtained the highest estimated yield, 43.86 tons ha-1, while T4 obtained 13.47 tons ha-1, the lowest estimated yield among the treatments, and this difference was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) by F test. The crop coefficients obtained were 0.68, 0.89, 0.99 and 0.73 for the initial, vegetative, bulbing and maturation stages, respectively.

Dermeval A. Furtado ◽  
Ladyanne R. Rodrigues ◽  
Valéria P. Rodrigues ◽  
Neila L. Ribeiro ◽  
Rafael C. Silva ◽  

ABSTRACT The supply of salt water in the semiarid region is a recurrent practice, as there is a severe shortage of water for use in animal consumption. Thus, most of the times the water offered to the birds can contain salts above the recommended amount. The present study aimed to evaluate the production performance and morphometry of the organs of Japanese quails as they were supplied with drinking water with different concentrations of sodium chloride, while being maintained in comfort and under thermal stress. The birds received water with increasing electrical conductivity (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1) and were kept in a climate chamber at thermoneutral air temperature (24 °C) and under thermal stress (32 °C), being distributed in a completely randomized design and 2 × 4 factorial scheme. Water electrical conductivities did not affect the performance of the birds, except for the weight of the gizzard, which showed an increasing linear effect as the electrical conductivities increased. At the stress temperature, there was reduction in feed intake, egg weight and mass, and in feed conversion per dozen eggs, but with no effect on the weights of the heart, liver and gizzard. Japanese quails in the production phase can consume water with electrical conductivity of up to 6.0 dS m-1, showing good production performance and without compromising organ morphometry.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R.F. Faustino ◽  
C.A.D. Silva ◽  
J.C. Zanuncio ◽  
J.R. Pereira ◽  
A.I.A. Pereira

Abstract The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key cotton crop pest in Brazil. Adverse climatic factors, such as high temperatures and low soil moisture, dehydrate oviposited cotton squares (bud flowers) on the ground and cause high mortality of its offspring within these plant structures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the mortality of the cotton boll weevil in drip and sprinkler irrigated cotton crops. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with two treatments: drip (T1) and sprinkler (T2, control) irrigated cotton crops with sixteen replications. Each parcel had one emergence cage, installed between two cotton rows per irrigation system, with 37 cotton squares with opened oviposition punctures and yellowish bracts, to capture adult cotton boll weevils. The average number of boll weevils that emerged from the cotton squares and the causes of mortality at different development stages were determined per treatment. Third-generation life tables of the boll weevil were prepared using the natural mortality data in drip and sprinkler irrigation treatments and plus actual, apparent and indispensable mortality rates and the lethality of each mortality cause. We conclude that the application of water directly to the root zone of the plants in a targeted manner, using the drip irrigation system, can cause high mortality of the cotton boll weevil immature stages inside cotton squares fallen on the ground. This is because the cotton squares fallen on the drier and hotter soil between the rows of drip-irrigated cotton dehydrates causing the boll weevils to die. This is important because it can reduce its population density of the pest and, consequently, the number of applications of chemical insecticides for its control. Thus, contributing to increase the viability of cotton production, mainly in areas of the Brazilian semiarid region where the cotton is cultivated in organic system.

José R. I. Silva ◽  
Eduardo Souza ◽  
Maurício L. de M. V. Leite ◽  
Genival Barros Junior ◽  
Aldo T. Sales ◽  

ABSTRACT Graywater is an alternative method to increase the water supply for agricultural production in semi-arid regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths of graywater on the gas exchanges and phytomass of millet plants with and without organic fertilization. The research was conducted under greenhouse conditions in Serra Talhada municipality in semiarid region of Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with a factorial (4 × 2 + 1) plot and three replicates. The first factor corresponded to graywater irrigation depth equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the available water content of the soil, and the second factor was the addition of bovine manure as fertilizer (0 and 34 Mg ha-1), and a control (irrigation with low-salinity water). Irrigation with graywater effluent did not promote adverse effects on gas exchanges and phytomass accumulation; however, it also did not provide enough nutrients to promote increase in these variables. The reduction in irrigation depth caused a decrease in gas exchange from 45 days after the application of the treatments. The basal tiller mass was the most favored plant component due to organic fertilization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Michelle Maylla Viana De Almeida ◽  
Fernando Dos Santos Araújo ◽  
Alberício Pereira Andrade ◽  
Pedro Gregório Vieira Aquino ◽  
Roberta De Lima Valença ◽  

Cereus jamacaru DC. is an endemic cactus of the Brazilian semiarid region empirically used by humans for forage, food and medicinal purposes. In this paper, we characterize the physicochemical and phytochemical profile of the C. jamacaru cladode and fruits, outlining their nutritional implications. We evaluate the basic physicochemical characteristic of the fruits and the main classes of chemical compounds present in aqueous and ethanolic extracts from cladode, peel, and pulp of ripe and semi-ripe fruits through qualitatively and quantitatively methods. We analyze the data through descriptive statistics and variance analysis. The fruits have appropriate pH, acidity, and total soluble solid levels for the fruit processing industry and fresh consumption. We identified the presence of saponins, tannins, flavones, flavonols, and xanthones in all samples, but alkaloids and steroids were both detected in cladodes exclusively. The phenolic compound and flavonoid contents vary according to the extraction method and sample class. The cladodes and pulp of ripe fruits have the highest flavonoid levels, while the content of phenolic compounds had a high level in peels of ripe and semi-ripe fruits. The presence of these bioactive compounds implies that C. jamacaru products have relevant pharmacological interest and functionality for human (fruits) and domestic ruminant (cladodes) food. These applications can boost the agricultural-economic exploration of C. jamacaru and contribute to income generation, and improve human and animal nutrition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 381-396
Emanuell Medeiros Vieira ◽  
Carlos Juliano Brant Albuquerque ◽  
João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira ◽  
Virgílio Mesquita Gomes ◽  

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the productive performance and nutritional value of forage of wheat and triticale cultivars at different harvest times in the semiarid region of Minas Gerais. Eight wheat cultivars and two triticale cultivars harvested at three stages of plant development were evaluated: Rubberization, grain at the stage of soft mass and harvest maturation. The experimental design adopted was a randomized block in a factorial scheme 10 × 3, with three replicates, 10 cultivars and 3 developmental stages for plant collection. The main agronomic characteristics and nutritional value were evaluated of forage of the cultivars under study. The study demonstrated the potential of wheat and triticale cultivation for forage in the semiarid region of Minas Gerais. The mean dry matter yield of wheat cultivars was 5.90 t ha-1, 7.85 t ha-1 and 7.98 t ha-1 and triticale 6.47 t ha-1, 9.97 t ha-1 and 10.5 t ha-1 for the rubber harvesting stages, grain at the stage of soft mass and harvest maturation, respectively. For the average crude protein content, the wheat cultivars showed 15.07%, 9.13%, 10.60% and the triticale cultivars showed 14.4%, 9.31% and 10.05% for the harvest stages of rubber formation, grain at the stage of soft mass and harvest maturation, respectively. When evaluating the average levels of total digestible nutrients, the wheat and triticale cultivars showed an average of 48.90% and 48.67% in the rubber harvesting stage and 42.68% and 49.60% in the grain in the mass stage suave and 44.43% and 42.90% at harvest maturation. The highest yield of digestible dry matter was observed with the cultivars harvested at the grain stage at the soft mass stage. Triticale IPR 111 and Wheat IPR PANATY had greater productive potential and better nutritional quality for use as forage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 675
Jacques Carvalho Ribeiro Filho ◽  
Eunice Maia de Andrade ◽  
Maria Simas Guerreiro ◽  
Helba Araujo de Queiroz Palácio ◽  
José Bandeira Brasil

The nonlinear dynamics of the determining factors of the morphometric characteristics of cracks in expansive soils make their typification a challenge, especially under field conditions. To overcome this difficulty, we used artificial neural networks to estimate crack characteristics in a Vertisol under field conditions. From July 2019 to June 2020, the morphometric characteristics of soil cracks (area, depth and volume), and environmental factors (soil moisture, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and water balance) were monitored and evaluated in six experimental plots in a tropical semiarid region. Sixty-six events were measured in each plot to calibrate and validate two sets of inputs in the multilayer neural network model. One set was comprised of environmental factors with significant correlations with the morphometric characteristics of cracks in the soil. The other included only those with a significant high and very high correlation, reducing the number of variables by 35%. The set with the significant high and very high correlations showed greater accuracy in predicting crack characteristics, implying that it is preferable to have fewer variables with a higher correlation than to have more variables of lower correlation in the model. Both sets of data showed a good performance in predicting area and depth of cracks in the soils with a clay content above 30%. The highest dispersion of modeled over predicted values for all morphometric characteristics was in soils with a sand content above 40%. The model was successful in evaluating crack characteristics from environmental factors within its limitations and may support decisions on watershed management in view of climate-change scenarios.

Larissa Nascimento Sousa ◽  
Samira Pereira Batista ◽  
Samara Santos Silva ◽  
Rômulo Fylipe da Silva ◽  
Wlysse Ferreira Sarmento ◽  

Mammalia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Isabela Silva Bellizzi ◽  
Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva ◽  
Patrícia Gonçalves Guedes ◽  
Juliana Cardoso de Almeida

Abstract Original data on diet, internal anatomy, morphology, reproduction, and parasites of Chiroderma doriae vizottoi from the State of Ceará (Brazil) are presented. Intact and crushed seeds of Solanum rhytidoandrum and scales of Lepidoptera were detected in the gastrointestinal tract and feces. Observation of internal organs did not reveal any abnormalities; the intestines were, on average, 11 times longer than the animal’s body length. Reproduction seems to occur in the rainy season. The association with an ectoparasite, Mastoptera sp. (Diptera, Streblidae), was recorded.

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