Injection Rate
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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Angelo Marcio Oliveira Sant’Anna

PurposeE-waste management can reduce relevant impact of the business activity without affecting reliability, quality or performance. Statistical process monitoring is an effective way for managing reliability and quality to devices in manufacturing processes. This paper proposes an approach for monitoring the proportion of e-waste devices based on Beta regression model and particle swarm optimization. A statistical process monitoring scheme integrating residual useful life techniques for efficient monitoring of e-waste components or equipment was developed.Design/methodology/approachAn approach integrating regression method and particle swarm optimization algorithm was developed for increasing the accuracy of regression model estimates. The control chart tools were used for monitoring the proportion of e-waste devices from fault detection of electronic devices in manufacturing process.FindingsThe results showed that the proposed statistical process monitoring was an excellent reliability and quality scheme for monitoring the proportion of e-waste devices in toner manufacturing process. The optimized regression model estimates showed a significant influence of the process variables for both individually injection rate and toner treads and the interactions between injection rate, toner treads, viscosity and density.Originality/valueThis research is different from others by providing an approach for modeling and monitoring the proportion of e-waste devices. Statistical process monitoring can be used to monitor waste product in manufacturing. Besides, the key contribution in this study is to develop different models for fault detection and identify any change point in the manufacturing process. The optimized model used can be replicated to other Electronic Industry and allows support of a satisfactory e-waste management.

2022 ◽  
Norah Aljuryyed ◽  
Abdullah Al Moajil ◽  
Sinan Caliskan ◽  
Saeed Alghamdi

Abstract Acid retardation through emulsification is commonly used in reservoir stimulation operations, however, emulsified acid are viscous fluids, thus require additional equipment at field for preparation and pumping requirements. Mixture of HCl with organic acids and/or chemical retarders have been used developed to retard acid reaction with carbonate, however, lower dissolving power. Development of low viscosity and high dissolving retarded acid recipes (e.g., equivalent to 15-26 wt.% HCl) addresses the drawbacks of emulsified acids and HCl acid mixtures with weaker organic acids. The objective of this study is to compare wormhole profile generated as a result of injecting acids in Indian limestone cores using 28 wt.% emulsified acid and single-phase retarded acids at comparable dissolving power at 200 and 300°F. Coreflood analysis testing was conducted using Indiana limestone core plugs to assess the pore volume profile of retarded acid at temperatures of 200 and 300° F. This test is supported by Computed Tomography to evaluate the propagation behavior as a result of the fluid/rock reaction. Wider wormholes were observed with 28 wt.% emulsified acid at 200°F when compared to test results conducted at 300°F. The optimum injection rate was 1 cm3/min at 200 and 300°F based on wormhole profile and examined flow rates. Generally, face-dissolution and wider wormholes were observed with emulsified acids, especially at 200°F. Narrower wormholes were formed as a result of injecting retarded acids into Indiana limestone cores compared to 28 wt.% emulsified acid. Breakthrough was not achieved with retarded acid recipe at 300°F and flow rates of 1 and 3 cm3/min, suggesting higher flow rates (e.g., > 3 cm3/min) are required for the retarded acid to be more effective at 300°F.

2022 ◽  
Erfan Mustafa Al lawe ◽  
Adnan Humaidan ◽  
Afolabi Amodu ◽  
Mike Parker ◽  
Oscar Alvarado ◽  

Abstract Zubair formation in West Qurna field, is one of the largest prolific reservoirs comprising of oil bearing sandstone layers interbedded with shale sequences. An average productivity index of 6 STB/D/psi is observed without any types of stimulation treatment. As the reservoir pressure declines from production, a peripheral water injection strategy was planned in both flanks of the reservoir to enhance the existing wells production deliverability. The peripheral injection program was initiated by drilling several injectors in the west flank. Well A1 was the first injector drilled and its reservoir pressure indicated good communication with the up-dip production wells. An injection test was conducted, revealing an estimated injectivity index of 0.06 STB//D/psi. Candidate well was then re-perforated and stimulated with HF/HCl mud acid, however no significant improvement in injectivity was observed due to the complex reservoir mineralogy and heterogeneity associated to the different targeted layers. An extended high-pressure injection test was performed achieving an injectivity index of 0.29 STB/D/psi at 4500 psi. As this performance was sub-optimal, a proppant fracture was proposed to achieve an optimal injection rate. A reservoir-centric fracture model was built, using the petrophysical and geo-mechanical properties from the Zubair formation, with the objective of optimizing the perforation cluster, fracture placement and injectivity performance. A wellhead isolation tool was utilized as wellhead rating was not able to withstand the fracture model surface pressure; downhole gauges were also installed to provide an accurate analysis of the pressure trends. The job commenced with a brine injection test to determine the base-line injectivity profile. The tubing volume was then displaced with a linear gel to perform a step-rate / step-down test. The analysis of the step-rate test revealed the fracture extension pressure, which was set as the maximum allowable injection pressure when the well is put on continuous injection. The step-down test showed significant near wellbore tortuosity with negligible perforation friction. A fracture fluid calibration test was then performed to validate the integrated model leak-off profile, fracture gradient and young’s modulus; via a coupled pressure fall-off and temperature log analysis. Based on the fluid efficiency, the pad volume was adjusted to achieve a tip screen-out. The job was successfully pumped and tip screen-out was achieved after pumping over ~90% of the planned proppant volume. A 7 days post-frac extended injection test was then conducted, achieving an injection rate of 12.5 KBWD at 1300 psi with an injectivity index of 4.2 STB/D/psi. These results proved that the implementation of a reservoir-centric Proppant Fracture treatment, can drastically improve the water injection strategy and field deliverability performance even in good quality rock formations. This first integrated fracture model and water injection field strategy, represents a building platform for further field development optimization plans in Southern Iraq.

2022 ◽  
Shohei Sakaida ◽  
Iuliia Pakhotina ◽  
Ding Zhu ◽  
A. D. Hill

Abstract Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) and Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) measurements during hydraulic fracturing treatments are used to estimate fluid volume distribution among perforation clusters. DAS is sensitive to the acoustic signal induced by fluid flow in the near-well region during pumping a stage, while DTS is sensitive to temperature variation caused by fluid flow inside the wellbore and in the reservoir. Raw acoustic signal has to be transferred to frequency band energy (FBE) which is defined as the integration of the squared raw measurements in each DAS channel location for a fixed period of time. In order to be used in further interpretation, FBE has to be averaged between several fiber-optic channels for each cluster on each time step. Based on this input, DAS allows us to consider fluid flow through perforation stage by stage during an injection period, and to evaluate the volume of fluid pumped in each cluster location as a function of time, and therefore to estimate the cumulative volume of fluid injected into each cluster. This procedure is based on a lab-derived and computational dynamics model confirmed correlation between the acoustic signal and the flow rate. At each time step, we apply the perforation/fracture noise correlation to determine the flow rate into each cluster, constrained by the requirement that the sum of the flow rates into individual clusters must equal the total injection rate at that time. On the other hand, the DTS interpretation method is based on the transient temperature behavior during the fracturing stimulation. During injection, the temperature of the reservoir surrounding the well is cooled by the injection fluid inside the well. After shut-in of stage pumping, temperature recovers at a rate depending on the injected volume of fluid at the location. The interpretation procedure is based on the temperature behavior during the warm-back period. This temperature distribution is obtained by solution of a coupled 3-D reservoir thermal model with 1-D wellbore thermal model iteratively. Once we confirm that the DAS and DTS interpretation methods provide comparable results of the fluid volume distribution, either of the interpretation results can be used as a known input parameter for the other interpretation method to estimate additional unknown such as one of the fracture properties. In this work, the injected fluid volume distribution obtained by the DAS interpretation is used as an input parameter for a forward model which computes the temperature profile in the reservoir. By conducting temperature inversion to reproduce the temperature profile that matches the measured temperature with the fixed injection rate for each cluster, we can predict distribution of injected fluid for hydraulic fractures along a wellbore. The temperature inversion shows that multiple fractures are created in a swarm pattern from each perforation cluster with a much tighter spacing than the cluster spacing. The field data from MIP-3H provided by the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Laboratory is used to demonstrate the DAS/DTS integrated interpretation method. This approach can be a valuable means to evaluate the fracturing treatment design and further understand the field observation of hydraulic fractures.

2022 ◽  
Cong Lu ◽  
Li Ma ◽  
Jianchun Guo

Abstract Hydraulic fracturing technology is an important means to stimulate unconventional reservoirs, and the placement morphology of proppant in cross fractures is a key factor affecting the effect of hydraulic fracturing. It is very important to study the proppant transport law in cross fractures. In order to study the proppant transportation law in cross fractures, based on the CFD-DEM method, a proppant transport model in cross fractures was established. From the two aspects of the flow field in the fractures and the morphology of the proppant dune, the influence of the natural fracture approach angle, the fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate on the proppant transport is studied. Based on the principle of hydropower similarity, the conductivity of proppant dune under different conditions is quantitatively studied. The results show that the natural fracture approach angle affects the distribution of proppant and fracturing fluid in natural fractures, and further affects the proppant placement morphology in hydraulic fractures and natural fractures. When the fracturing fluid viscosity is low and the displacement is small, the proppant forms a "high and narrow" dune at the entrance of the fracture. With the increase of the fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate, the proppant settles to form a "short and wide" placement morphology. Compared with the natural fracture approach angle, the fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate have a more significant impact on the conductivity of proppant dune. This paper investigated the proppant transportation in cross fractures, and quantitatively analyzes the conductivity of proppant dunes with different placement morphology. The results of this study can provide theoretical guidance for the design of hydraulic fracturing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Anurag Verma ◽  
Prabhakar Sharma

Growing dependence on groundwater to fulfill the water demands has led to continuous depletion of groundwater levels and, consequently, poses the maintenance of optimum groundwater and management challenge. The region of South Bihar faces regular drought and flood situations, and due to the excessive pumping, the groundwater resources are declining. Rainwater harvesting has been recommended for the region; however, there are no hydrogeological studies concerning groundwater recharge. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a managed aquifer recharge technique to store excess water in the aquifer through borewells to meet the high-water demand in the dry season. Therefore, this paper presents the hydrogeological feasibility for possible ASR installations in shallow aquifers of South Bihar with the help of flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging. For modeling, the well logging data of two shallow borewells (16- and 47-m depth) at Rajgir, Nalanda, were used to obtain the transmissivity and thickness of the aquifers. The estimated transmissivities were 804 m2/day with an aquifer thickness of 5 m (in between 11 and 16 m) at Ajatshatru Residential Hall (ARH) well. They were 353 and 1,154 m2/day with the aquifer thicknesses of 6 m (in between 16 and 22 m) and 2 m (in between 45 and 47 m), respectively, at Nalanda University Campus (NUC) well. Despite the acceptable transmissivities at these sites, those aquifers may not be fruitful for the medium- to large-scale (more than 100-m3/day injection rate) ASR as the thickness of the aquifers is relatively small and may not efficiently store and withdraw a large amount of water. However, these aquifers can be adequate for small (up to 20-m3/day injection rate) ASR, for example, groundwater recharge using rooftop water. For medium- to large-scale ASR, deeper aquifers need to be further explored on these sites or aquifers with similar characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (06) ◽  

The diesel combustion is primarily controlled by the fuel injection process. The start of injection therefore has a significant effect in the engine, which relates large amount of injected fuel at the beginning of injection to produces a strong burst of combustion with a high local temperature and high NOx formation. This paper investigated the impact of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) and blends of 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 80% by mass of HVO with commercial diesel fuel (mixed 7% FAME-B7) to injection process under the Zeuch’s method and compared to that of B7. The focus was on the injection flow rate in the variation of injection pressures, back pressures, and energizing times. The experimental results indicated that injection delay was inversely correlated to HVO fraction in the blend as well as injection pressure. At different injection pressures, HVO revealed a slightly lower injection rate than diesel that resulted in smaller injection quantity. Discharge coefficient was recognized larger with HVO and its blends. At 0.5ms of energizing time, injection rate profile displayed the incompletely opening of needle. Insignificant difference in injection rate was observed as increasing of back pressure.

Weisheng Lin ◽  
Xiaogang Wang ◽  
Xueqiao Xu ◽  
Defeng Kong ◽  
Yumin Wang ◽  

Abstract Tritium self-sufficiency in future DT fusion reactor is a crucial challenge. As an engineering test reactor, CFETR requires a burning fraction of 3% for the goal to test the accessibility to the future fusion plant. To self-consistently simulate burning plasmas with profile changes in pellet injection scenarios and to estimate the corresponding burning fraction, a one-dimensional (1-D) multi-species radial transport model is developed in BOUT++ frame. Several pellet-fueling scenarios are then tested in the model. Results show that the increased fueling depth improves the burning fraction by particle confinement improvement and fusion power increase. Nevertheless, by increasing the depth, the pellet cooling-down may significantly lower the temperature in the core region. Taking the density perturbation into consideration, the reasonable parameters of the fueling scenario in these simulations are estimated as the pellet radius r_p=3 mm, the injection rate = 4 Hz , the pellet injection velocity =1000–2000 m/s without drift or 450 m/s with high filed side (HFS) drift.

SPE Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Lishan Yuan ◽  
Fujian Zhou ◽  
Minghui Li ◽  
Xuda Yang ◽  
Jiaqi Cheng ◽  

Summary Temporary plugging and diverting fracturing of the horizontal well is the primary option to promote production for tight reservoirs. Successful entry of diverters into the perforation is the basis and prerequisite for effective plugging. However, the transport behavior of the diverter during multicluster fracturing remains unclear. In this paper, we build a large-scale diverter transport experimental system, capable of conducting experiments with large flow rates and high pressures. The concerned factors include the injection rate, perforation flow ratio (PFRO), fluid viscosity, and perforation angle. The results show that the diverter transport effect is significantly different because of different flow distribution among perforations. Also, the diverter can enter the perforation only when the flow rate of the perforation reaches a certain value. In addition, the minimum critical PFRO has an “oblique L-shaped” relationship with the injection rate. Although it is difficult for the diverter to enter the perforation on the high side of the horizontal wellbore, increasing the viscosity of the carrying fluid or using a multidensity mixed diverter can effectively solve this problem. Furthermore, the field case shows that the experimentally obtained diverter transport pattern can be applied to the field to predict the location of the diverter and improve the temporary plugging effect. The findings of this work lay a theoretical foundation for subsequent temporary plugging and diverting fracturing control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 960 (1) ◽  
pp. 012011
Andrei Laurentiu Niculae ◽  
Radu Chiriac ◽  
Alexandru Racovitza

Abstract The fuel properties and the injection rate-shape play an important role in the improvement of the combustion process of Diesel engines. In this work, the influences of using the forthcoming renewable biodiesel fuels on fuel jet development utilizing a computer simulation model created with the AVL Hydsim software were studied. Biodiesel fuels B20, B30 and B100 were considered and compared with the original pure Diesel fuel D100. The injection system behaviour under research was that one existing on a tractor engine equipped with Delphi DP200 pump and Delphi injectors. Two engine speeds of 1400 rpm and 2400 rpm were considered representative for the engine operation. For these speeds, the fuel jet characteristics as penetration, spray cone angle and Sauter mean diameter were analyzed. It can emphasize that in similar conditions of needle lift and injection rate-shape variation the usage of biodiesel fuels does not significantly alter the injection pressure and the Sauter mean diameter. However, the specific physical properties of biodiesel fuels affect substantially the spray penetration and its cone angle.

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